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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shakira Hanif, Halie Peters, Carolyn McDougall and Sally Lindsay

Many youth with a disability would like to work but encounter challenges finding employment. Vocational interventions can help youth with disabilities gain employment…

Abstract

Purpose

Many youth with a disability would like to work but encounter challenges finding employment. Vocational interventions can help youth with disabilities gain employment skills and jobs. In this chapter, we assess: (1) how vocational programs for youth with physical disabilities influence employment-related skills and outcomes; and (2) the common components of vocational programs for these youth.

Design/methodology

Our research team conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature with six major databases: Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase. Publications selected for inclusion met the following criteria: (1) peer-reviewed journal article, dissertation, or conference paper, published between 1990 and January 2014; (2) addresses vocational program or intervention for youth with physical disabilities; and (3) sample includes at least 50% youth (aged 15–25) with an acquired or congenital physical disability.

Findings

Of the 4,588 studies identified in our search, 8 met the inclusion criteria. In six of the studies, the majority of participants gained paid or unpaid employment after participating in a vocational program. Five studies showed improved knowledge and perceptions of employment. Most studies showed improvements in at least one vocational outcome such as knowledge about job searching, job interviews, advocating for workplace adaptations, and how to access services and supports. Common intervention components included: experiential learning, mentorship, and family involvement. Most programs took place in the community or rehabilitation centers that varied in length and were delivered by a variety of professionals. Most programs had a combination of group and individual components.

Implications

There is some evidence to suggest that vocational programs can influence employment outcomes for youth with physical disabilities. However, further research is needed with more rigorous and longitudinal designs.

Details

Factors in Studying Employment for Persons with Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-606-8

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Jeffrey DeMarco, Yael llan-Clarke, Amanda Bunn, Tom Isaac, John Criddle, Gillian Holdsworth and Antonia Bifulco

Current government policy aims to tackle youth anti-social behaviour and its psychological and social impacts. Given an increased likelihood that young victims of crime…

Abstract

Purpose

Current government policy aims to tackle youth anti-social behaviour and its psychological and social impacts. Given an increased likelihood that young victims of crime are also likely to engage in aggressive or deviant behaviour and to have psychological and social difficulties, interventions are needed which access vulnerable youth with adverse lifestyles to increase well-being and reduce offending. The current project utilised a hospital emergency department (ED) as an appropriate location to identify and interact with youth victims of violent crime; to support key lifestyle risk and mental health difficulties; and build resilience. The purpose of this paper is to use a youth work paradigm, to target vulnerable youth in a health setting at a crisis point where intervention may have a higher chance of uptake.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied a quasi-experimental, longitudinal design. Using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire and the “What Do You Think” component of the ASSET risk assessment, data were collected from 120 youth aged 12-20, at baseline with 66 youth who successfully completed the programme with assessments at baseline and follow-up, at an average of 14 weeks.

Findings

There was significant reduction in both psychological problems and lifestyle risk at follow-up.

Research limitations/implications

These findings support the government initiative to intervene in youth violence in healthcare settings. Challenges revolve around increasing participation and greater formalisation of the intervention.

Originality/value

The youth work led violence intervention in the ED is successfully tackling psychological problems and lifestyle risk following injury.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Yael llan‐Clarke, Amanda Bunn, Jeffrey DeMarco, Antonia Bifulco, John Criddle and Gillian Holdsworth

Youth violence victimisation impacts on health, mental health and future risk trajectories. A London hospital emergency department (ED) outreach youth service provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

Youth violence victimisation impacts on health, mental health and future risk trajectories. A London hospital emergency department (ED) outreach youth service provides a unique intervention opportunity to support adolescents involved in violence. The purpose of this paper is to describe the set‐up of the service.

Design/methodology/approach

Young people (YP) targeted were aged 12‐18, from two London boroughs and attended ED with injuries from a violent incident. They were referred to Oasis youth workers for a mentoring/youth work intervention. Lifestyle and symptom scales were used to assess risk profile. Hospital staff questionnaires determined service awareness in the first six months, and interviews/focus group identified potential barriers to service uptake.

Findings

By 12 months, the service was operating smoothly. Of the first 505 YP attending ED, a third were referred, a third ineligible and a third non‐contactable/refused. Detailed analysis of the first 30 attending found most were male (87 per cent), equal White or Black ethnicity (40 per cent) with 20 per cent “Other” ethnicities, with only a third living with both biological parents. This was similar to the full population attending. Nearly half (49 per cent) had been assaulted, 30 per cent had injuries self‐generated through poor anger management, the remainder injured in fighting. Over half (57 per cent) had disorder, mostly behavioural, correlated with lifestyle risk scores. Barriers to service use/implementation included YP mistrust and fear of reprisals, problems with service visibility in the busy hospital environment and ineffective staff communication with YP, all countered during the running of the service. Gauging outcome at follow‐up is the second evaluation stage.

Originality/value

The youth violence project is an important initiative for intervention in youth violence.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Adam Fletcher, Angela Harden, Ginny Brunton, Ann Oakley and Chris Bonell

The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor…

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Abstract

Purpose

The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which target these “wider” social determinants. This paper aims to identify promising interventions and priorities for future research and to make recommendations for policy and practice in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the evidence regarding the potential of interventions which target determinants of teenage pregnancy relating to school disaffection and low expectations, drawing on recent systematic reviews and trials to consider future directions for research, policy and practice.

Findings

High‐quality research evidence illustrates the potential of two approaches to address determinants of teenage pregnancy relating to disaffection and low expectations. These are school‐ethos interventions, which aim to facilitate a positive and inclusive school‐ethos, strengthen school relationships and reduce disaffection; and targeted, intensive youth work interventions, which aim to promote positive expectations, vocational readiness and self‐esteem through vocational and life‐skills education, volunteering and work experience.

Practical implications

Two forms of intervention which address key social determinants of teenage pregnancy – school‐ethos interventions and targeted youth work interventions – require more attention from researchers and policy‐makers.

Originality/value

This paper calls for a shift in the research and policy agenda. In addition to interventions that aim to address proximal, individual factors, such as sexual health‐related knowledge, there should be a more complementary focus on socio‐environmental as well as targeted individual‐focused interventions aiming to address the wider social determinants of teenage pregnancy.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

John Pitts

Anti‐social behaviour legislation has resulted in a growth of the administrative mechanisms to enforce it. New guidance has been issued recommending an incremental…

Abstract

Anti‐social behaviour legislation has resulted in a growth of the administrative mechanisms to enforce it. New guidance has been issued recommending an incremental approach and the number of orders and interventions has increased. This article examines the criticisms and assumptions on the effectiveness of anti‐social behaviour orders in the context of recent and emerging research.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Sue Cooper

– This research paper presents an innovative evaluation methodology which was developed as part of a doctoral research study in a voluntary sector youth organisation in England.

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1696

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper presents an innovative evaluation methodology which was developed as part of a doctoral research study in a voluntary sector youth organisation in England.

Design/methodology/approach

The transformative methodology synthesises aspects of appreciative inquiry, participatory evaluation and transformative learning and engages the whole organisation in evaluating impact. Using an interpretive paradigm, data were collected from youth workers via semi-structured interviews prior and post implementation of the transformative evaluation methodology.

Findings

Drawing on thematic analysis of the youth workers' experiences, it is argued that the illuminative and transformative nature of the methodology enabled the learning and development functions of evaluation to be realised. Further, it is argued that this form of evaluation not only supports the collection of evidence to demonstrate impact externally, but that the process itself has the potential to enhance practice, improve outcomes “in the moment” and promotes organisational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings are limited by the small-scale nature of the project. Further research is needed to investigate the supporting and enabling factors that underpin participatory practices in organisation evaluation; and in particular to investigate the experience of the managers and trustees as these were not the focus of this research.

Originality/value

This article makes a significant contribution to knowledge in regard to the design and use of participatory evaluation. It evidences the benefits in relation to generating practice improvements and for practitioners themselves in terms of countering the negatives effects of performativity. Transformative evaluation offers an innovative structure and process through which organisational learning can be realised.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Helle Birkholm Antczak, Thomas Mackrill, Signe Steensbæk and Frank Ebsen

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel online video-based approach to supervision for statutory caseworkers. Caseworkers recorded a video of their meetings with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel online video-based approach to supervision for statutory caseworkers. Caseworkers recorded a video of their meetings with their clients and sent the video to their supervisor. The supervisor selected clips in the video. They held an online meeting where they reviewed the clips, and the supervisor gave feedback and they reflected together. The caseworker then used what they had learnt in their future practice. The caseworker then recorded a new meeting, and the supervision cycle restarted.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 11 statutory caseworkers from three municipalities in the Copenhagen area participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews focused on the professional learning and challenges caseworkers faced in relation to participating in the supervision process.

Findings

The caseworkers reported that they used the method to assess their own practice in a more realistic way as the use of video gave a more accurate image than merely recalling what had occurred. They reflected about and developed their relationship with clients, their conversational style and use of communication techniques, skills in relation to running meetings, and skills in relation to eliciting the young person’s perspective. The caseworkers were anxious when they received their first feedback from supervisors, but this diminished. The focus on supporting clients in their personal development challenged caseworkers who identified as having an administrative rather than interventional role. Some found the online meeting technology difficult to master.

Originality/value

This study presents and explores the use of a novel approach to statutory casework supervision.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 12 no. 2-3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2012

Maretha J. Visser

School-going young people in South Africa engage in HIV risk behaviour despite high levels of HIV knowledge and a variety of interventions focusing on HIV prevention. The…

Abstract

School-going young people in South Africa engage in HIV risk behaviour despite high levels of HIV knowledge and a variety of interventions focusing on HIV prevention. The lack of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of current interventions leaves programme implementers with little consensus about how best to prevent HIV infection among young people. This research was done to explore factors underlying HIV risk of young people with the aim of developing HIV prevention in the third decade of the epidemic. Focus group discussions were conducted with young people, educators and parents in eight schools in four provinces of the country. A thematic analysis revealed risk factors especially on the interpersonal and community level. Peer pressure, gender norms and culture, poverty and financial gain and a culture of alcohol use were prominent themes. Negative family relationships, lack of role models and lack of sexual education from home contributed to risk behaviour. Community processes such as exposure to media, lack of recreational facilities, and an erosion of supportive culture and community structures created an environment which did not support healthy behaviour. Factors that prevented risk behaviour were identified as self-respect, open communication with parents, implementation of school programmes, positive peer pressure and a focus on young people's future. Prevention programmes should therefore not only focus on individual factors but should be multi-layered interventions involving various community structures aimed at changing the social ecology in communities to support an alternative lifestyle for young people.

Details

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-233-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Susan Morris and Rowdy Yates

This article draws on the experience of conducting an effectiveness review of community responses to drug concerns and supplementary interviews with key informants…

Abstract

This article draws on the experience of conducting an effectiveness review of community responses to drug concerns and supplementary interviews with key informants. Despite accessing nearly 300 publications relating to initiatives, there is a paucity of published evaluative evidence. The literature does provide a greater amount of information about initiatives that are delivered into the community as opposed to initiated by the community. Community‐led responses have taken a number of approaches. To assess the current evidence on ‘what works?’ we have defined community responses to drug problems under five banners: self‐help groups; parents' groups, residents' groups, community development groups and diversionary activity groups for ease of discussion. There are a number of commonly identified elements that exist in successful and sustainable initiatives which are discussed.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Brian Gormally

This article examines and discusses the assumptions and principles underlying the concept of ‘community policing’ within the context of Northern Ireland and the Patten…

Abstract

This article examines and discusses the assumptions and principles underlying the concept of ‘community policing’ within the context of Northern Ireland and the Patten Report on policing. It raises questions as to the applicability of the ‘community policing’ concept in the context of alienation and conflict.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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