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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

Martha Crowley

Managers have a pressing need to contribute to profitability and an ethical responsibility to manage in ways that promote a sense of justice and fair play. But do these…

Abstract

Managers have a pressing need to contribute to profitability and an ethical responsibility to manage in ways that promote a sense of justice and fair play. But do these goals conflict with one another? More importantly, can managerial citizenship enhance firms’ financial success, and does its absence harm the bottom line? Answering these questions is crucial to understanding the future of work, given that pursuit of greater profits and productivity encourages employers to embrace neoliberal practices known to erode trust and reciprocity in work organizations. Survey data and ethnographic case studies have shown that managerial practices promoting organizational trust, reciprocity, and a sense of organizational justice generate worker satisfaction, commitment, and effort. Until now, however, sociologists have lacked data linking workers’ experiences to direct indicators of firm performance. Evaluating findings from survey research and a meta-analysis of 263 studies (involving nearly 1.4 million employees in 192 firms across 49 industries) conducted by Gallup, I demonstrate that managerial citizenship behaviors enhance growth, productivity, profitability, and earnings, while limiting costly problems such as absenteeism, turnover, accidents, defects, and theft. I conclude that managers have a fiscal responsibility as well as an ethical responsibility to adhere to behavioral norms promoting organizational trust, reciprocity, and justice.

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A Gedenkschrift to Randy Hodson: Working with Dignity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-727-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Lorena Leocádio Gomes, Felicio Bruzzi Barros, Samuel Silva Penna and Roque Luiz da Silva Pitangueira

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the capabilities of the generalized finite element method (GFEM) under the context of the geometrically nonlinear analysis. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the capabilities of the generalized finite element method (GFEM) under the context of the geometrically nonlinear analysis. The effect of large displacements and deformations, typical of such analysis, induces a significant distortion of the element mesh, penalizing the quality of the standard finite element method approximation. The main concern here is to identify how the enrichment strategy from GFEM, that usually makes this method less susceptible to the mesh distortion, may be used under the total and updated Lagrangian formulations.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing computational environment that allows linear and nonlinear analysis, has been used to implement the analysis with geometric nonlinearity by GFEM, using different polynomial enrichments.

Findings

The geometrically nonlinear analysis using total and updated Lagrangian formulations are considered in GFEM. Classical problems are numerically simulated and the accuracy and robustness of the GFEM are highlighted.

Originality/value

This study shows a novel study about GFEM analysis using a complete polynomial space to enrich the approximation of the geometrically nonlinear analysis adopting the total and updated Lagrangian formulations. This strategy guarantees the good precision of the analysis for higher level of mesh distortion in the case of the total Lagrangian formulation. On the other hand, in the updated Lagrangian approach, the need of updating the degrees of freedom during the incremental and iterative solution are for the first time identified and discussed here.

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Aleksander Aristovnik, Damijana Keržič, Nina Tomaževič and Lan Umek

In higher education, blended learning is already strongly established. The e-courses vary in their structure, assignments, prompt examinations, interaction between…

Abstract

Purpose

In higher education, blended learning is already strongly established. The e-courses vary in their structure, assignments, prompt examinations, interaction between students and teachers, etc. Such aspects may influence the students’ perception of usefulness of blended learning. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors which influence that feeling and to look for possible differences in perception by different subgroups of students.

Design/methodology/approach

Students in the survey evaluated 13 aspects of e-courses in which they were enrolled. From enrolment documents, additional demographic data were collected (gender, high-school grade, study programme, etc.). A multiple linear regression was used with perceived usefulness as the response variable and the 12 other e-course aspects as predictors. Further, the same regression analysis was performed on different subgroups of students based on demographical data.

Findings

The empirical results showed that the general impression regarding the e-courses, their consistency with the face-to-face teaching and the teachers’ responsiveness had a significant influence on the students’ perception of the usefulness of e-courses. Further analysis based on demographic data revealed several subgroups of students where the perception of usefulness was influenced by different aspects. The teachers’ feedback and supplementing the tutorial play an important role in higher years of study, while the general impression loses its influence.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to explore the importance of demographic determinants of perceived usefulness of e-learning tools in EAPAA (European Association of Public Administration Accreditation)-accredited undergraduate public administration programmes.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Zahid Iqbal and Shekar Shetty

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of oil price shocks on capital spending in relation to the following firm characteristics: firm size, debt ratio, growth…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of oil price shocks on capital spending in relation to the following firm characteristics: firm size, debt ratio, growth prospects, earnings and key sectors of the oil and gas industry.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the impact of oil price changes on each of the sample firm’s capital spending, the authors utilize a vector autoregressive (VAR) framework which requires that the oil price and the firm’s capital spending series are stationary. The authors employ the Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) procedure to test if these series are stationary in levels or in their first difference. Since the results show that the ADF values for adjusted oil price and for all but one capital spending series are stationary, the authors perform VAR analysis using the level data.

Findings

The impulse response results show that there is a positive relationship between oil price shocks and capital spending by the oil and gas firms. In other words, the oil and gas firms reduce (increase) capital spending when oil prices fall (rise). The responses are highest around q3. Additionally, the responses are stronger for the exploration and production, drilling, and oil services firms, and weaker for the refining firms (oil majors). Also, the small, low-earnings and low p/e firms exhibit the highest responses to oil price shocks. The impulse response results for the debt quartiles are inconclusive.

Practical implications

The findings shed light into the impact of oil price shocks on capital spending in relation to firm characteristics. The impulse response results that capital spending of the E&P, drilling and oil services firms, and the small firms in general, have a higher positive impact of oil shocks lend support to the argument that these firms more likely reduce capital spending because of financial constraints in the capital markets. A higher positive response by the low return on assets firms indicates that firms with low earnings and cash flow problems are more likely to reduce their capital spending when oil price drops. With regard to growth prospects, it appears that shocks in oil price dampen the outlook for the low p/e firms, which leads to a cut in their capital spending. On the other hand, the high p/e firms seem to rely more on their growth prospects and downplay the adverse impact of oil price shocks.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies in this area, the study focuses on firm-level data in detail, uses quarterly data and uses firm-specific variables that explain impact of oil price shocks on capital spending in oil and gas industry.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

John Kalimilo Malagila, Ganga Bhavani and Christian Tabi Amponsah

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceived association between audit rotation (AR) and audit quality (AQ) using respondents from a sample of audit firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceived association between audit rotation (AR) and audit quality (AQ) using respondents from a sample of audit firms operating in a developing economy, the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The paper addresses the following research question: How do UAE auditors perceive the association between various forms of AR and AQ?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected perception data from a sample of UAE auditors using a questionnaire, and applied several non-parametric statistical techniques to analyze the data, and to answer five exploratory research questions on the perceived association between various forms of AR and AQ.

Findings

The findings suggest that the UAE auditors in our sample did not perceive the association between individual types of AR and AQ as significantly different, and that AR in general is essential for AQ improvement and enhances trust in the audit process. Similarly, we find more support for the perception that medium audit tenure is associated with a lower impairment effect on auditor independence. Furthermore, we find no significant differences in perception based on gender, but younger/less experienced professionals and professionals in self-employed practices and small audit firms (compared to other demographics) significantly perceived AR enforceability and AT length to be associated with AQ. Our findings help to enrich our understanding of the perceived AR-AQ association in a relatively new context and less researched audit area in a developing economy.

Originality/value

Although lively debates on the question of AR and AQ within the accounting, finance, investment professions and in the financial media continue, there has been relatively limited knowledge and a dearth of empirical studies on this question in most developing economies. Being the first attempt in the country – the UAE, this study contributes towards addressing this gap in empirical knowledge by exploring the perceived association between various forms of AR and AQ in a developing economy.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Knut Boge, AlenkaTemeljotov Salaj, Svein Bjørberg and Anne Kathrine Larssen

The purpose of this paper is to know how do early-phase planning of real estate (RE) and facilities management (FM) create value for owners and users of commercial and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to know how do early-phase planning of real estate (RE) and facilities management (FM) create value for owners and users of commercial and public sector buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected in Norway in 2015 through a national online survey (N = 837). The sample gives a good picture of Norwegian owners’ and even users on tactical-level (customer) perspectives on RE and FM. The data have been analysed through descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The hypotheses have been tested through analyses of correlations and ordinary least square (OLS) linear regressions.

Findings

Exploratory factor analysis made it possible to establish seven composite variables (constructs). Based on these seven constructs, six hypotheses were derived and tested. Obstacles and financials have no significant effect on buildings’ perceived usability. The most important factors during early-phase planning that influence buildings’ perceived usability and lifetime value creation are measures promoting environment and life-cycle costs (LCC), FM, adaptability and image.

Research limitations/implications

Further empirical and preferably, comparative studies are needed to establish whether the findings can be generalized. The study has shown that a building’s usability and lifetime value creation is largely determined by decisions made during early phase planning.

Practical implications

Well-founded early-phase planning of RE and FM may actually provide very high return on the investments and significantly improve the buildings’ lifetime value creation for owners and users. Early-phase planning is also of great importance both for buildings’ physical design, as well as for successful FM during the buildings’ use phase, and may prevent irreversible blunders.

Originality/value

This is a large N empirical study in Norway. The findings indicate what owner and users of buildings should emphasize during early phase planning.

Details

Facilities, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1953

H. Reichert

This particular Mollier‐Chart has been constructed for investigations for increasing the power output of internal combustion engines and gas turbines by means of water…

Abstract

This particular Mollier‐Chart has been constructed for investigations for increasing the power output of internal combustion engines and gas turbines by means of water injection into the supercharger or compressor respectively. Since the chart may be useful for other similar problems a short description is given and an example illustrates its application.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 25 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Special attention will be given in this part to the process of decline, which is to be seen as antipodal to development, and which nowadays is all too often neglected. By…

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48

Abstract

Special attention will be given in this part to the process of decline, which is to be seen as antipodal to development, and which nowadays is all too often neglected. By “decline” we mean here the decline of a whole society. But this definition is not yet sufficient to provide us with a very clear understanding. The statement that a whole society is in decline remains void of real meaning until we possess some concrete conception of what a “whole society” and the process of “decline” are. Since the meanings of both these terms are problematical, further explanation and closer precision are called for.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Esra Saleh Al Dhaen

Strategic decision importance has rarely been investigated as a decision-specific characteristic in the strategic decision-making process (SDMP) literature taking into…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic decision importance has rarely been investigated as a decision-specific characteristic in the strategic decision-making process (SDMP) literature taking into consideration information management while taking important strategic decisions. Here, the ability of decision importance to predict decision effectiveness as an outcome of SDMPs in higher education institutions (HEIs) is examined in the context of Bahrain.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model is developed relating decision importance to decision effectiveness indirectly via the SDMP characteristics intuition, rationality and decentralization. Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire completed by leaders of HEIs and academics involved in strategic decision-making in Bahrain are used to test the model and hypotheses via correlation analysis. The paper also considers a literature review of the use of information management while taking a strategic decision.

Findings

Decision importance is shown to positively influence decision effectiveness in Bahraini HEIs mediated by rationality and by decentralization in decision-making, although negative effects of decentralization are also demonstrated. However, decision importance does not influence decision effectiveness mediated by intuition.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the small sample size, the results cannot be generalized to contexts beyond HEIs in Bahrain. Additional SDMP characteristics of significance in the context of HEIs could be future investigated, for instance, political behaviour and lateral communication, are not included in the model. Future research exploring the latter two aspects could provide deeper insight into the findings.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper could be considered by HEIs senior management and members of the governing body while strategic decision-making, which could be at different levels, including strategic planning or assessing a strategic decision in terms of effectiveness. This paper will also provide insight one the use of information while considering strategic decision-making.

Social implications

A model leading for effective strategic decision-making could be used by leaders of HEIs and regulators including licensing bodies and QA agencies to set standards for HEIs for sustainable performance and quality education in line with United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Initiative. Strategic decision-making will have an impact on the overall performance of HEIs and serve all relevant stakeholder’s including parents, students, employers and industry.

Originality/value

Little research conducted in relation to strategic decision-making in the Gulf Cooperation Council therefore, this research will add original findings and the outcome of this study will lead to future research related to SDMP and the use of information management in the overall strategic decision-making.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Virginia M. Miori, Zhenpeng Miao and Yingdao Qu

This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided…

Abstract

This is the third in a series of papers aimed at providing models effective in predicting the degree of pain and discomfort in canines. The first two papers provided benchmarking and examination of dogs suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). In this chapter, we extend the study to include dogs suffering from OA, sarcoma, and oral mucositis (a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatments). The R programming language and SAS JMP are used to clean data, generate ANOVA, LSR regression, decision tree, and nominal logistic regression models to predict changes in activity levels associated with the progression of arthritis. The predictive models provide a diagnostic basis for determining the degree of disease in a dog (based on demographics and activity levels) and provide forecasts that assist in establishing appropriate medication dosages for suffering dogs.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-534-8

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