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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2018

Vania Silva Carvalho and Ana Carolina Conti-Silva

This paper aims to examine the bioactive compounds and texture properties of cereal bars formulated with banana peel flour during storage.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the bioactive compounds and texture properties of cereal bars formulated with banana peel flour during storage.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven cereal bars were produced and stored during 11 months, under vacuum and protected from the light. The total phenolic compounds, the activity antioxidant by ABTS [2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] method, the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) method expressed as EC50 (concentration required to reduce the original amount of free radicals by 50 per cent) and texture properties were evaluated over the storage period.

Findings

In general, total phenolic compounds decreased during storage (from 4.19 to 1.11 mg GAE. g-1f.w.). Although the total antioxidant activity (ABTS method) increased during the fifth month, it reduced during storage (from 3.41 to 0.30 µmol TE.g-1f.w.); and the EC50 was not modified in many formulations, though it decreased in other formulations during storage period (from 3913 to 19221 g fruit.g-1 DPPH). The force of rupture began to increase in the fourth month (reaching 62.4 N), and hardness began to increase in the ninth month (reaching 444 N). The formulation and time factors influenced the total phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity (ABTS method), force of rupture and hardness, while EC50 was only influenced by the formulation (p-value = 0.001). A principal component analysis showed that time had little effect on the most important characteristics considered in description of the cereal bars.

Originality/value

Cereal bars can be consumed up to the third month of storage, considering the texture of the products. Moreover, the presence of bioactive compounds in cereal bars depends on the addition of banana peel flour, which it contributes to the insertion of total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity in cereal bars, aggregating functional properties in these products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira, Eliete da Silva Bispo and Maria da P. Spínola Miranda

Phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, are nutritionally important for their antioxidant activities and protective functions against disease risk caused by oxidative…

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Abstract

Purpose

Phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, are nutritionally important for their antioxidant activities and protective functions against disease risk caused by oxidative stress. These compounds are primarily found in fruits, and mangoes are an important source. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the antioxidant activities of mangoes cultivated in three different ways were evaluated by their ability to capture free radicals using the DPPH radical.

Findings

The results showed that the biodynamic mangoes had highest antioxidant activity in mature‐green and ripe fruits, while for those of organic origin the antioxidant activity was highest in unripe fruits. The organic mangoes also showed highest values of phenolic compounds at all maturation stages. The mangoes from conventional crops had lower values for all parameters evaluated in this study than the organically and biodynamically cultivated fruits.

Originality/value

This work brings an important contribution in the field of agriculture at a time when organic and biodynamic systems of cultivation are an alternative to the conventional system and that pollutes the environment and produces food that contains quantities of chemical contaminants that can damage the health of the consumer. The comparison in phenolic compounds content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in biodynamic, organic and conventional systems is original and of great importance, showing that the ecological cropping systems are less harmful to the environment and promote improvements to the chemical composition of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Cassiane da Silva Oliveira, Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Maria Spínola Miranda and Eliete da Silva Bispo

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four…

1100

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the importance attributed to the phenolic compounds present in cocoa samples for their beneficial effects on health, the purpose of this paper was to analyze four samples of organically and conventionally cultivated cocoa from the south area of Bahia for their composition of phenolics, flavonoids and their antioxidant activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Non‐fermented beans, fermented beans, roasted nibs and cocoa liquor were analyzed using spectrophotometry.

Findings

In general, the samples that contained a higher level of phenolics and flavonoids were the roasted nibs and the non‐fermented samples in both cultivation systems. The fermented beans and the liquor contained a lower level.

Practical implications

The relationship between the concentration of total phenols and the capacity to “mop up” free radicals from the cocoa extracts appears to be highly significant. The extracts with a higher concentration of phenols also show higher antioxidant activity (non‐fermented beans extracts and organically and conventionally cultivated nibs).

Originality/value

This work brings an important contribution in the field of agriculture at a time when organic systems of cultivation are an alternative to the conventional system and that pollutes the environment and produces food that contains quantities of chemical contaminants that can damage the health of the consumer. The comparison in phenolic compounds content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional systems is original and of great importance, showing that the ecological cropping systems are less harmful to the environment and promote improvements to the chemical composition of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

S. O. Salawu, O. F. Alao, O. F. Faloye, A. A. Akindahunsi, A. A. Boligon and M. L. Athayde

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the antioxidant properties of two phenolic-rich varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase potential after in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the antioxidant properties of two phenolic-rich varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase potential after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with the aim of establishing their actual antioxidant and nutraceutical potential after their passage through the gastrointestinal tract upon consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Two local rice varieties, commonly referred to as “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice commonly grown in Benue State, a middle belt region of Nigeria and south western regions of Nigeria, respectively, were locally processed. Each of the processed grains were divided into two portions; one portion was left uncooked, while the second portion was boiled conventionally as eaten, dried and subsequently milled into powder. The milled samples of the raw and boiled rice were treated with acidified methanol to obtain the methanol extracts; another portion of each samples was subjected to in vitro enzyme digestion using standard methods to mimic human digestion; and the third portion was treated using the same scheme of in vitro digestion without the sets of enzyme which was used to serve as a control for enzyme treatment. The quali-quantitative phenolic profiles of the two local varieties were carried out with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant potential and anti-cholinesterase action of the methanolic extracts, the simulated in vitro digested model and the enzyme-treated controls of the rice samples were determined using standard methods and data obtained were subjected to ANOVA; the differences of means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT).

Findings

The quali-quantitative assessment of phenolic compounds in the two studied local varieties revealed the presence of some phenolic acids and flavonoids, with a decreased level of most of the identified phenolic compounds after boiling. In vitro enzyme-digested rice for both raw and boiled rice samples showed significantly higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+) scavenging and NO− inhibitory activities than the aqueous-methanolic extracts and the enzyme-treated controls. The aqueous-methanolic extracts displayed a higher 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl radical scavenging activity and inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid oxidation in rat’s brain and liver homogenate than that displayed by the in vitro enzyme-digested samples. In vitro enzyme-digested and boiled “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice and raw “Ofada” rice have the potential of inhibiting acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. While methanolic extracts of raw and boiled “Ofada” and “Gboko” rice exhibited the potential to inhibit butrylcholinesterase activity. The result of this paper indicates that the selected rice varieties possess antioxidant capacities which are better released after the simulated in vitro enzyme digestion; the result also showed the anti-cholinesterase potential of the studied rice grains and, therefore, they can be considered as nutraceutical health supplements.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the antioxidant potentials of the phenolic-containing two Nigerian local rice varieties and established their anti-cholinesterase potential after simulated in vitro enzyme digestion.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Vinti Singh, Jyotsana Singh, Radha Kushwaha, Monika Singh, Sandeep Kumar and Awadhesh Kumar Rai

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of…

Abstract

Purpose

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of mahua are investigated. This study aims to estimate the different mineral contents, polyphenols compounds and antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, reducing power, free radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

Flavonoids were identified and quantified in yellow flowers and fruits of M. longifolia tree by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Low molecular weight carbohydrates were determined by the ICBio scan, a specific method for determining of carbohydrates. Mineral content is determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Physicochemical, nutritional and mineral properties of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA).

Findings

Ascorbic acid, gallic acid (GA), quercetin and myrcetin were the phenolic compounds identified and quantified in mahua flower and fruit extracts. Sugar profiling of mahua flowers and fruits confirmed the presence of inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, dextrose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose and maltose. The mineral content of Na, K, Mg and Ca was present in quite a good amount in all samples. Total phenolic content (TPC) was significantly high in mahua flower (25.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) followed by mahua unripe (15.8 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) and ripe fruit (14.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) at p = 5%. In contrast, total flavonoid contents (TFCs) were highest in ripe fruit, then mahua flower and unripe fruit. Positive correlations were predicted by PCA for mahua flower with TPC, antioxidant activity assays and minerals except for Na; ripe fruit with TFC and Na; and unripe fruit with maltose and sorbitol.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the application of LIBS for the determination of elements present in the mahua flowers and fruits and reveals that mahua can be a good source of nutrients. Sugar profiling of mahua flower showed that it is a rich source of reducing and non-reducing sugar, proving that mahua flower juice can be used as a natural sweetener in the development of different food products, namely, biscuits, cookies, cake, jam, jelly, juice and squash.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2021

Ana Carolina Dias Basso, Pollyana Mara Ribeiro Machado, Jaísa Oliveira Chaves, Paola Machado Parreiras and Camila Carvalho Menezes

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of black sesame germination on its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of black sesame germination on its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Germination occurred at constant temperature and humidity (35 °C and 95 ± 5%) for 72 h. The levels of moisture, protein, lipids, ash, total dietary fibre and fractions, carbohydrates, calories, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined.

Findings

With germination, there was a significant increase in moisture and protein content, as well as a reduction in the other parameters assessed in terms of nutritional composition. When analysing bioactive compounds, no significant change was found in the content of phenolic compounds; however, there was a reduction in antioxidant capacity according to the three methods tested, which may be related to the characteristics of the grain itself, the conditions used for germination, or even the process of extracting phenolic compounds for analysis. Other conditions for the germination of black sesame using different times and temperatures should be evaluated in future studies.

Originality/value

This is an original research article, which has an industrial and health impact by transmitting highly relevant responses on nutrition and food. The novelty of this research is the fact of studying the germination of black sesame on the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, total dietary fibre and fractions, carbohydrates and calories), levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. These results can help improve the procedures adopted by the food industries and also in nutritional conduct, as the germination process leads to a change in the nutritional composition, especially with regard to protein synthesis, which is relevant, once it is an interesting protein option. However, it also brings us responses to reductions in important nutritional compounds.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Juliana Villasante, Johanan Espinosa-Ramírez, Esther Pérez-Carrillo, Erick Heredia-Olea and MariaPilar Almajano

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been highlighted as an alternative to obtain valuable compounds using agro-industrial wastes as a substrate. The present study evaluated…

Abstract

Purpose

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been highlighted as an alternative to obtain valuable compounds using agro-industrial wastes as a substrate. The present study evaluated the impact of extrusion combined with SSF on the production of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity using pecan nut shell (PWS) as a substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

PWS and extruded pecan nut shell (PWSE) were fermented for 120 h at 30°C using Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae). Samples were withdrawn from incubator at 6 h, 12 h and then every 12 h until 120 h fermentation. PWS and PWSE samples were extracted. The total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) extracts were characterized from the resulting extracts.

Findings

The use of PWSE yielded higher A. oryzae biomass and at a higher rate after 120 h of fermentation (PWS 75.74% vs PWSE 87.50%). In general, the TPC and the RSA increased with fermentation time. However, the PWSE yielded significantly higher (p < 0.05) TPC and RSA values after SSF in comparison to the nonextruded PWS. Condensed tannins showed different trends depending on the fermented substrate. Overall, results showed that the extrusion pretreatment joint with the SSF represents a good alternative to raise the phenolic content and antiradical activity of lignocellulosic materials such as PWSs.

Originality/value

This study offers valuable information that may be used by the pecan walnut industry to valorize the shell coproduct as a substrate to produce functional ingredients or fungal enzymes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Pei Yun Wong and Seok Tyug Tan

Literature has consistently reported that coloured plants are rich in dietary bioactive compounds. Therefore, this study aims to compare the total phenolic content and…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature has consistently reported that coloured plants are rich in dietary bioactive compounds. Therefore, this study aims to compare the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities in selected coloured plants (blue butterfly pea flower, roselle calyx, yellow bell pepper and purple sweet potato).

Design/methodology/approach

Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu assay, while antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-dophenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays.

Findings

TPC was reported from 273.15 ± 19.57 µg GAE/g DW (blue butterfly pea flower extract) to 363.10 ± 7.94 µg GAE/g DW (roselle calyx extract). Antioxidant activities as determined by DPPH assay ranged from 17.26 ± 0.06% (purple sweet potato extract) to 83.38 ± 1.04% (yellow bell pepper extract); while for FRAP assay was 4.92 ± 0.18 mg Fe (II)/g DW (purple sweet potato extract) to 128.33 ± 11.59 mg Fe (II)/g DW (roselle calyx extract). On the other hand, TEAC values were in the range of 15.26 ± 2.83 µg Trolox/g DW (roselle calyx extract) to 364.27 ± 7.14 µg Trolox/g DW (blue butterfly pea flower extract). A significant moderate positive correlation was observed between TPC and DPPH (r = 0.562) as well as TPC and FRAP (r = 0.686).

Originality/value

This study was the first to compare the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities in coloured plants. Findings derived from this study can be extended to the formulation of natural food colourants and nutraceuticals.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício and Elisa Yoko Hirooka

Many factors can influence the bioactive compounds in cocoa beans. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the bioactive compound profile of 12 cocoa bean clones…

Abstract

Purpose

Many factors can influence the bioactive compounds in cocoa beans. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the bioactive compound profile of 12 cocoa bean clones produced in Bahia’s Southern region.

Design/methodology/approach

Total phenolic content, total flavonoids and total anthocyanins were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Caffeic acid, caffeine, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin contents were determined using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Photodiode Array Detector. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out using to determine the variability of the results found in relation to the clones studied.

Findings

The authors observed variations in the bioactive compound content between the analyzed cocoa clones. The SRN clone showed the highest levels of phenolic content, flavonoids, caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin. PCA showed that all the clones had unique characteristics related to the composition of their bioactive compounds content, classifying each clone in a well-defined manner.

Originality/value

This work is an important contribution for the characterization of new cocoa bean clones in relation to their content of bioactive compounds. The information reported in this paper can be decisive in the choice of the variety of cocoa in the production of chocolate with high bioactive compounds content and claim of functional property.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2022

Salvatore Ciano, Lucia Maddaloni, Mattia Rapa and Anna Maria Tarola

Hempseed oil is a valuable emerging food product with recognized health positivity due to its composition. The paper aims to propose a multi-methodological chemical…

Abstract

Purpose

Hempseed oil is a valuable emerging food product with recognized health positivity due to its composition. The paper aims to propose a multi-methodological chemical profiling of nine organic hempseed oil samples (different brands and prices) from the retail market, followed by multivariate data analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, total carotenoids content, phenolic compounds, total phenolic content and anti-radical activity (DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays) were determined through chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. Multivariate (explorative and discriminant) analyses were applied to the profiling results to classify samples according to information claimed on the label, i.e. geographical origin (EU vs. non-EU), extraction procedure (cold-pressed vs. not cold-pressed) and price (lower or higher than 10 € per 250 mL).

Findings

The chemical analysis confirmed the 3 to 1 ?-6:?-3 ratio and the excellent content in antioxidant species. However, no specific trend of results can be stressed. PCA (after variables selection) highlighted a natural grouping of samples, so three discriminant analyses were performed: kNN, Naïve Bayes and LDA. The best classification efficiency was reached for the extraction procedure verification (93–100% correct classification), followed by geographical origin (83–94%) and prices (81.6–90%).

Originality/value

The integrated approach of chemical profiling coupled with multivariate analyses allowed the assessment of label information of the analyzed organic hempseed oil samples, despite the wide heterogeneity of the selected samples.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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