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Article

Carlos Pestana Barros, Vincenzo Scafarto and António Samagaio

This paper analyses the cost efficiency of Italian football clubs using a stochastic frontier model. The frontier estimation confirmed that the model fits the data well…

Abstract

This paper analyses the cost efficiency of Italian football clubs using a stochastic frontier model. The frontier estimation confirmed that the model fits the data well with all coefficients correctly signed and in line with the theoretical requirements. Marketing and Sponsorship is taken into account as an explanatory variable and the factors which contributed to these findings, as well as other policy implications, are provided.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Taylor Boyd, Grace Docken and John Ruggiero

The purpose of this paper is to improve the estimation of the production frontier in cases where outliers exist. We focus on the case when outliers appear above the true

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the estimation of the production frontier in cases where outliers exist. We focus on the case when outliers appear above the true frontier due to measurement error.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA) to allow observed points above the frontier. They supplement SDEA with assumptions on the efficiency and show that the true frontier in the presence of outliers can be derived.

Findings

This paper finds that the authors’ maximum likelihood approach outperforms super-efficiency measures. Using simulations, this paper shows that SDEA is a useful model for outlier detection.

Originality/value

The model developed in this paper is original; the authors add distributional assumptions to derive the optimal quantile with SDEA to remove outliers. The authors believe that the value of the paper will lead to many citations because real-world data are often subject to outliers.

Details

Journal of Centrum Cathedra, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1851-6599

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Article

Carlos Pestana Barros and Ricardo Sellers‐Rubio

The aim of the paper is to estimate the cost efficiency of supermarket chains in the Spanish retailing industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to estimate the cost efficiency of supermarket chains in the Spanish retailing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology applied is based on a random stochastic frontier model that enables separation of the covariates in the cost function into homogeneous and heterogeneous variables. The methodology is applied to panel data on a sample of 78 supermarket chains between 2001 and 2004.

Findings

The results reveal high levels of cost inefficiency in the Spanish retail sector. The results also reveal that the random frontier models better describe Spanish retailers than homogeneous frontier models.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisation of the conclusions of the study to the whole sector should be made with caution, given the fact that only one of the players in the distribution channel has been analysed.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of the importance that cost efficiency has for their own firms. Further, a common government retailing policy will be unable to reach all retailing companies, since heterogeneity exists.

Originality/value

For the first time, the cost efficiency of the intermediaries in the Spanish retailing sector is studied.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part

Eri Nakamura, Takuya Urakami and Kazuhiko Kakamu

This chapter examines the effect of the division of labor from a Bayesian viewpoint. While organizational reforms are crucial for cost reduction in the Japanese water…

Abstract

This chapter examines the effect of the division of labor from a Bayesian viewpoint. While organizational reforms are crucial for cost reduction in the Japanese water supply industry, the effect of labor division in intra-organizational units on total costs has, to the best of our knowledge, not been examined empirically. Fortunately, a one-time survey of 79 Japanese water suppliers conducted in 2010 enables us to examine the effect. To examine this problem, a cost stochastic frontier model with endogenous regressors is considered in a cross-sectional setting, because the cost and the division of labor are regarded as simultaneously determined factors. From the empirical analysis, we obtain the following results: (1) total costs rise when the level of labor division becomes high; (2) ignoring the endogeneity leads to the underestimation of the impact of labor division on total costs; and (3) the estimation bias on inefficiency can be mitigated for relatively efficient organizations by including the labor division variable in the model, while the bias for relatively inefficient organizations needs to be controlled by considering its endogeneity. In summary, our results indicate that integration of internal sections is better than specialization in terms of costs for Japanese water supply organizations.

Details

Topics in Identification, Limited Dependent Variables, Partial Observability, Experimentation, and Flexible Modeling: Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-419-9

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Article

Zhaobin Fan, Ruohan Zhang, Xiaotong Liu and Lin Pan

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in 69 countries along the Belt and Road over the period of 2003-2013.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in 69 countries along the Belt and Road over the period of 2003-2013.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper defines the extent of the Belt and Road in terms of geographical boundaries, justifying the application of the stochastic frontier gravity model to the FDI analysis, and then constructing a frontier regression model to assess the China’s outward FDI efficiency and it determinants in countries along the Belt and Road.

Findings

Regarding the core gravity parameter estimates, China’s outward FDI was highly consistent with the gravity model. As far as policy parameters are concerned, China’s outward FDI was significantly restricted by some man-made barriers in host countries. According to the estimated FDI efficiency scores, China has huge outward FDI potential in countries along the Belt and Road. In general, China’s outward FDI efficiency demonstrated a consistent uptrend from the perspectives of both FDI flows and stocks over the period of 2003-2013. Although China’s outward FDI performance indicated a very uneven pattern across different countries and periods, there were no significant performance differences between the Road and Belt.

Practical implications

The Belt and Road initiative can be largely beneficial to China’s outward FDI, but the specific framework of cooperation should be designed on the basis of determinants of China’s outward FDI. The regional cooperation with the Road countries should mainly focus on the removal of business barriers and financial barriers. The regional cooperation with the Belt countries should mainly concern the improvement of local intellectual property protection, the reduction of local tax burden, and removal of business barriers and financial barriers.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best knowledge, no existing literature has specifically examined the efficiency of China’s outward FDI in the countries along the Belt and Road and its determinants.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part

Gholamreza Hajargasht and William E. Griffiths

We consider a semiparametric panel stochastic frontier model where one-sided firm effects representing inefficiencies are correlated with the regressors. A form of the…

Abstract

We consider a semiparametric panel stochastic frontier model where one-sided firm effects representing inefficiencies are correlated with the regressors. A form of the Chamberlain-Mundlak device is used to relate the logarithm of the effects to the regressors resulting in a lognormal distribution for the effects. The function describing the technology is modeled nonparametrically using penalized splines. Both Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches to estimation are considered, with an emphasis on Bayesian estimation. A Monte Carlo experiment is used to investigate the consequences of ignoring correlation between the effects and the regressors, and choosing the wrong functional form for the technology.

Details

Topics in Identification, Limited Dependent Variables, Partial Observability, Experimentation, and Flexible Modeling: Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-419-9

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Article

J. Douglas Bate and Robert E. Johnston

To encourage top management to recognize the need for adding new value to their organizations and commit to the creation of new internal capabilities for growth via the

Abstract

Purpose

To encourage top management to recognize the need for adding new value to their organizations and commit to the creation of new internal capabilities for growth via the exploration of their company's strategic frontier.

Design/methodology/approach

Explains how the CEO can select a team and initiate a project to identify strategy frontier options.

Findings

The authors’ experience suggests that the team should first explore all areas of future growth potential in and adjacent to their industry, creating a long list of potential options. Identifying a breadth of strategic frontier options is more important than a depth of information on any one option.

Research limitations/implications

More case studies of strategy frontier projects in action, with quantitative results, would be valuable.

Practical implications

The goal of this frontier team is to identify a portfolio of innovative new business opportunities that exist on the strategic frontier. It will be the responsibility of another, more qualified group with quantitative skills (strategic planners, business development) to develop a detailed business design and determine its profitability and attractiveness to the company.

Originality/value

The article offers top management an innovative how‐to approach to finding truly new growth opportunities.

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Article

Thanh Pham Thien Nguyen

Given some similarities in the banking industry and economic condition across Vietnam, China and India, the purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the cost and…

Abstract

Purpose

Given some similarities in the banking industry and economic condition across Vietnam, China and India, the purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the cost and revenue efficiency of banks across these three countries over the period 1995–2011.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the meta-frontier of Battese et al. (2004) and O’Donnell et al. (2008) which envelops the three country-frontiers to measure the cost and revenue efficiency of banks in these three countries.

Findings

This study finds that Chinese banks adopt the most advanced cost-reducing and revenue-increasing technology when providing banking products to their customers, followed by Indian banks. Indian banks are as cost-efficient as Chinese banks, but more cost-efficient than Vietnamese banks. Indian banks are as revenue-efficient as Vietnamese banks, but less revenue-efficient than Chinese banks. Over the analysis period, banks in the three countries have employed the more advanced technology in reducing costs, and they have become more cost-efficient. Nonetheless, for revenue side, the improvement in revenue efficiency and adopted technology are observed only in Chinese banks. The main source of meta-cost and meta-revenue inefficiency of these banking systems stems from undertaking inferior technology rather than managerial ability. Results from comparison across bank types show that state-owned banks (SOBs) are more cost and revenue-efficient than privately owned banks, with Indian and Chinese SOBs being the most cost- and revenue-efficient, respectively.

Practical implications

To improve meta-cost efficiency, Chinese and Indian banks would constitute a relevant benchmark for Vietnamese banks, while to improve meta-revenue efficiency, Chinese banks would be considered as a relevant benchmark for Vietnamese and Indian banks.

Originality/value

This is the first study which utilizes meta-frontier to compare cost and revenue efficiency and technology across banks in Vietnam, China and India.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article

GLENVILLE RAWLINS

A firm is technically efficient when it produces the maximum level of output for a given level of input on the assumption that technology is fixed. Although the above…

Abstract

A firm is technically efficient when it produces the maximum level of output for a given level of input on the assumption that technology is fixed. Although the above definition of technical efficiency has been around for decades, economists have, for the most part, been estimating average production functions (i.e. production functions that assume that all firms are technically efficient except for random noise), and then proceeding to make inferences regarding the potential of firms from this average production function.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article

Taciana Mareth, Antonio Marcio Tavares Thomé, Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira and Luiz Felipe Scavarda

The purpose of this paper is to complement and extend previous literature reviews on Technical Efficiency (TE) in dairy farms, analysing the effects of different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to complement and extend previous literature reviews on Technical Efficiency (TE) in dairy farms, analysing the effects of different methodologies and study-specific characteristics on Mean TE (MTE).

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers independently conducted a systematic review of more than 400 abstracts and 85 full-text papers. Original keywords were applied to seven key electronic databases. Results from a meta-regression analysis of 85 published papers totalling 443 TE distributions in dairy farms worldwide are discussed.

Findings

The variation in the MTE indexes reported in the literature can be explained by the methodology of estimations (method of estimation, functional form of frontier models, model dimensionality), the farms geographical location and farm size. Additionally, the results suggest that, given the state of technology prevailing in each country at the time that the studies on TE were conducted, dairy farmers in the sample could increase milk output by 20.9 per cent (level of inefficiency), on average, if they produce on their frontiers.

Originality/value

This study makes two important contributions: first, it updates and compares previous works on frontier estimation of TE in dairy farms; and second, it adds two dimensions of dairy farms, size (herd and land area) and economic development, to the known differentials of TE measurement.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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