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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Serap Durakli Velioglu and Goksel Tirpanci Sivri

β-carotene, found naturally in many foods, has been widely used as a colourant in various products. The aim of this study is to optimize the production of β-carotene by…

Abstract

Purpose

β-carotene, found naturally in many foods, has been widely used as a colourant in various products. The aim of this study is to optimize the production of β-carotene by Blakeslea trispora using bug-damaged wheat as the main nitrogen and carbon source.

Design/methodology/approach

Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to determine the optimum concentrations of media components for the maximum β-carotene production. β-carotene concentration was determined quantitively using a spectrophotometric method.

Findings

A full quadratic model fit the data best for β-carotene production with a high R2 value (0.999). Using optimized media increased the production of β-carotene by B. trispora DSM-2387 and B. trispora DSM-2388 to a higher level (250.407 mg/l) than the control medium (72.195 mg/l).

Originality/value

This study showed that bug-damaged wheat, an agro-industrial waste having low economical value, may be used as a valuable substrate for microbial production of β-carotene, a natural food colourant possessing high economical value.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Umesh Luthra, Prabhakar Babu, Remya R.R., Angeline Julius, Yogesh Patel, Ramesh Jajula Veera and Ilma Majeed

β-Carotene is the most appropriate and significant precursor of vitamin A. Synthetic carotene supplements have been known to pose a threat to human health, making natural…

Abstract

Purpose

β-Carotene is the most appropriate and significant precursor of vitamin A. Synthetic carotene supplements have been known to pose a threat to human health, making natural sources such as the indefensible choice for the production and extraction of carotene.

Design/methodology/approach

This study considers Blakeslea trispora, a filamentous fungus, as a source of production of carotenoids by fermentation and wet and dry mycelium were used to analyse and obtain better extraction results.

Findings

In this study, natural oils such as soy oil and cottonseed oil were incorporated into fermentation media to increase the production of carotene. For the optimization process, Plackett–Burman and one-factor-at-a-time (OVAT) models were identified as being of great value.

Originality/value

OVAT was carried out for corn starch because it plays a major role in the production of carotene and the corn starch at 30 g/L concentration has shown the maximum activity of 3.48 mg/gm. After optimizing process variables, submerged fermentation was eventually carried out under highly controlled media conditions. The resulting product was quantified using UV spectroscopy and extraction of carotene has been observed in the presence of various solvents. Among a range of solvents used, the methylene Di chloride produced-carotene at 86% recovery at a significantly lower temperature of 35°C.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Christopher Thane and Sheela Reddy

Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet…

4054

Abstract

Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into juices. Factors such as heat, light and oxygen exposure may have detrimental effects (including destruction and isomerization, with loss of vitamin A activity), while some procedures may bring benefits (such as increased unit content and retention, breakdown of inhibitory structures and enhanced bioavailability). Concludes that the extent and nature of processing can have a significant impact on the form and content of carotenoids in processed fruit and vegetables.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 97 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Anshu Sharma, Anju Kumari Dhiman and Surekha Attri

Internal fluffy portion along with fibrous strands of ripe pumpkin is considered as waste in processing industries though it contains sufficient amount of ß-carotene…

Abstract

Purpose

Internal fluffy portion along with fibrous strands of ripe pumpkin is considered as waste in processing industries though it contains sufficient amount of ß-carotene pigment. The purpose of this paper is to use the leftover fluffy portion of ripe pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) after the use of its flesh for the purpose of processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were analyzed statistically by following a complete randomized design (CRD). All analysis were performed using the software OPSTAT.

Findings

One hour pre-enzymatic treatment before solvent extraction showed significant improvement in extraction yield in comparison to the isolation of ß-carotene pigment through solvent only. Temperature time combination was optimized as 40°C for 2 h during solvent extraction to obtain maximum yield irrespective of the type of extraction method used.

Practical implications

Extracted carotene pigment can further be used as a natural food colorant in processed food products not only to enhance the color appeal but also it improves the nutritional value of the product as ß-carotene acts as a precursor of vitamin A.

Social implications

Coloring agents of natural origin are becoming famous among society due to their health benefits. Consumers are becoming reluctant to use synthetic colors because of the undesirable allergic reactions caused by them, so carotene bio-pigment produced is a natural coloring compound with wide application in the food sector.

Originality/value

Even though few researchers have worked on the extraction of carotene pigment from pumpkin, but no researcher has reported the use of a waste fluffy portion of C. maxima for extraction of ß-carotene pigment.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Nur Asniyati Abdul Halim, Sharmilla Ashokhan, Hanisah Ali and Rashidi Othman

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas) and their valuable pro-vitamin A activities. These assessments will yield valuable knowledge and insight into the importance of these underutilized traditional vegetables and highlight their potential for applications in medicinal and functional colorant industries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have evaluated the distribution of carotenoid compounds in aerial organs of three underutilized traditional vegetables (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas). The content of the individual carotenoids were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the organ with the highest accumulation of these compounds were identified. Their valuable pro-vitamin A activities were also reported to indicate their medicinal potential which can further be exploited as pharmacologically active natural colorants and in other applications.

Findings

In total, three major chromatographic peaks corresponding to lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene were observed through HPLC. Among the compounds detected, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids found in both shoots and petioles of all three species. Violaxanthin was only detected in I. batatas shoots. Overall, carotenoid content was observed to be higher in the shoots than in the petioles, where I. batatas contained the highest amount of total carotenoid, followed by M. esculenta and A. carambola. The opposite trend was observed in the petioles, where A. carambola petioles had the highest carotenoid content, while I. batatas contained the least.

Research limitations/implications

The distribution and abundance of these individual carotenoids suggested that the petioles contained the highest amount of carotenoid, contributing to its high pro-vitamin A activity, and could be potentially useful for medicinal application, as it can act as storage site that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and purification procedures as well as robust identification methods which may lead to better detection and identification of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the importance of underutilized traditional vegetables as important biofactories for sustainable production of valuable pigments (such as carotenoids) with medicinal benefits and can further be exploited in various industries, such as in formulation of functional natural colorants. This study also highlights the importance of petiole as a storage site of pharmacologically active compounds that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage.

Originality/value

To date, there is no previous report found on comparative analysis of carotenoid content and quantification of individual carotenoid concentration in the edible aerial parts of Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas, although they have been traditionally consumed as “ulam” in Malaysia. Therefore, the results reported in this study provide new insights on carotenoid accumulation in the selected ‘ulam’ species.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Amin Ismail, Ngee‐Wen Tiong, Seok‐Tyug Tan and Azrina Azlan

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties (capacity and component) of four non‐leafy vegetables. The correlation between the antioxidant…

782

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties (capacity and component) of four non‐leafy vegetables. The correlation between the antioxidant capacity and its components of the studied vegetables was also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Winged beans, also known as four‐angled bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), string bean (Vigna sinensis) and snow pea (Pisum sativum) were selected as samples from among the common non‐leafy vegetables consumed by Malaysians. These fresh vegetables were lyophilised and ground and their ethanolic extracts were prepared for antioxidant capacity assays and total phenolic, β‐carotene and ascorbic acid contents.

Findings

Among the vegetables, string beans showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other vegetables studied (p < 0.05). The total phenolic, ascorbic acid and β‐carotene contents of snow peas were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the other vegetables. There was a significant positive correlation between scavenging activity and antioxidant components studied. On the other hand, a negative correlation was found between antioxidant activity and its components of the studied vegetables.

Originality/value

Previous reports have indicated that vegetables contain high levels of antioxidants. However, data on antioxidant capacity of these non‐leafy vegetables are still lacking. This research paper shows the non‐leafy vegetables studied is a promising source of antioxidants with good antioxidant capacity. Beside that, along with the studied antioxidant components, other compounds in these vegetables could also contribute to their antioxidant capacity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Amani AlJahani and Rana Cheikhousman

Pumpkins are a rich source of essential nutrients, namely, β-carotene, minerals and vitamins, and they are therefore suitable for making functional juice. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Pumpkins are a rich source of essential nutrients, namely, β-carotene, minerals and vitamins, and they are therefore suitable for making functional juice. This study aims to develop pumpkin-based functional juice and assess the acceptability of the product by various consumers. In total, 55 per cent of the panelists disliked the pumpkin juice because of its strong off-flavor. Consequently, different blends of pumpkin juice with mango, orange, strawberry and green apple juices were prepared and evaluated for global appreciation and descriptive sensory analysis.

Methodology

Pumpkins, green apples, mangos, oranges and strawberries were obtained from the local market. Four mixtures of juices were prepared by mixing pumpkin and mango juice (750/250, v/v), pumpkin and green apple juice (750/250, v/v), pumpkin and orange juice (750/250, v/v) and pumpkin with strawberry and orange juice (750/125/125, v/v/v). The contents of moisture ash, fiber, carbohydrate, crude protein and lipids were estimated according to AOAC methods. β-Carotene, vitamin C and minerals were determined. A semi-trained panel consisting of 100 members assessed sensory characteristics of pumpkin juice and mixtures using a quantitative descriptive analysis method (QDA) for different attributes.

Findings

The findings show that the moisture, crude protein, fiber, ash and carbohydrate contents indicate that the developed pumpkin juice was rich in these essential nutrients. The fiber value in our study was lower than the value previously reported for pumpkin. The content of β-carotene and vitamin C in the developed pumpkin juice was considerably higher than that reported previously for fruits. The values of calcium and iron of the current study were much higher than those previously reported in vegetable juices and mixtures. The sensory results revealed that the developed pumpkin-based juice blends are acceptable by the consumers.

Originality value

This study was carried out to develop a suitable formula for preparing functional juices from pumpkin, which is not consumed willingly by children and the elderly; the authors aimed to improve its taste and flavor by mixing it with different fruit juices. The results demonstrated that pumpkin juice is rich in essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, suggesting its health-promoting potential. Mixing pumpkin juice with mango juice or orange and strawberry juices significantly improved the sensory quality of the products. Strikingly, the formulated pumpkin juice mixtures received good acceptance and appreciation by children and the elderly, which could promote its use as a functional juice. Generally, pumpkin-based juice blends are rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants and can therefore be consumed as a functional beverage with potentially increased health-promoting characteristics. Using pumpkin for developing functional juices could add commercial value to pumpkins. Future studies should specifically focus on large-scale production and commercialization of these juice mixtures.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Lara Siqueira de Oliveira, Maria Elisabeth Machado Pinto‐e‐Silva, Maria Carolina Batista Campos von Atzingen and Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the retention rate of vitamin C and carotenoids in vegetables submitted to heat treatment.

706

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the retention rate of vitamin C and carotenoids in vegetables submitted to heat treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples of carrot and broccoli were submitted to conventional cooking, steaming, microwaving and autoclave. Ascorbic acid concentrations were determined according to the methodology of Zhang and Hamauzu. The extraction of carotenoids was done using the methodology of Niizu and Rodriguez‐Amaya. The formula of Murphy et al. was used to calculate the retention rate of vitamins.

Findings

The highest retention percentage of ascorbic acid, α‐carotene, β‐carotene and lutein in carrots was obtained using microwave cooking. In the case of broccoli, the best retention for α‐ and β‐carotene was by steam cooking, whereas ascorbic acid was best preserved in the autoclave and lutein by conventional cooking.

Practical implications

Ascorbic acid and carotenoids are compounds present in vegetables relevant mostly from a therapeutical point of view, as they appear to be associated with the prevention of many diseases. However, these vitamins are lost during the cooking process, which is of great importance in developing countries where deficits of these nutrientes are quite common in the population.

Originality/value

The results obtained in this study indicate that the cooking technique of choice is of fundamental importance not only at home but also for the food industry, considering the increasing consumption of processed foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Richard Faulks and Sue Southon

Notes that of 600 carotenoids found in nature, only 40 are regularly consumed by humans. Looks at the biological functions of carotenoids. Reports on studies with regard…

397

Abstract

Notes that of 600 carotenoids found in nature, only 40 are regularly consumed by humans. Looks at the biological functions of carotenoids. Reports on studies with regard to the effects on health carotenoid‐rich diets.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 97 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Marilú Andrea Silva-Espinoza, María del Mar Camacho and Nuria Martínez-Navarrete

A healthy and easy-to-use orange snack obtained from the freeze-dried orange pulp puree is proposed. Once the commercial packaging of the snack has been opened, the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

A healthy and easy-to-use orange snack obtained from the freeze-dried orange pulp puree is proposed. Once the commercial packaging of the snack has been opened, the effect of conventional home storage temperature on its physicochemical properties and on the content of bioactive compounds has been studied. This research aims to recommend the consumer, and therefore the manufacturer, the best conditions for home storage of this product, keeping its nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity, as well as maintaining its colour and crispness.

Design/methodology/approach

The water content, water activity, hygroscopicity, crispness, colour, vitamin C, β-carotene, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were characterised both when the orange snack was newly obtained and after one, two and six months of storage inside zipper bags, at 4 and 20 ºC.

Findings

The results indicated that, in these conditions, the orange snack increased its water content, causing a loss in both its porosity and its characteristic crispness. Nevertheless, the bioactive compounds remained stable throughout the storage period, with the exception of β-carotene, the content of which decreased markedly when the orange snack was stored at 20 ºC.

Originality/value

Few studies have evaluated the stability of food products during home storage. The findings showed that the maximum storage time to ensure a proper texture of the orange snack studied is between two and six months, both at 4 and 20 ºC. However, from the point of view of the conservation of both vitamin C and, especially, of β-carotene, it is recommended that this product be stored in refrigeration.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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