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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Ernie Ko, Yu-Chang Su and Chilik Yu

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the multiple anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) in Taiwan and their conflict resolution. The birth of the Agency Against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the multiple anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) in Taiwan and their conflict resolution. The birth of the Agency Against Corruption (AAC) in 2011 created the unintended consequence of sibling rivalry with the elder Ministry of Justice Investigation Bureau (MJIB).

Design/methodology/approach

A historical background of these agencies is discussed and followed by an analysis of the diversified conflicts among the prosecutor’s office, the AAC and the MJIB. The empirical sources of this study include 17 in-depth interviews with government officials both at ministerial level and field level, scholars and NGO representatives.

Findings

The redundancy of ACAs in Taiwan is a fact, which is extremely difficult to change in the foreseeable future in the light of current political and fiscal constraints. This paper concludes that the conflicts among multiple ACAs and their operational weaknesses will not fade away after a mere directive from their superior, the Ministry of Justice, unless genuine cooperation is put into place in various individual cases.

Practical implications

This paper provides a road-map for decision makers to improve collective anti-corruption performance. Taiwan’s AAC serves as the latest example testing the efficacy of the multiple specialized ACAs.

Originality/value

This pioneering study provides insights into Taiwan’s anti-corruption policy and practices. More investigative studies should be conducted on the effectiveness of multiple ACAs in other countries.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Samantha Wallis, Steven Bloch and Michael Clarke

The purpose of this paper is to document augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) training provision by clinical services in England.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) training provision by clinical services in England.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was used to obtain the following information concerning AAC training provision; frequency, length, type, content and cost, trainee occupations and numbers, and future training priorities, and information concerning training providers – service type, geographical area.

Findings

In total, 98 clinical service training providers in England responded. Services commonly reported providing AAC training to speech and language therapists, teaching assistants and teachers. Training around “use of specific AAC products, systems and technology” and “introducing/awareness raising of AAC products” were rated as high priority for future training and were two of the three subject areas where services reported the highest percentage of training. Training was predominantly provided at a foundation (basic) level.

Originality/value

There is no consensus on the amount or content of AAC training which professionals in England must receive. Evidence suggests that AAC training for pre-qualification professionals is limited and this paper has identified variation in the amount and type of post-qualification AAC training. While knowledge concerning specific AAC systems is necessary, focussing training primarily on this area may not address critical gaps in knowledge. There is a need for specific recommendations regarding AAC training for professionals in this field, to ensure professionals can fully support people who use AAC.

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Eliada Pampoulou and Donald R. Fuller

When the augmentative and alternative communication (ACC) model (Lloyd et al., 1990) was proposed, these components of symbols were not considered, nor were they…

Abstract

Purpose

When the augmentative and alternative communication (ACC) model (Lloyd et al., 1990) was proposed, these components of symbols were not considered, nor were they contemplated when superordinate (Lloyd and Fuller, 1986) and subordinate levels (Fuller et al., 1992) of AAC symbol taxonomy were developed. The purpose of this paper is to revisit the ACC model and propose a new symbol classification system called multidimensional quaternary symbol continuum (MQSC)

Design/methodology/approach

The field of AAC is evolving at a rapid rate in terms of its clinical, social, research and theoretical underpinnings. Advances in assessment and intervention methods, technology and social issues are all responsible to some degree for the significant changes that have occurred in the field of AAC over the last 30 years. For example, the number of aided symbol collections has increased almost exponentially over the past couple of decades. The proliferation of such a large variety of symbol collections represents a wide range of design attributes, physical attributes and linguistic characteristics for aided symbols and design attributes and linguistic characteristics for unaided symbols.

Findings

Therefore, it may be time to revisit the AAC model and more specifically, one of its transmission processes referred to as the means to represent.

Originality/value

The focus of this theoretical paper then, is on the current classification of symbols, issues with respect to the current classification of symbols in terms of ambiguity of terminology and the evolution of symbols, and a proposal for a new means of classifying the means to represent.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon10.1108/JET-04-2021-0024

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

M. Alexandra Da Fonte, Miriam C. Boesch and Katie Clouse

Given the rise of individuals who have complex communication needs (CCN), it is important to identify appropriate assistive technology systems that can support the…

Abstract

Given the rise of individuals who have complex communication needs (CCN), it is important to identify appropriate assistive technology systems that can support the individual's communication needs. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems can serve as a means to assist individuals to communicate independently. The goal of AAC is to enhance or replace the individual's current and limited verbal or written communication skills. This chapter focuses on feature matching, aided communication and the selection process for aided communication systems including low to high technology systems. It also emphasises other key considerations pertaining to person-centred planning such as conducting preference assessments and trial periods to minimise system abandonment.

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2015

Kathy L. Look Howery

This chapter presents an exploration of the phenomenon of speaking with, or perhaps better stated “through,” a device. Autobiographical works and other published accounts…

Abstract

This chapter presents an exploration of the phenomenon of speaking with, or perhaps better stated “through,” a device. Autobiographical works and other published accounts of perceptions of Speech-Generating Devices (SGDs) by persons who have used them are reviewed. The bulk of the chapter focuses on insights gathered from research into the lived experiences of young people who use SGDs. Emerging themes focus on what is “said” by a person who cannot speak, how SGDs announce one’s being in the word, the challenge of one’s words not being one’s own, and the constant sense of being out of time. Reflections on these themes provide insights for practice in the fields of speech language pathology, education, and rehabilitation engineering. The importance of further qualitative inquiry as a method to gather and listen to the voices and experiences of these often unheard individuals is stressed.

Details

Efficacy of Assistive Technology Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-641-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Jill Bradshaw

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the communication applications (apps) that can be used with devices such as the iPad, iPod and iPhone to support…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the communication applications (apps) that can be used with devices such as the iPad, iPod and iPhone to support augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

Design/methodology/approach

A brief discussion of the research into the use of high‐technology communication aids is followed by an introduction to the iPad, iPod and iPhone AAC apps.

Findings

These devices and apps clearly have a role within the spectrum of AAC devices currently available. They may have some distinct advantages in cost, ease of use and acceptability but more research into their use is needed.

Originality/value

This article starts with a model of communicative competence and presents some recent research into barriers in the use of high‐technology AAC. It suggests some ways in which AAC apps may address some of the barriers to implementation and functional use. Finally, the need for individual assessment to determine specific communication needs is stressed. These devices and apps may not always be the best solution for people with complex communication needs.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Subhashini Selvaraj and Thirumaran Kesavaperumal

Heat gain in buildings occurs due to heat transfer through the building fabric or envelope, especially the walls and roof. The purpose of this paper is to identify and…

Abstract

Purpose

Heat gain in buildings occurs due to heat transfer through the building fabric or envelope, especially the walls and roof. The purpose of this paper is to identify and recommend the suitable wall materials for better thermal performance in buildings in warm and hot climatic zones of India. As India lies between the tropic of cancer and the equator, the solar radiation from the sun falls more on the walls than the roofs of the buildings. Thus, it is imperative to protect the walls from heat gain to promote thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings and reduce the energy loads due to artificial cooling systems in air-conditioned buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an investigation of heat flow characteristics in steady-state and the transient state for five different uninsulated wall structures using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software has been carried out. The climate conditions at Madurai, India have been considered for this study.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that aerated autoclaved concrete (AAC) and hollow clay blocks (HCB) for external walls in naturally ventilated buildings in warm climatic regions could improve the building’s thermal performance index and reduce peak indoor operative temperature by about 6°C–7°C. The results of steady-state and transient state analysis were found to be in good agreement with the results of the reviewed literature.

Research limitations/implications

Over the past few decades, only very few architects and builders have been successful in influencing their clients to accept alternate materials such as AAC blocks, HCB, stabilized earth blocks, adobe blocks, fly-ash bricks as an alternate to conventional bricks in an attempt of highlighting their benefits, such as; materials that are easily available, more energy-efficient, can withstand the extreme weather conditions, promote thermal comfort and cost-effective. This paper provides strong evidence that AAC and HCB blocks are the most appropriate materials for improving the thermal performance of envelope walls in regions where the outdoor temperatures are above 40°C.

Originality/value

This paper has made an attempt to identify the appropriate wall materials for effective thermal performance in warm and hot climates. A comparative analysis between five different wall types under the existing solar conditions has been analyzed using CFD simulation study in steady-state and transient conditions under summer conditions and the appropriate wall materials have been suggested. There has been no attempt carried out so far to analyze the thermal performance of different walls using 24 h transient approach in CFD.

Details

Open House International, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Eliada Pampoulou and Donald R. Fuller

Graphic symbols have been used widely in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The advancement of technology in recent years has stimulated their…

Abstract

Purpose

Graphic symbols have been used widely in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The advancement of technology in recent years has stimulated their development even further, thereby providing speech-language pathologists (SLPs) a wide range of options to choose for the individuals they support. However, existing literature on graphic symbols is scant and clinicians must base their decisions almost solely on clinical judgment. This paper aims to investigate the factors SLPs consider when choosing corpuses of graphic symbols for their clients.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was used that allowed multiple-choice responses. Data were analyzed and presented primarily as percentages.

Findings

Most respondents used graphic symbols with people having developmental disorders, and the corpuses of symbols they drew upon were based predominantly on availability, characteristics of the individual’s impairment or disability and intelligibility to the user and his or her communication partners. Existing policies related to graphic symbols also influence clinicians’ choices. SLPs search for support mainly from professional associations and training providers. In terms of use with technology, ready-made symbol packages for clinicians to use were found to be attractive.

Practical implications

Professional associations and institutions that focus on AAC need to provide adequate support to clinicians with a foundation based on evidence-based practice.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research that focuses on current practices concerning the factors SLPs take into consideration when choosing the optimum graphic symbol corpus(es) for their clients.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Eliada Pampoulou

Graphic symbols, such as the Picture Communication Symbols, Makaton and Widgit, have been traditionally used in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC

Abstract

Purpose

Graphic symbols, such as the Picture Communication Symbols, Makaton and Widgit, have been traditionally used in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in order to support people with little or no functional speech. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

However, given the fact that the terminology remains contested in the existing literature as well as the multidisciplinary nature surrounding graphic symbols, in more recent years and the number of terms used in different fields, it is vital that the terminology of graphic symbols is revisited again.

Findings

In the last section of the paper, a definition of graphic symbols is proposed.

Originality/value

The value of this paper lies in the fact that while field of graphic symbols have been used in the AAC for more than 30 years, there is still no consensus regarding the meaning of the terminology used.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Kunden Patel, Laura Roche, Nicola Coward, Jacqueline Meek and Celia Harding

The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of a programme of training and support provided to staff, which aimed to encourage supported communication…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of a programme of training and support provided to staff, which aimed to encourage supported communication environments for people with learning disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Training, monitoring and support for communication, specifically augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies, was provided by speech and language therapy staff to two residential services over 46 weeks. Staff and service user communications were observed pre- and post-intervention.

Findings

In one provision there was an increase in service user initiations and the use of some AAC strategies by support staff. In the other provision there was no change in service user initiations and a decrease in the range of AAC strategies used. It appears that some forms for AAC remain challenging for staff to implement.

Originality/value

This evaluation explores ways of using specialist support services to improve communication environments for people with learning difficulties. Possible reasons for differences in the outcome of the intervention are discussed. Future research into the types of communication interactions experienced by people with learning disabilities across the range of communication styles may be useful so that support staff can be better helped to provide sustained and enriched communication environments.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

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