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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2007

Wim Janssens, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Marcel Weverbergh

The purpose of this research is to study the moderating role of the personality trait Discomfort With Ambiguity (DWA) on the processing of mixed emotions in advertising…

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the moderating role of the personality trait Discomfort With Ambiguity (DWA) on the processing of mixed emotions in advertising. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the emotions between the medium context and the embedded advertisement were mixed. In the second experiment, the emotions in an advertisement were mixed by manipulating emotions in the text and picture. Results indicate that DWA, being a proxy for how well people are able to deal with mixed emotions, has a moderating effect on advertising processing. Individuals having a high DWA appear to respond less positively to mixed emotions.

Details

Cross-Cultural Buyer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-485-0

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Shawn P. Scott, Daniel Sheinin and Lauren I. Labrecque

The purpose of this paper is to show how sonic logos, despite their brief exposure time, resonate with consumers’ emotions and attitudes in a manner that until now has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how sonic logos, despite their brief exposure time, resonate with consumers’ emotions and attitudes in a manner that until now has been attributed to only longer background music in advertising. The moderating role of sonic logo placement within the ad (beginning versus ending) and the mediating role of emotion felt after exposure to the brand and advertisement are also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

An expansion on sonic logo research is completed through two experiments testing nine hypotheses. A pretest is also conducted to create two orthogonal sonic logos (sad sonic logo and happy sonic logo) which are then used in the two experiments.

Findings

Participants had higher attitude scores for an advertisement that had a happy sonic logo over the ad that had a sad sonic logo. These consumer attitudes are mediated by emotion felt because of the exposure to the brand and advertisement and are moderated by placement of the sonic logo within the ad. Placement drove more positive consumer attitudes of a sad sonic logo at the beginning and a happy sonic logo at the end of the advertisement.

Practical implications

Given the short nature of a sonic logo, sonic logo placement in the advertisement is shown to change consumer perceptions. This effect uncovers an important aspect of placement of the sonic logo in the advertisement which gives practitioners a means of application. Furthermore, consumer emotions drive these strong attitudes despite the short exposure times of the sonic logo.

Originality/value

This paper expands upon the limited sonic logo research and shows how the short exposure time of a sonic logo can have the same emotional qualities as long-form music, previously reserved for background music in advertising. In addition, by uncovering the mediating relationship of emotion felt after exposure to the brand and advertisement, it is shown how these short audio branding elements can help shape emotion and consumer attitude toward brands. Finally, altering placement of the sonic logo can enhance consumer attitudes of the advertisement and brand.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Qingjiang Yao

This study aims to apply and test the effectiveness of message sidedness and conclusiveness in Google Ads advertising.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply and test the effectiveness of message sidedness and conclusiveness in Google Ads advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Four field experiments on Google Ad campaigns were conducted on the topics of energy and environment, the water–energy–food nexus, and a Higher-Ed program (at the national and local levels).

Findings

Two-sided search engine advertisements are more effective than one-sided advertisements in national campaigns but less effective in local campaigns. In national campaigns, conclusive search engine advertisements are more effective in increasing impressions and clicks, but inconclusive advertisements are more effective in increasing the click-through rate (CTR); in local campaigns, inconclusive advertisements are more effective when being one-sided, while conclusive advertisements are more effective when being two-sided. Overall, the two-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a national campaign, but the one-sided and inconclusive advertisement generates the best results in a local campaign.

Originality/value

As the first to test sidedness and conclusiveness with Google Ads advertising, the paper provides theoretical and practical suggestions to search engine marketers by identifying the effective copywriting strategies, moderating factors and more measurements of effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2021

Hyunjoo Im, Hae Won Ju and Kim K.P. Johnson

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased…

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Abstract

Purpose

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how consumers allocate attention and evaluate products and advertisements on complex webpages when they are casually browsing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted two experiments to test the causal effects of different degrees of visual complexity on consumer responses to products and advertisements. An eye-tracking experiment (n = 90) and a follow-up online experiment (n = 121) were conducted using undergraduate students as participants.

Findings

Participants formed a global impression from the overall webpage complexity, which spilled over to evaluation of individual elements on the webpage (e.g. product, advertisement). The inverted U-shaped relationships (vs. linear negative relationships) between webpage visual complexity and attitude toward the webpage, products, and advertisements were observed. The focal product was given a consistent level of attention regardless of the complexity level.

Practical implications

This study provides implications for website organization and design to maximize positive consumer experiences and marketing effectiveness. The findings provide implications for retailers and advertisement buyers.

Originality/value

This study expanded the knowledge by examining the interplay between individual elements of webpages and the whole webpage complexity when consumers browse visually complex webpages. It is a novel finding that the overall webpage complexity effect spills over to locally attended products or advertisements.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Wen Chunying

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the changes of delivery of city branding advertisements in China and to try to find a tendency of city branding ads in the delivery for the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research methods used in this paper study the advertisements with city image messages in 13 China Central Television (CCTV) channels that appeared between the year of 2007 to 2010 – a total of 320,653 advertisements. This paper is based on several data sets: advertisement producers, regional distribution of producers, advertisement time slots, types of advertisings, and other such categories. In addition, they have also studied city branding advertisings from international producers in terms of channel selections, program choices, and media outlet choices and so forth.

Findings

Through an analysis of quantity and total duration of city image advertisements, it can be concluded that first‐tier cities have been reducing the broadcasting of city image ads domestically yearly, and third‐tier cities are proving to be a significant power in producing city branding advertisements. Significantly, the eastern littoral region has surpassed the central and west region both in the duration and in growth rate of city branding advertisements. Moreover, between 2007 and 2010, a total of nine foreign cities have produced city branding advertisements on CCTV channels. Unlike cities in China, international cities have scattered their ads widely across different periods of one day.

Practical implications

Finally, based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this author hopes this study can offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

Originality/value

Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in city image advertisements strategies applied by those advanced cities at home and abroad, this study tries to offer some scientifically based reference point for other cities.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2010

Jae‐Young Moon and Jun‐Sik Kwak

The purpose of this paper is to verify the difference in the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements depending on the product type and regulatory focus, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify the difference in the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements depending on the product type and regulatory focus, and to expand the boundary of research in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines their effect depending on product type and regulatory focus through two experiments. One is the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements by product type and the other is the effect of art‐parody and art‐infusion advertisements by regulatory focus.

Findings

Art‐infusion is more effective than art‐parody for utilitarian products in terms of message credibility and brand attitude except for purchase intention although there is no difference between the two types for hedonic products. Participants with promotion focus favor art‐parody advertisement, while participants with prevention focus favor art‐infusion advertisement in terms of cognitive attitude toward advertisement.

Research limitations/implications

This study is conducted as a part of research on art infusion, which is in the primitive stage of development. Therefore, it shall be possible to extend the boundary of research by applying a variety of marketing theories in the future.

Originality/value

The results of this paper imply that the advertising technique must vary depending on the type of focus the target customer values.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Qingbin Wang, Tao Sun, Minghao Li, Wen Li and Yang Zou

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of the “Made in China, Made with the World” advertisement broadcast on the US television station CNN in 2009 and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of the “Made in China, Made with the World” advertisement broadcast on the US television station CNN in 2009 and derives recommendations for China's further efforts in promoting the image of products made in China (PMC).

Design/methodology/approach

Through a survey based on the Solomon four‐group design, this study collected primary data from 546 students at an American university in 2010 and used the data to test the effectiveness of the CNN advertisement and identify factors that affect the respondents' perceptions about PMC.

Findings

Statistical tests indicate that the TV advertisement did not result in the expected effects and even had some boomerang effects on the perceptions about PMC and China's developments, and regression analysis confirms these conclusions. Also, the TV advertisement received low ratings from the respondents in credibility, trustworthiness, rationality, information, stimulation, and excitability.

Practical implications

As exports continue to play an important role in the Chinese economy and PMC are likely to face more challenges in the global markets, China needs to understand both consumer preferences and product safety regulations in the foreign markets, focus more on quality and safety over low prices, and improve the effectiveness of its promotion efforts on the basis of scientifically sound studies.

Originality/value

While the CNN TV advertisement was China's first TV campaign abroad to enhance the image of PMC, this paper presents one of the first studies for assessing the effectiveness of the advertisement and deriving recommendations for China's further efforts in promoting PMC.

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Alberto Rosi, Alessandro Codeluppi and Franco Zambonelli

Starting from the premise that digital screens are pervading our everyday urban and social environments to serve a variety of purposes, the purpose of this paper is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Starting from the premise that digital screens are pervading our everyday urban and social environments to serve a variety of purposes, the purpose of this paper is to show how screens can be made aware of what is happening around them and – based on specific strategies – adapt accordingly the advertisement flow to supply to users more engaging contents.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an overview of future pervasive advertisement scenarios, and sketches the architecture and implementation of a system for adaptive context‐aware pervasive advertisement. Subsequently, with the help of a simulation environment, the paper evaluates the performances of several adaptive context‐aware advertisement strategies, and compares them against non‐adaptive ones.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that, in a wide range of conditions, an advertisement system based on adaptive context‐aware strategies leads to a gain in terms of commercial value with respect to traditional non‐adaptive strategies for advertisement broadcasting.

Practical implications

A system for pervasive advertisement could be easily brought to life, leading advertisement companies to a much more targeted exploitation of the screen resource and, eventually, to higher revenues.

Originality/value

Adaptive advertisement systems can offer notable commercial advantages over traditional advertisement systems even when visitors demonstrate poor collaboration towards the system.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Durriya Z. Khairullah and Zahid Y. Khairullah

The paper examines relationships between acculturation, affective attitude toward the advertisement (Aad), and purchase intention (PI) of Asian‐Indian immigrants. Our…

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Abstract

The paper examines relationships between acculturation, affective attitude toward the advertisement (Aad), and purchase intention (PI) of Asian‐Indian immigrants. Our results indicate that (i) Aad as well as PI of Asian‐Indian immigrants for the Indian versus the American advertisements vary within and across the stages of acculturation: low, moderate, and high, and (ii) there is a strong positive relationship between Aad and PI. Our results imply that the degree of acculturation (DA) should be considered in advertising. Low and moderate acculturated Asian‐Indians would be more effectively reached by developing Indian advertisements depicting Indian cultural themes rather than American advertisements showing mainstream American culture. High acculturated Asian‐Indian immigrants should be reached by American advertisements rather than Indian advertisements. Our findings also confirm that the more consumers like an advertisement the more likely they are to indicate an intention to purchase the advertised product.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 9 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

1 – 10 of over 57000