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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Ozlem Yesil Celiktas, Muge Isleten, Fazilet Vardar‐Sukan and E. Oyku Cetin

This paper seeks to demonstrate a functional beverage incorporating pine bark which is an unutilized forestry waste, determine in vitro release kinetics of enriched…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to demonstrate a functional beverage incorporating pine bark which is an unutilized forestry waste, determine in vitro release kinetics of enriched beverages, and antioxidant activities, besides assessing their shelf stabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Orange juice was enriched with Pinus brutia, Pinus pinea bark extracts, Pycnogenol®. In vitro release kinetics was determined in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4. Ascorbic acid content, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric analyses were analyzed monthly for eight months to determine shelf life. Additionally, total phenol contents and radical scavenging activities were analyzed. Subsequently a consumer acceptance test was conducted among 200 participants.

Findings

The release of all extracts in orange juices in pH 1.2 were slower than pH 7.4. The release results were fitted to Higuchi square root of time kinetic model with high determination coefficients. Although total titratable acidity values were in agreement with the trend of minor pH changes, prominent losses in antioxidant capacities, ascorbic acid contents and color were observed for the last two months suggesting a shelf life of six months. Female participants and young people had a greater tendency to consume such a beverage. Health concerns and flavor were the primary factors affecting their purchasing decisions.

Research limitations/implications

Findings of the study demonstrated the effects of fortification with a plant‐based extract as a substitute to the present practice of fortifying beverages with vitamins and minerals for a potential future market.

Originality/value

The paper shows that juices fortified with pine bark extracts show higher antioxidant capacities and ascorbic acid contents compared to the control, thereby providing improved functionality.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Neuza Jorge, Carolina Médici Veronezi and Danusa Cassiano Pereira

This study aims to deal with the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts of red peppers in natura. Furthermore, preference was…

423

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deal with the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts of red peppers in natura. Furthermore, preference was evaluated for the taste and color of soybean oil added red pepper extracts.

Design/methodology/approach

The antioxidant capacity was determined by four methods. The content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid in the extracts was determined by chromatographic, spectrophotometric and titration methods, respectively.

Findings

The results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was found in Malagueta pepper extract through reducing power (FRAP) method. In this same extract, high amount of phenolic compounds was found. However, the extracts of Bode and Dedo-de-moça peppers had higher amounts of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, respectively. Sensorially, the oil added extracts were preferred.

Practical implications

Red peppers are very popular and consumed worldwide, besides being constituted of important phytochemicals. Results showed high antioxidant activity in the extracts of peppers, and high content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid mainly in chili. This study highlights the importance of the extracts of red peppers, genus Capsicum, as a source of antioxidants, in addition to vegetable oils.

Originality/value

It is important to check the acceptance of the application of extract in vegetable oil, so it can be marketed as a natural antioxidant. This study provides valuable information about the antioxidant capacity of extracts of red peppers and its acceptance.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Rita Mansour

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and pulp: juice, pomace) . This study was conducted through three stages of fruit maturity (green, yellow and orange). Total polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, acidity, total soluble solid and the minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Na, K, Fe, Mn Cu) were evaluated. Moreover, the relationship between the total polyphenol, flavonoids and the antioxidant activity was determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Total polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Flavonoids were assessed by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. K and Na contents were determined by using a flame photometer. Other nutritional composition was determined by volumetric method.

Findings

The result showed that the concentrations of antioxidants, total polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, total chlorophyll, total acidity and antioxidant activity (DPPH%) decreased during the maturity of fruit while the value of pH and β-carotene increases. In addition, the concentrations of the most minerals decreased through the maturation of fruit except Na. Anova statistical analysis of all the studied chemical variables was shown significant differences between all the samples. The pH, total soluble solids, β-caroteniod: orange juice had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. Ascorbic acid, total acidity, total chlorophyll: green juice had the highest average while orange juice has the lowest. Total phenol, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn: green flavedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Flavonoid, antioxidant activity (DPPH%), Ca, Zn: green albedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Na: orange flavedo had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. The correlations between total polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (R = 0.935 and 0.960, respectively).

Originality/value

The stage of maturity affects nutritional composition in Citrus aurantium fruits (C. aurantium) peel and pulp, where some minerals of composition increased and others decreased, according to the results. This is the first study on comparing the nutritional composition of pulp: juice, pomace and peel: albedo, flavedo of Citrus aurantium L. during maturity in Syria, and it was also not found in previous works.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Lara Siqueira de Oliveira, Maria Elisabeth Machado Pinto‐e‐Silva, Maria Carolina Batista Campos von Atzingen and Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the retention rate of vitamin C and carotenoids in vegetables submitted to heat treatment.

706

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the retention rate of vitamin C and carotenoids in vegetables submitted to heat treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples of carrot and broccoli were submitted to conventional cooking, steaming, microwaving and autoclave. Ascorbic acid concentrations were determined according to the methodology of Zhang and Hamauzu. The extraction of carotenoids was done using the methodology of Niizu and Rodriguez‐Amaya. The formula of Murphy et al. was used to calculate the retention rate of vitamins.

Findings

The highest retention percentage of ascorbic acid, α‐carotene, β‐carotene and lutein in carrots was obtained using microwave cooking. In the case of broccoli, the best retention for α‐ and β‐carotene was by steam cooking, whereas ascorbic acid was best preserved in the autoclave and lutein by conventional cooking.

Practical implications

Ascorbic acid and carotenoids are compounds present in vegetables relevant mostly from a therapeutical point of view, as they appear to be associated with the prevention of many diseases. However, these vitamins are lost during the cooking process, which is of great importance in developing countries where deficits of these nutrientes are quite common in the population.

Originality/value

The results obtained in this study indicate that the cooking technique of choice is of fundamental importance not only at home but also for the food industry, considering the increasing consumption of processed foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Sitti Aralas, Maryati Mohamed and Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

Salak (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree native to Malaysia and Indonesia. The fruit is also known as “snake fruit” due to its reddish‐brown scaly skin. Four…

1245

Abstract

Purpose

Salak (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree native to Malaysia and Indonesia. The fruit is also known as “snake fruit” due to its reddish‐brown scaly skin. Four different varieties of the fruits (i.e. SS1, SS2, SS3 and SS4) have been established by Sabah State Agriculture Department, Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the antioxidant properties and phytochemicals content in the edible portion of the fruits.

Design/methodology/approach

Four different varieties of the fruits were collected and analysed for the antioxidant properties (2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay), total phenolic and total flavonoid contents using spectrophotometry analysis. Ascorbic acid was determined using titration method.

Findings

The results showed the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the samples were in the range of 12.6‐15.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 4.9‐7.1 mg catechin equivalent/g of dry sample, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the extracts (using DPPH assay) were highly correlated with total phenolic and moderately correlated with flavonoid content. The reducing capabilities of the extracts using FRAP assay were moderately correlated with all phytochemicals tested. The results suggested that the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of salak is mildly affected by variety. The high phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of S. zalacca indicated that the fruit possessed potential health benefits properties.

Originality/value

Salak fruit is now being developed into fruit juice, pickle and other food products. The commercialization of the fruit may be enhanced if more knowledge on its potential health benefits is studied and discovered. The economic and nutraceutical values might increase and will contribute greatly to the local people.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Andrew Youngs

Vitamin C is well known in a nutritional context for being one vital component of the mixed diet we all need for survival. But vitamin C also has value in influencing the…

Abstract

Vitamin C is well known in a nutritional context for being one vital component of the mixed diet we all need for survival. But vitamin C also has value in influencing the organoleptic qualities of foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 84 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Simarjit Kaur, Suresh Rajabhau Bhise, Amarjeet Kaur and K.S. Minhas

The present study was carried out to standardize the method for preparation of naturally carbonated fermented paneer whey beverage by incorporating pineapple and…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was carried out to standardize the method for preparation of naturally carbonated fermented paneer whey beverage by incorporating pineapple and strawberry fruit juice and to check their suitability in the beverage by evaluating the organoleptic characteristics and shelf life of product.

Design/methodology/approach

Beverage was inoculated with yeast culture Clavispora lucitaniae at 0.5 per cent v/v and fermented at 35 ± 1°C for 36 h aerobically. Standardization of total soluble solids (TSS) (16, 15, 14, 13 and 12oBrix) and juice concentration (15, 20, 25 and 30 per cent) of beverage was done on the basis of organoleptic evaluation, and the beverage with TSS 12oB and 30 per cent juice was selected best for further storage study. Two types of beverages were prepared: paneer whey beverage blended with pineapple juice and paneer whey beverage blended with strawberry juice, and were stored at refrigerated (4 ± 1oC) and ambient (25 ± 5oC) conditions. Effect of storage on physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied periodically after every 15 days for 90 days of storage period.

Findings

There was significant decrease in brix:acid ratio (p = 0.0008) from 12.0 to 9.3, total sugar (p = 0.017) from 10.8 to 6.8, ascorbic acid (p = 0.002) from 17.8 to 9.3 mg/100 mL and lactose (p = 0.037) from 3.1 to 0.6 per cent content over 90 days of ambient storage period. Total yeast count increased during the initial stages of fermentation and started declining after 60 days of storage. The alcohol production started after 15 days and reached 0.7 per cent after 90 days for paneer whey beverages blended with strawberry juice. The more variations were found in the physico-chemical and microbiological properties of the beverage at ambient storage than refrigeration storage. Highest score for color, flavor, mouthfeel and overall acceptability was found on third days, which decreased further during the storage. The comparative study of the paneer whey beverage blended with strawberry juice stored at ambient and refrigeration temperature showed that maximum decrease was found for score of appearance/color, flavor, mouthfeel and overall acceptability at ambient temperature as compared to refrigeration temperature. Beverage stored at refrigeration temperature was found more acceptable than the beverage which was stored at ambient temperature irrespective of all types of beverages.

Originality/value

The refrigerated beverage was found more acceptable up to 90 days, whereas beverage stored under ambient conditions was found acceptable up to 60 days. The products so obtained had naturally produced CO2, and little alcohol content added effervescence, sparkle, tangy taste and flavoring characteristics.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Tõnu Tõnutare, Kati Keert, Lech Szajdak and Ulvi Moor

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in taste-related and bioactive compounds of organically (OR) and conventionally (CONV) cultivated commercially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine differences in taste-related and bioactive compounds of organically (OR) and conventionally (CONV) cultivated commercially produced strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Addresses the question if the consumers buying OR strawberries are likely to purchase fruits with better taste and richer in bioactive compounds than those buying CONV fruits.

Design/methodology/approach

Only information commonly available to the consumers [cultivar, quality class, product origin (country) and eco-labelling], was considered in selecting experimental material. “Polka” strawberries from 14 farms (7 OR and 7 CONV) from South Estonia were used for analyses.

Findings

No evidence was found that OR strawberries contain more bioactive compounds or have higher soluble solids content and titratable acids ratio (associated with better taste) compared to CONV strawberries. There were significant differences in content of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, total antioxidant capacity, titratable acids and soluble solids between strawberries from individual farms irrespective of cultivation system.

Research limitations/implications

Our study was limited to strawberry “Polka” and some other cultivars might response differently to production systems.

Social implications

Consumers get information that by choosing an organic product in the marketplace, it is not guaranteed that this product has higher content of bioactive compounds.

Originality/value

Comparative studies of organic and conventional products are preferably performed with products grown at the same location with the same amount of nutrients etc. However, information of production site’s microclimate, soil texture or the amount of plant available nutrients is never available to the consumers. Therefore, our consumer-oriented approach might be valuable.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Nan Sun, Beibei Tan, Bolun Sun, Jinjie Zhang, Chao Li and Wenge Yang

Sargassum fusiforme is a popular edible seaweed in coastal cities of China that contains diverse nutrients including iodine. Cooking is an effective way to improve food…

Abstract

Purpose

Sargassum fusiforme is a popular edible seaweed in coastal cities of China that contains diverse nutrients including iodine. Cooking is an effective way to improve food safety, but it can alter both the contents of elements along with speciation and bioavailability. Three common cooking methods, the soaking, steaming and boiling, were evaluated for their effects on the protein structures, protein digestibility, iodine content and iodine bioavailability of S. fusiforme.

Design/methodology/approach

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the structural changes of protein, and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system was used to evaluate the digestibility of protein, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of iodine.

Findings

Boiling and steaming altered the protein secondary structure demonstrated by increased a-helix and random coil and decreased β-sheet, which improved the in vitro protein digestibility. Iodine content was reduced by cooking, with the highest loss observed after boiling, followed by soaking and steaming, while it was found that both bioaccessibility and cellular uptake of iodine were significantly elevated by boiling and steaming using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture system. The presence of ascorbic acid, citric acid or tyrosine was beneficial for the iodine absorption, while oxalic acid and phytic acid hindered the iodine bioavailability.

Originality/value

The present finding suggested that cooking was conducive to the digestion and absorption of iodine in S. fusiforme. In addition, different dietary factors could have a certain impact on the absorption of iodine. Results of the study are essential for improving the application value of S. fusiforme to ensure reasonable consumption of seaweeds.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Gagandeep Kaur Sidhu, Preetinder Kaur and Manpreet Singh

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) leaves have received an enormous demand due to their uses in traditional Indian preparations. It is a green leafy vegetable that is…

Abstract

Purpose

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) leaves have received an enormous demand due to their uses in traditional Indian preparations. It is a green leafy vegetable that is highly perishable in nature, due to high respiration rate; consequently, sensory as well as nutrient loss occurs at a very high rate. The aim of this research was to enhance the shelf life of fresh fenugreek leaves under modified atmosphere and determine the effect of different physiochemical parameters on storability of fenugreek leaves.

Design/methodology/approach

Fresh fenugreek leaves were stored in polypropylene (PP) film package under four different treatments, viz., T1: perforated (one perforation), T2: perforated (two perforation, 0.3 mm each), T3: non-perforated and T4: control sample. The control samples were kept in packages under ambient conditions. All packed samples were stored at 15°C temperature and 75 per cent relative humidity (RH). The quality was determined on the basis of retention of pigments, flavonoids, antioxidants, ascorbic acid and total phenols. The sensory evaluation of the stored samples was also carried out at regular intervals.

Findings

The results of this study indicated that the quality of fresh fenugreek leaves in PP (34 μm) non-perforated package (T3) stored at 15°C and 75 per cent RH was superior to those packed under other treatments on the basis of color retention, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, total phenols and overall acceptability. The produce could be safely stored for 9 days without any adverse effect on bioactive compounds.

Originality/value

Factors leading to deterioration of quality of fresh fenugreek leaves like pigments and phenolic content were largely influenced by in-pack gaseous atmosphere inside the polymeric film packages. Modified atmosphere packaging with different treatments for enhancing shelf life and retention of bioactive compound of fenugreek was carried out in the work.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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