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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

İbrahim Yıldırım and Melike Ceylan

The major purpose of this study was to compare the fresh chicken meat consumption structure of urban and rural households of different income levels in Van province, Turkey.

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Abstract

Purpose

The major purpose of this study was to compare the fresh chicken meat consumption structure of urban and rural households of different income levels in Van province, Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample size of 96 urban and 95 households were selected randomly using sampling selection method where the population is limited. The data were collected by personnel interviewing from the households in eight districts and eight villages of Van province, Turkey between 15 November 2004 and 5 March 2005. The households were classified as the lowest, medium, upper medium and the highest income groups. Independent‐samples t‐students, one‐way ANOVA, chi‐square and linear regression statistical tests were used.

Findings

The average yearly fresh chicken meat consumption per head was 19.1 and 14.6 kg for urban and rural households, respectively. According to regression test results $1,000 increase in yearly income will raise the yearly chicken meat consumption of urban and rural households by 3.8 and 8.7 kg, respectively. The income was effective on both the consumption level and behavior of households. The urban households attached more attention to habit and nutrition value variables, while the cheapness was the major factor affecting the rural households' preference of chicken meat.

Originality/value

The article analyzes the differences/similarities of urban and rural households in terms of consumption expenditures and consumers' behaviors towards fresh chicken meat. The paper is an original research subject as regards its potential contributions of the nutritional measures to be taken and marketing strategies to be developed in the region.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2021

Twila Linville, Karla L. Hanson and Jeffery Sobal

Meat consumption is higher than health recommendations, but little is known about potential moderating factors in rural areas. Informed by the theory of planned behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

Meat consumption is higher than health recommendations, but little is known about potential moderating factors in rural areas. Informed by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper explored potential moderators amongst rural residents.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors summarized meat-related attitudes (importance, taste preference, healthfulness perceptions), social norms, controls (availability, affordability, self-efficacy) and frequency of consumption (overall, lean meat, wild game) in a cross-sectional survey of rural, adult, US volunteers (n = 572). The authors examined correlations and differences by gender, connection to hunting and to livestock raising.

Findings

These rural residents had positive attitudes toward meat, high family expectations to consume meat and daily consumption. Half of the meat consumed was lean but was infrequently wild game. Respondents with connections to hunting or raising livestock reported more positive meat-related attitudes, norms and self-efficacy, and more frequent meat consumption. Those with a connection to hunting also had higher perceived availability, affordability and consumption of wild game.

Research limitations/implications

Strong meat preferences and expectations may hamper moderation amongst rural residents, particularly in households connected to hunting or raising livestock. Dietary advice can be tailored to respect meat consumption, emphasize the identification and selection of lean meats and highlight wild game as a lean meat that is moderately available and affordable. Future research should disentangle hunting and livestock raising as potential factors in food choice and examine wild game consumption in jurisdictions where it can be sold legally.

Originality/value

This study was novel in examining meat-related practices amongst rural residents, separately examining lean meats and wild game, and identifying hunting and livestock raising as important predictors.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Claudia Giacoman, Pamela Ayala Arancibia and Juan Alfaro

Global meat consumption has increased rapidly, which is of concern, given its contribution to environmental destruction. Within this framework, this article aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Global meat consumption has increased rapidly, which is of concern, given its contribution to environmental destruction. Within this framework, this article aims to analyse the social determinants in relation to stopping red meat consumption for environmental reasons in Chile, with a focus on gender and social status.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from a representative national survey, we estimated six logistic regression models to analyse the social determinants that reduce red meat consumption in Chile.

Findings

The results show that social stratification variables (gender, social class, household income and education) are closely linked with choosing to stop eating red meat for environmental reasons. A possible interpretation of these results is the ambiguous status of red meat in contemporary Chilean society and its symbolic link with masculinity.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis may be complemented by future research that distinguishes the environmental aspects, which encourage individuals to stop eating red meat. In addition, asking about meat consumption in an environmental survey, may generate social desirability.

Originality/value

The results contribute to understanding which social factors help stop meat consumption within a strong carnism culture. This is relevant since South America is well known for high meat consumption, and few studies have explored the issue of consumption in these countries.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Catherine Anne Armstrong Soule and Tejvir Sekhon

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategic differences in marketing communication tactics for vegan and humane meat brands.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategic differences in marketing communication tactics for vegan and humane meat brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis was used to categorize the types of persuasive appeals used on the packaging of vegan and humane meat brands.

Findings

Humane meat brands use animal welfare and environmental appeals more often whereas vegan brands use taste appeals more frequently.

Social implications

Marketers’ communication strategies for alternatives to traditional meat consumption are different from those of activists and non-profit organizations. By targeting middle of the road consumers, both vegan and humane brands can support widespread efficient and curtailment behaviors and in the process benefit consumers, the brands and society.

Originality/value

Anti-consumption and/or reduction of meat and animal by-products are arguably the most impactful ways in which consumers can alter their diets to positively impact individual and societal well-being. Consumers seeking alternatives to traditional meat consumption may either chose more sustainable meat products (efficient behaviors) or reduce/eliminate meat consumption (curtailment behaviors). Existing research suggests that such consumers can be divided into two segments – those driven by personal motives (health and/or taste) and those motivated by prosocial concern (environmental sustainability and/or animal welfare) and brands should match persuasive appeals to consumer motives, i.e. curtailment-focused vegan brands should use environmental or animal justice appeals and efficiency-focused humane meat brands should use taste or health appeals. However, the present research assumes marketers’ perspective and demonstrates that both vegan and humane brands target middle of the road consumers striving to balance multiple personal and prosocial goals, being socially responsible without compromising taste.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Andreas Bschaden, Eduardo Mandarano and Nanette Stroebele-Benschop

Meat consumption causes a large amount of global greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. Studies showed that consumers underestimate the environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

Meat consumption causes a large amount of global greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. Studies showed that consumers underestimate the environmental impact of meat consumption compared to other food-related behaviours. A video intervention was conducted to investigate the effect of information on consumers' perception and behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Two didactically different videos about meat and the environment and a control video were shown to 189 participants. Ratings about the environmental impact of different food-related behaviours as well as participants' meat consumption frequency were obtained directly before, one week later and one year after the screening by self-report questionnaires.

Findings

Mean rating of the environmental impact of meat consumption was second to the least important of the different food consumption patterns. In the first intervention group, the rating increased significantly (p = 0.001) after having watched the video. There was no such effect in the second intervention or the control group. Self-reported meat consumption frequency did not change significantly in any of the groups. No long-term differences between the groups could be found.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the environmental impact of meat consumption. Providing information can affect awareness, depending on the type of information delivery. The circumstances under which information encourages behaviour change need to be further explored.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigated the impact of different videos about environmental impacts of meat consumption on consumer perceptions and behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Lennart Ravn Heerwagen, Laura Mørch Andersen, Tove Christensen and Peter Sandøe

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate change concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

A fixed effects model together with a factor analysis and ordinary least square are used to analyse household purchase data for 2,000 households in 2006-2010 combined with survey questionnaire data from 2008.

Findings

A small but statistically significant correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage and household heating are perceived as more important strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Other food-related mitigation strategies could be investigated. The climate effect of different diets – and how to motivate consumers to pursue them – could be investigated. Individual as opposed to household data would supplement the analyses.

Practical implications

Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of organic consumers. As some consumers believe that climate change can be mitigated by consuming organic food, the authors propose that this is taken into account in the development of organic farming.

Originality/value

The authors propose a shift from analysing the climate-friendliness of production to addressing the climate-friendliness of consumption using consumption of organic food as a case. The authors link stated concerns for climate changes with actual food-related behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Valentina Carfora, Maria Morandi and Patrizia Catellani

The present research aimed to understand how to predict and promote plant-based meat (PBM) consumption.

Abstract

Purpose

The present research aimed to understand how to predict and promote plant-based meat (PBM) consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1 (N = 550), the authors investigated the psychosocial antecedents of the intentions to add PBM and to replace animal meat with PBM. In Study 2 (N = 390), the authors tested the effectiveness of different environmental messages promoting PBM consumption. The authors compared the effects of an addition message condition (i.e. a message promoting the addition of PBM to one's diet), a replacement message condition (i.e. a message promoting the replacement of animal meat with PBM) and a control condition (i.e. no message). In both studies, the authors considered the moderation of past PBM consumption (PMB eaters vs PBM noneaters).

Findings

Study 1 showed that a positive attitude towards eating PBM and a high awareness of the environmental consequences of meat production were key antecedents of participants' intention to eat PBM. The role of the other psychosocial antecedents varied according to past PBM consumption. Study 2 showed that both addition and replacement messages increased non-PBM eaters' positive attitude towards eating PBM and in turn willingness to pay for PBM. Instead, only replacement messages increased PBM eaters' willingness to pay for PBM.

Originality/value

The present research developed a model integrating the key psychosocial predictors of people's intentions to eat PBM. Furthermore, it is the first research that compared the persuasiveness of different environment messages to promote PBM consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2021

John Rolfe, Darshana Rajapaksa, Jeremy De Valck and Megan Star

In 2020, mechanisms to limit the chain of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Australia led to widespread restrictions on population mobility and…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2020, mechanisms to limit the chain of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Australia led to widespread restrictions on population mobility and business operations. Such conditions provide a natural experiment that may help to provide insights into consumer behaviour and future trends in food consumption. The overall objective of this study is to explore the possible impacts of COVID-19 on meat consumption patterns in Australia, both in the short and medium term, and to explore whether there have been impacts on the underlying drivers for consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The research reported in this paper analyses the impacts of COVID-19 on meat and seafood consumption in Australia, drawing on a national random survey of 1,200 participants in June 2020. Survey data on past and current consumption rates are compared to respondent estimates of their future consumption behaviour, and ordered probit models are used to identify whether consumption changes can be explained by socio-demographic, attitudinal or economic factors.

Findings

Two potential scenarios were evaluated to explore future consumption trends. The first “acceleration” scenario is that the restrictions would encourage people to speed up existing declines in meat consumption, perhaps taking more account of credence factors such as health, animal welfare and environmental issues. The second “transformation” scenario is that people will change consumption patterns, perhaps moving more towards home-cooked meals and increased consumption. Slightly stronger support was found for the transformation scenario, indicating that consumption rates for most meats and seafood will be stable or increase over the next five years.

Originality/value

This study capitalises on changed social and economic settings generated by COVID-19 to test the effects on consumption of meat (chicken, beef, pork, lamb) and seafood at a national level. Ordered probit models are applied to evaluate participant data on their future intentions for meat consumption to test two scenarios, finding stronger support for the “transformative” scenario than the “accelerate” scenario.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Gilles Séré de Lanauze and Béatrice Siadou-Martin

Many western consumers have become sensitive to the negative effects of their consumption levels in many product categories and those new attitudes are challenging their…

1085

Abstract

Purpose

Many western consumers have become sensitive to the negative effects of their consumption levels in many product categories and those new attitudes are challenging their habitual consumption behaviors. How do dissonant attitudes influence the process toward behavioral change? How does external information reinforce those conflicting attitudes with new dissonant cognitions and foster intentions to modify behavior? This study aims to propose a conceptual model, based on cognitive dissonance theory, which introduces psychological discomfort as an important mediator toward behavioral change intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are conducted. Using structural equation modeling under Amos, hypotheses are tested and validated in the field of meat consumption on a sample of 501 French consumers. A second study investigates the impact of the nature of the stimulus on consumers’ responses.

Findings

The results show that psychological discomfort is increased by the contact with dissonant external information and that consumers may at the same time minimize the effects of additional cognition by implementing informational strategies such as trivialization or decredibilization to defend their consumption behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Future researchers could consider the various objections to meat consumption separately and further explore the dynamics between external information, consumer cognitions and consumer consumption behavior in diverse consumption contexts.

Practical implications

The authors advise meat marketers to reduce consumer psychological discomfort by promoting the hedonic perceived value and by presenting credible counterarguments to defend the benefits of their products.

Social implications

The study may encourage advocates of lower meat consumption to provide credible information about the detrimental effects of meat consumption to influence behavioral change intentions.

Originality/value

As responsible consumption becomes a key trend in western societies, new attitudes, fostered by external critical information, are influencing consumption behavior in many product categories. This research contributes to a better understanding of the attitude–behavior gap in a context of emerging criticism toward highly consumed and traditional products.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Sylvain Charlebois, Maggie McCormick and Mark Juhasz

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if sudden retail price increases for beef products have affected consumers purchasing behaviors. Little research has been…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if sudden retail price increases for beef products have affected consumers purchasing behaviors. Little research has been conducted that integrates retail price volatility with subdued food consumption motivations. Prior research about consumers’ meat-purchasing habits and systemic concerns linked to sustainability and animal welfare is limited or de-contextualized. This study also attempts to assess if retail price increases have triggered a change in perception of the meat industry, by looking at specific values related to animal protein production and consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on an inductive, quantitative analysis of primary data obtained from a survey on beef consumption. For convenience and validity, all respondents had to be living in Canada for 12 months, and were at least 18 years old. The choice of country is not trivial. First, access to data were convenient for this study. Second, and most importantly, Canada has supply managed commodities that include poultry and chicken. In effect, Canada produces the amount of chicken it needs. Beef production is vulnerable to market volatility. As a result, demand-focussed market conditions for one often influence conditions for the other.

Findings

Findings indicate that higher prices have compelled 37.9 percent of the sample to reduce or to stop beef consumption altogether in the last 12 months. Beyond the issue of price, sustainability, food safety and health appear to be significant factors, more so than ethics (animal welfare). Results also show that education can be considered as a determinant for sustainable aspects of beef production when prices increase. Age and gender had no statistical significance on survey results. Some limitations are presented and future research paths are suggested.

Research limitations/implications

Since the sample in this study was mainly composed of consumers based in Canada, the generalizations of the findings should be approached with some caution. The same research should be conducted with consumers from other parts of the Western world to verify if the results can be generalized.

Practical implications

This survey help the authors to understand some aspects of beef consumption at retail. Findings of this empirical study have implications for future communications to consumers, in that greater emphasis should be given to the connection consumers have with other nutritional alternatives. Since meat consumption in the Western world is intrinsically linked to culinary traditions, behaviors can be challenging to change.

Social implications

The economic implications of a rapid adoption of a plant-based diet for the agricultural economy would be significant. However, the reality is that according to many studies of consumer behavior, customers still place a higher value on buying and eating meat than on any other food group. Canada’s relationship with animal proteins has deep cultural roots, particularly during holidays and summertime.

Originality/value

The present study has given important insights into the determinants of meat consumption reduction, a behavior which could both have long-term economic implications for the cattle and beef industries. This paper provides a deeper insight into some socio-economic factors that contribute to slow erosion of meat consumption reduction, and the effects of higher prices at retail. This is, as far as the authors know, likely the first study of its kind.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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