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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

İbrahim Yıldırım and Melike Ceylan

The major purpose of this study was to compare the fresh chicken meat consumption structure of urban and rural households of different income levels in Van province, Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The major purpose of this study was to compare the fresh chicken meat consumption structure of urban and rural households of different income levels in Van province, Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample size of 96 urban and 95 households were selected randomly using sampling selection method where the population is limited. The data were collected by personnel interviewing from the households in eight districts and eight villages of Van province, Turkey between 15 November 2004 and 5 March 2005. The households were classified as the lowest, medium, upper medium and the highest income groups. Independent‐samples t‐students, one‐way ANOVA, chi‐square and linear regression statistical tests were used.

Findings

The average yearly fresh chicken meat consumption per head was 19.1 and 14.6 kg for urban and rural households, respectively. According to regression test results $1,000 increase in yearly income will raise the yearly chicken meat consumption of urban and rural households by 3.8 and 8.7 kg, respectively. The income was effective on both the consumption level and behavior of households. The urban households attached more attention to habit and nutrition value variables, while the cheapness was the major factor affecting the rural households' preference of chicken meat.

Originality/value

The article analyzes the differences/similarities of urban and rural households in terms of consumption expenditures and consumers' behaviors towards fresh chicken meat. The paper is an original research subject as regards its potential contributions of the nutritional measures to be taken and marketing strategies to be developed in the region.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Andreas Bschaden, Eduardo Mandarano and Nanette Stroebele-Benschop

Meat consumption causes a large amount of global greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. Studies showed that consumers underestimate the environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

Meat consumption causes a large amount of global greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. Studies showed that consumers underestimate the environmental impact of meat consumption compared to other food-related behaviours. A video intervention was conducted to investigate the effect of information on consumers' perception and behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Two didactically different videos about meat and the environment and a control video were shown to 189 participants. Ratings about the environmental impact of different food-related behaviours as well as participants' meat consumption frequency were obtained directly before, one week later and one year after the screening by self-report questionnaires.

Findings

Mean rating of the environmental impact of meat consumption was second to the least important of the different food consumption patterns. In the first intervention group, the rating increased significantly (p = 0.001) after having watched the video. There was no such effect in the second intervention or the control group. Self-reported meat consumption frequency did not change significantly in any of the groups. No long-term differences between the groups could be found.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the environmental impact of meat consumption. Providing information can affect awareness, depending on the type of information delivery. The circumstances under which information encourages behaviour change need to be further explored.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigated the impact of different videos about environmental impacts of meat consumption on consumer perceptions and behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Catherine Anne Armstrong Soule and Tejvir Sekhon

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategic differences in marketing communication tactics for vegan and humane meat brands.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategic differences in marketing communication tactics for vegan and humane meat brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis was used to categorize the types of persuasive appeals used on the packaging of vegan and humane meat brands.

Findings

Humane meat brands use animal welfare and environmental appeals more often whereas vegan brands use taste appeals more frequently.

Social implications

Marketers’ communication strategies for alternatives to traditional meat consumption are different from those of activists and non-profit organizations. By targeting middle of the road consumers, both vegan and humane brands can support widespread efficient and curtailment behaviors and in the process benefit consumers, the brands and society.

Originality/value

Anti-consumption and/or reduction of meat and animal by-products are arguably the most impactful ways in which consumers can alter their diets to positively impact individual and societal well-being. Consumers seeking alternatives to traditional meat consumption may either chose more sustainable meat products (efficient behaviors) or reduce/eliminate meat consumption (curtailment behaviors). Existing research suggests that such consumers can be divided into two segments – those driven by personal motives (health and/or taste) and those motivated by prosocial concern (environmental sustainability and/or animal welfare) and brands should match persuasive appeals to consumer motives, i.e. curtailment-focused vegan brands should use environmental or animal justice appeals and efficiency-focused humane meat brands should use taste or health appeals. However, the present research assumes marketers’ perspective and demonstrates that both vegan and humane brands target middle of the road consumers striving to balance multiple personal and prosocial goals, being socially responsible without compromising taste.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Lennart Ravn Heerwagen, Laura Mørch Andersen, Tove Christensen and Peter Sandøe

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate change concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

A fixed effects model together with a factor analysis and ordinary least square are used to analyse household purchase data for 2,000 households in 2006-2010 combined with survey questionnaire data from 2008.

Findings

A small but statistically significant correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage and household heating are perceived as more important strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Other food-related mitigation strategies could be investigated. The climate effect of different diets – and how to motivate consumers to pursue them – could be investigated. Individual as opposed to household data would supplement the analyses.

Practical implications

Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of organic consumers. As some consumers believe that climate change can be mitigated by consuming organic food, the authors propose that this is taken into account in the development of organic farming.

Originality/value

The authors propose a shift from analysing the climate-friendliness of production to addressing the climate-friendliness of consumption using consumption of organic food as a case. The authors link stated concerns for climate changes with actual food-related behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Stefan Mann and Raluca Necula

Per capita meat consumption in Switzerland has been rather consistent for decades, although the percentage of vegetarians has risen to 14 per cent according to a recent…

Abstract

Purpose

Per capita meat consumption in Switzerland has been rather consistent for decades, although the percentage of vegetarians has risen to 14 per cent according to a recent survey. This study tries to resolve this apparent contradiction

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on household consumption data from Switzerland and focuses on the distribution of consumption rather than on average amounts, using descriptive statistics and a mixed-effects model which explains the coefficient of variation between single consumer consumption amounts.

Findings

Vegetarianism and veganism are not only overestimated through surveys but also associated with a segment of the population that is consuming increasing amounts of meat. This dual development leads to a stable per capita meat consumption.

Originality/value

Our results indicate that greater scientific attention should be paid to this segment of heavy meat eaters.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Gilles Séré de Lanauze and Béatrice Siadou-Martin

Many western consumers have become sensitive to the negative effects of their consumption levels in many product categories and those new attitudes are challenging their…

Abstract

Purpose

Many western consumers have become sensitive to the negative effects of their consumption levels in many product categories and those new attitudes are challenging their habitual consumption behaviors. How do dissonant attitudes influence the process toward behavioral change? How does external information reinforce those conflicting attitudes with new dissonant cognitions and foster intentions to modify behavior? This study aims to propose a conceptual model, based on cognitive dissonance theory, which introduces psychological discomfort as an important mediator toward behavioral change intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are conducted. Using structural equation modeling under Amos, hypotheses are tested and validated in the field of meat consumption on a sample of 501 French consumers. A second study investigates the impact of the nature of the stimulus on consumers’ responses.

Findings

The results show that psychological discomfort is increased by the contact with dissonant external information and that consumers may at the same time minimize the effects of additional cognition by implementing informational strategies such as trivialization or decredibilization to defend their consumption behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Future researchers could consider the various objections to meat consumption separately and further explore the dynamics between external information, consumer cognitions and consumer consumption behavior in diverse consumption contexts.

Practical implications

The authors advise meat marketers to reduce consumer psychological discomfort by promoting the hedonic perceived value and by presenting credible counterarguments to defend the benefits of their products.

Social implications

The study may encourage advocates of lower meat consumption to provide credible information about the detrimental effects of meat consumption to influence behavioral change intentions.

Originality/value

As responsible consumption becomes a key trend in western societies, new attitudes, fostered by external critical information, are influencing consumption behavior in many product categories. This research contributes to a better understanding of the attitude–behavior gap in a context of emerging criticism toward highly consumed and traditional products.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Sylvain Charlebois, Maggie McCormick and Mark Juhasz

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if sudden retail price increases for beef products have affected consumers purchasing behaviors. Little research has been…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if sudden retail price increases for beef products have affected consumers purchasing behaviors. Little research has been conducted that integrates retail price volatility with subdued food consumption motivations. Prior research about consumers’ meat-purchasing habits and systemic concerns linked to sustainability and animal welfare is limited or de-contextualized. This study also attempts to assess if retail price increases have triggered a change in perception of the meat industry, by looking at specific values related to animal protein production and consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on an inductive, quantitative analysis of primary data obtained from a survey on beef consumption. For convenience and validity, all respondents had to be living in Canada for 12 months, and were at least 18 years old. The choice of country is not trivial. First, access to data were convenient for this study. Second, and most importantly, Canada has supply managed commodities that include poultry and chicken. In effect, Canada produces the amount of chicken it needs. Beef production is vulnerable to market volatility. As a result, demand-focussed market conditions for one often influence conditions for the other.

Findings

Findings indicate that higher prices have compelled 37.9 percent of the sample to reduce or to stop beef consumption altogether in the last 12 months. Beyond the issue of price, sustainability, food safety and health appear to be significant factors, more so than ethics (animal welfare). Results also show that education can be considered as a determinant for sustainable aspects of beef production when prices increase. Age and gender had no statistical significance on survey results. Some limitations are presented and future research paths are suggested.

Research limitations/implications

Since the sample in this study was mainly composed of consumers based in Canada, the generalizations of the findings should be approached with some caution. The same research should be conducted with consumers from other parts of the Western world to verify if the results can be generalized.

Practical implications

This survey help the authors to understand some aspects of beef consumption at retail. Findings of this empirical study have implications for future communications to consumers, in that greater emphasis should be given to the connection consumers have with other nutritional alternatives. Since meat consumption in the Western world is intrinsically linked to culinary traditions, behaviors can be challenging to change.

Social implications

The economic implications of a rapid adoption of a plant-based diet for the agricultural economy would be significant. However, the reality is that according to many studies of consumer behavior, customers still place a higher value on buying and eating meat than on any other food group. Canada’s relationship with animal proteins has deep cultural roots, particularly during holidays and summertime.

Originality/value

The present study has given important insights into the determinants of meat consumption reduction, a behavior which could both have long-term economic implications for the cattle and beef industries. This paper provides a deeper insight into some socio-economic factors that contribute to slow erosion of meat consumption reduction, and the effects of higher prices at retail. This is, as far as the authors know, likely the first study of its kind.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Lenka Malek, Wendy Umberger and Ellen Goddard

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate recent changes made by Australian consumers in their consumption of beef, chicken, pork and lamb, as well as the factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate recent changes made by Australian consumers in their consumption of beef, chicken, pork and lamb, as well as the factors motivating both decreased and increased consumption of each type of meat. Reasons for meat-avoidance are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was completed in July 2016 by two Australian samples comprising: adults from the general population; and vegetarians. Data were analysed for 287 meat consumers and 82 meat avoiders. Descriptive statistics and results of multinomial logistic regression models are presented.

Findings

Meat consumers most commonly reported reducing consumption of beef in the last 12 months (30 per cent); followed by lamb (22 per cent), pork (14 per cent) and chicken (8 per cent). The following factors were associated with reductions in meat consumption: concerns regarding price and personal health; age and household income; and food choice motivations related to personal benefits, social factors and food production and origin. Main reasons motivating meat-avoidance were concerns regarding animal welfare, health and environmental protection.

Originality/value

This is the first Australian study providing national-level insight on how and why meat consumption patterns are changing. Reasons for changes are examined through an anti-consumption lens, investigating rationale for avoiding, reducing and increasing consumption. This provides a more comprehensive understanding of meat consumption and anti-consumption decisions, which are becoming increasingly complex. Insights on the psychologically distinct motivations underpinning avoidance, reductions and increases in meat consumption can inform the development of strategies aimed at promoting a societal-shift towards consumption of more sustainable dietary protein sources.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Diana Bogueva, Dora Marinova and Talia Raphaely

The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons behind meat consumption. It aims to find out what motivates meat consumers and explore the opportunities of social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons behind meat consumption. It aims to find out what motivates meat consumers and explore the opportunities of social marketing to counteract negative environmental and health trends.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory Australian survey of Sydney consumer red meat choices is used covering dietary preferences, meat eating patterns, reasons and levels of concern for economic and environmental issues. Analysis of dietary guidelines and marketing campaigns in relation to the survey findings is conducted.

Findings

The survey highlights: lack of awareness about the link between meat consumption and environmental well-being; widespread inaccuracy of health messages related to meat consumption; influence of the meat industry in promoting excessive meat consumption; pervasiveness of the link between red meat consumption and national identity, social status, prestige and masculinity; and urgent need for government-supported social marketing interventions and the demarketing of meat.

Originality/value

This is the first study to propose social marketing based on the health and environmental co-benefits of reduced red meat consumption.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Markus Vinnari, Pekka Mustonen and Pekka Räsänen

The paper aims to examine changes in household consumption behaviour through an empirical investigation of the decision to consume meat, to not consume meat or to consume…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine changes in household consumption behaviour through an empirical investigation of the decision to consume meat, to not consume meat or to consume only small amounts of meat. The goal is to find out if the decision not to consume meat is becoming more prevalent, and to understand in what social categories this is happening, if any. A further aim is to investigate whether meat consumption is strongly associated with gender on the household level.

Design/methodology/approach

Expenditure survey data gathered from Finland during the last 40 years was used to identify what kinds of changes were taking place in the consumption of meat and meat products. The independent measures include six variables: the gender of the highest earner in the household (HEH), the type of household, the type of municipality and the income quintile, educational level and age of the HEH. The size of the samples varied between 2,986 and 8,258 households.

Findings

The analysis revealed that the decision not to consume meat became prevalent in Finland at the end of the 1970s but the growth rate has somewhat stabilised during recent decades. The gender of the HEH affects the family meat consumption. As non‐meat consumption has become more widespread it has also more clearly become a middle‐class phenomenon.

Originality/value

There are no previous studies available on the development of non‐meat consumption from this long‐term perspective.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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