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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Sawinder Kaur, Paramjit S. Panesar, Sushma Gurumayum, Prasad Rasane and Vikas Kumar

The extraction of bioactive compounds such as pigments from natural sources, using different solvents, is a vital downstream process. The present study aims to investigate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The extraction of bioactive compounds such as pigments from natural sources, using different solvents, is a vital downstream process. The present study aims to investigate the effect of different variables, namely, extraction temperature, mass of fermented rice and time on the extraction process of orevactaene and flavanoid pigment from Epicoccum nigrum fermented broken rice.

Design/methodology/approach

Central composite rotatable design under response surface methodology was used for deducing optimized conditions. The pigments were extracted under conditions of extraction temperature (40-70°C), mass of fermented rice (0.5-1.5 g) and time (30-90 min), using water as the extraction media. The experimental data obtained were studied by analysis of variance. Data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The optimum conditions generated by the software for aqueous extraction process, i.e. extraction temperature of 55.7°C, 0.79 g of fermented matter and extraction time of 56.6 min, resulted in a pigment yield of 52.7AU/g orevactaene and 77.2 AU/g flavanoid.

Research limitations/implications

The developed polynomial empirical model for the optimal recovery of the orevactaene and flavanoid pigments could be used for further studies in prediction of yield under specified variable conditions.

Practical implications

The response surface methodology helped in optimizng the conditions for the eco-friendly low-cost aqueous extarction process for orevactaene and flavanoid pigments, produced by Epicoccum nigrum during solid state fermentation of broken rice. This optimization can provide the basis for scaling up for industrial extraction process.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on optimizing the extraction conditions to get the maximum yield of orevactaene and flavanoid pigments, using water as the extracting media. No literature is available on the optimization of the extraction process of Epicoccum nigrum pigments, to the best of the authors’ knowledge.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Adrián Rabadán, Manuel Álvarez-Ortí, José E. Pardo, Ricardo Gómez, Arturo Pardo-Giménez and Miguel Olmeda

The high content of unsaturated fatty acids and the elevated presence of bioactive compounds make pistachio oil a healthy product with great commercial potential. One of…

Abstract

Purpose

The high content of unsaturated fatty acids and the elevated presence of bioactive compounds make pistachio oil a healthy product with great commercial potential. One of the primary constraints for its production is the lack of information regarding oil extraction from an industrial perspective. The purpose of this paper is to ensure the success of pistachio oil production at a commercial scale, attention should be paid to the effect of the main extraction procedures on the characteristics of oil, the consumer acceptance of these oils and their production cost.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparison and evaluation of the physicochemical and sensory characteristics and production cost of oil extracted using two different production lines (hydraulic press and screw press) are considered here.

Findings

Slight differences were found in the physicochemical analysis, but significant differences were identified in the sensory analysis. Consumer judges preferred the oil extracted with the hydraulic press. According to production costs, the break-even value that makes screw press extraction sustainable is €70.4 per litre, while for the hydraulic press it is €91.0 per litre, mainly due to a lower extraction yield and the longer extraction time required. As production costs of both methods are high, pistachio oil quality should prevail, making the use of the hydraulic press more advisable.

Originality/value

Although significant research has been conducted to analyse pistachio oil composition and nutritional value, little attention has been paid to differences that appear regarding consumer preferences and production costs depending on the production method used. This paper provides a comprehensive approach to high-quality pistachio oil production from an industrial perspective.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Satakshi Aggarwal and Tanu Jain

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over conventional techniques for enhanced coloured phytochemicals (pigments) extraction. Presently, numbers of pretreatment techniques are available with some unique feature. It is difficult to choose best pretreatment method to be employed for phytochemicals extraction from different sources. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss different modern pretreatment techniques for extraction with their potential results over conventional techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Research and review articles targeting to the thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques were collected from Google Scholar. The required information has been tabulated and discussed which included qualities of modern pretreatment techniques over conventional techniques, phytochemical extraction and best pretreatment methods for optimized results.

Findings

Every pre-treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages for a particular phytochemical and its extraction from various sources. Enzymes can be used in combinations to enhance final yield like extraction of carotenoids (pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase) from chillies and lycopene (pectinase and cellulase) from tomato. Utilization of each method depends upon many factors such as source of pigment, cost and energy consumption. CO2 pretreatment gives good results for carotenoid extraction from algae sources. Ohmic heating can yield high anthocyanin content. Modifications in conventional blanching has reduced final waste and improvised the properties of pigment.

Originality/value

This study comprises collective information regarding modern pre-treatment for extraction over conventional pre-treatments. The study also covers future trends and certain new hybrid approaches which are still less flourished.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Pei Ni Chuah, Dhalini Nyanasegaram, Ke-Xin Yu, Rasny Mohamed Razik, Samer Al-Dhalli, Chin Siang Kue, Khozirah Shaari and Chean Hui Ng

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and toxicity of Clinacanthus nutans leaves from three conventional extraction methods, i.e. maceration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and toxicity of Clinacanthus nutans leaves from three conventional extraction methods, i.e. maceration, Soxhlet and magnetic stirring.

Design/methodology/approach

Total flavonoid content (TFC) and phenolic content (TPC) were determined using colorimetric method of aluminum chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, respectively. Antioxidant property of C. nutans was evaluated using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxic activity of C. nutans against brine shrimp was evaluated based on LC50 (lethality concentration) after 24 h exposure to the plant extract.

Findings

The highest TPC of C. nutans was observed with Soxhlet extraction method (98.87 ± 10.43 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g) followed by maceration (68.77 ± 2.45 mg of GAE/g) and magnetic stirring (46.75 ± 2.45 mg of GAE/g). Interestingly, remarkable highest TFC was observed with magnetic stirring (568.90 ± 4.85 mg of rutin equivalent (RE)/g) followed by maceration (249.60 ± 2.79 mg of RE/g) and Soxhlet (174.8 ± 1.74 mg of RE/g). On the other hands, the extract obtained using maceration method showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 14.18 mg/mL compared to ascorbic acid 144.36 µg/mL). Cytotoxicity of C. nutans from all extraction methods showed similar LC50 values with maceration (3.81 mg/mL), Soxhlet (2.61 mg/mL) and magnetic stirring (4.56 mg/mL), respectively.

Originality/value

Both phenolic and flavonoids are responsible for the antioxidant activity, of C. nutans extracts. Based on Meyer's toxicity index, all extracts were nontoxic (LC50>1 mg/mL).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Maryam Sardarodiyan and Ali Mohamadi Sani

The study aims to describe the main classes of antioxidants existing in fruit, beverages, vegetables and herbs and the different extraction and application of antioxidants…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to describe the main classes of antioxidants existing in fruit, beverages, vegetables and herbs and the different extraction and application of antioxidants in food. Oxidative degradation of lipids, especially induced by reactive oxygen species, leads to quality deterioration of foods and cosmetics and could have harmful effects on health. A major challenge is to develop tools to assess the antioxidant capacity and real efficacy of these molecules. Recently, many review papers regarding antioxidants from different sources and different extraction and quantification procedures have been published. However, none of them has all the information regarding antioxidants (sources, extraction and application in food).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tries to take a different perspective on antioxidants for the new researcher involved in this field.

Findings

Antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and beverages play an important role in human health, for example, preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases and lowering the incidence of different diseases. A number of plant products act as scavengers of free radical species and so have been classified as antioxidants. Antioxidants are an important group of food additives that have the ability to protect against detrimental change of oxidizable nutrients and consequently they extend shelf-life of foods.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the antioxidants present in foods are phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, but their efficacy in food for the prevention of oxidation or in the body for dealing with oxidative stress and its consequences depends on different factors.

Originality/value

This study collected the last finding in the field of sources and applications of natural antioxidants.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Gemeda Gebino, Gezu Ketema, Adina Fenta, Gideon Kipchirchir Rotich and Ayalew Debebe

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract of Moringa stenopetala seed oil, by organic solvents (methanol and hexane), for its efficacy against microbial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract of Moringa stenopetala seed oil, by organic solvents (methanol and hexane), for its efficacy against microbial activity on cotton fabrics. The selected microbes for the study were two types of bacteria which are Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli).

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of bacteria, Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) were used. The extract was applied on fabrics at a concentration of 5, 10 and 15 g/L using the pad-dry-cure method and antibacterial activities verified by the bacterial-growth reduction method. The treated fabrics were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against the bacteria before and after 15 washing cycles. The extract was examined for molecular structural change using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and physical properties of the fabric; tensile strength, elongation, air permeability, stiffness and wettability were evaluated.

Findings

Results showed treated fabrics reduces the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria from 77.6%–100% before wash and 45.8%–85.2% after wash for both extract concentrations. Comparing extracts, hexane extract reduces all bacteria growth than methanol extract for both extract concentrations while S. aureus was more susceptible to antimicrobial agents than E. coli at a lower concentration. As result, the tensile strength and air permeability were relatively lower than untreated ones without affecting the comfort properties of the fabric.

Originality/value

This study indicates that the Moringa stenopetala seed oil extract has a strong antimicrobial activity.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Ismahen Essaidi, Ahmed Snoussi, Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier, Hervé Casabianca and Nabiha Bouzouita

The paper aims to analyse the effect of acid hydrolysis on the chemical composition and the biological activities of Rubia tinctorum collected from the south of Tunisia…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyse the effect of acid hydrolysis on the chemical composition and the biological activities of Rubia tinctorum collected from the south of Tunisia. It proposes to clarify the relationship between alizarin content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rubia extract.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for analytical tools (HPLC) and the in-vitro study of biological activities, namely, the antioxidant activity which is evaluated using the radical scavenging assay (ABTS) and ferric reducing power assay (FRAP); the antimicrobial activity is tested using the wells agar diffusion method.

Findings

The paper provides information about the positive effect of acid hydrolysis, namely, the enhancement of alizarin content in the extract which has increased its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the relationship between the chemical composition, biological activities and colour enhancement.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Mariana Souza Rocha, Luiz Célio Souza Rocha, Marcia Barreto da Silva Feijó, Paula Luiza Limongi dos Santos Marotta and Samanta Cardozo Mourão

The mucilage of the Linum usitatissimum L. seed (Linseed) is one of the natural mucilages that presents a great potential to provide a food hydrocolloid with potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The mucilage of the Linum usitatissimum L. seed (Linseed) is one of the natural mucilages that presents a great potential to provide a food hydrocolloid with potential applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries. To increase the yield and quality of linseed oil during its production process, it is necessary to previously extract its polysaccharides. Because of this, flax mucilage production can be made viable as a byproduct of oil extraction process, which is already a product of high commercial value consolidated in the market. Thus, the purpose of this work is to optimize the mucilage extraction process of L. usitatissimum L. using the normal-boundary intersection (NBI) multiobjective optimization method.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, the variables of the process of polysaccharide extraction from different sources are optimized using the response surface methodology. However, when the optimal points of the responses are conflicting it is necessary to study the best conditions to achieve a balance between these conflicting objectives (trade-offs) and to explore the available options it is necessary to formulate an optimization problem with multiple objectives. The multiobjective optimization method used in this work was the NBI developed to find uniformly distributed and continuous Pareto optimal solutions for a nonlinear multiobjective problem.

Findings

The optimum extraction point to obtain the maximum fiber concentration in the extracted material was pH 3.81, temperature of 46°C, time of 13.46 h. The maximum extraction yield of flaxseed was pH 6.45, temperature of 65°C, time of 14.41 h. This result confirms the trade-off relationship between the objectives. NBI approach was able to find uniformly distributed Pareto optimal solutions, which allows to analyze the behavior of the trade-off relationship. Thus, the decision-maker can set extraction conditions to achieve desired characteristics in mucilage.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper is to confirm the existence of a trade-off relationship between the productivity parameter (yield) and the quality parameter (fiber concentration in the extracted material) during the flaxseed mucilage extraction process. The NBI approach was able to find uniformly distributed Pareto optimal solutions, which allows us to analyze the behavior of the trade-off relationship. This allows the decision-making to the extraction conditions according to the desired characteristics of the final product, thus being able to direct the extraction for the best applicability of the mucilage.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Anshu Sharma, Anju Kumari Dhiman and Surekha Attri

Internal fluffy portion along with fibrous strands of ripe pumpkin is considered as waste in processing industries though it contains sufficient amount of ß-carotene…

Abstract

Purpose

Internal fluffy portion along with fibrous strands of ripe pumpkin is considered as waste in processing industries though it contains sufficient amount of ß-carotene pigment. The purpose of this paper is to use the leftover fluffy portion of ripe pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) after the use of its flesh for the purpose of processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were analyzed statistically by following a complete randomized design (CRD). All analysis were performed using the software OPSTAT.

Findings

One hour pre-enzymatic treatment before solvent extraction showed significant improvement in extraction yield in comparison to the isolation of ß-carotene pigment through solvent only. Temperature time combination was optimized as 40°C for 2 h during solvent extraction to obtain maximum yield irrespective of the type of extraction method used.

Practical implications

Extracted carotene pigment can further be used as a natural food colorant in processed food products not only to enhance the color appeal but also it improves the nutritional value of the product as ß-carotene acts as a precursor of vitamin A.

Social implications

Coloring agents of natural origin are becoming famous among society due to their health benefits. Consumers are becoming reluctant to use synthetic colors because of the undesirable allergic reactions caused by them, so carotene bio-pigment produced is a natural coloring compound with wide application in the food sector.

Originality/value

Even though few researchers have worked on the extraction of carotene pigment from pumpkin, but no researcher has reported the use of a waste fluffy portion of C. maxima for extraction of ß-carotene pigment.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Gabriela Souza, Suelen Siqueira dos Santos, Rita Bergamasco, Jessica Antigo and Grasiele Scaramal Madrona

The purpose of this study is to extract psyllium mucilage and evaluate its antioxidant compounds (in the best extraction condition) and its application in a chocolate drink.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extract psyllium mucilage and evaluate its antioxidant compounds (in the best extraction condition) and its application in a chocolate drink.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the extraction by ultrasonic bath was evaluated, followed by water bath extraction, and as there was no difference between the methods, a water bath experimental design was carried out to evaluate the best extraction conditions for psyllium mucilage, having response variables, yield and emulsion stability. A chocolate drink with psyllium mucilage was produced and evaluated in the best extraction condition to compare with xanthan gum.

Findings

The best extraction conditions for psyllium mucilage were 60°C for 2 h and 1:80 ratio (seed:water). It can be verified that psyllium is rich in antioxidant compounds (0.71 mg GAE/g and 6.67 Mmol ET/g by 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid-6), and 9.65 Mmol ET/g for ferric reducing antioxidant power), which can greatly contribute to its application in food products. The use of mucilage in chocolate drink is feasible, as among its several attributes there was no significant difference between samples, highlighting texture attributes in which mucilage samples did not differ from the control containing xanthan gum (being the grades approximated 6.84).

Originality/value

Psyllium presented several antioxidant compounds that are very desirable in food products. In the chocolate drink, psyllium mucilage showed potential use as a thickener, so it is important for further studies to improve the product’s development, but it is currently feasible to be produced in an industrial scale.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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