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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Judith Pettigrew, Katie Robinson, Brid Dunne and Jennifer O' Mahoney

Major gaps exist in the documented history of occupational therapy in Ireland. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to filling these gaps by providing an overview of…

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3010

Abstract

Purpose

Major gaps exist in the documented history of occupational therapy in Ireland. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to filling these gaps by providing an overview of three major transitions in Irish occupational therapy in the century preceding the opening of St. Joseph?s College of Occupational Therapy in 1963. Research on occupational therapy’s past is valuable not only for recording and commemorating key events and individuals but also for allowing reflection on and questioning of contemporary practice and assumptions.

Design/methodology/approach

This descriptive paper draws on multiple documentary sources to present an overview of the first 100 years of the use of occupation as therapy/occupational therapy in Ireland from 1863 to 1963.

Findings

Three major transitions in occupational therapy in Ireland are presented: from moral treatment and the use of occupation as therapy to medical patronage of occupational therapy, from medical patronage to the early/pre-professional era and finally from the pre-professional era to the era of professionally qualified occupational therapists. To illustrate these transitions, a small number of individuals and their contributions are discussed including Dr Eamon O’Sullivan, Dr Ada English, Donal Kelly, Olga Gale and Ann Beckett.

Originality/value

This paper charts the foundations upon which the currently thriving profession of occupational therapy are built. The Association of Occupational Therapists of Ireland recently celebrated their 50th anniversary (AOTI, 2015a), and in 2017, it is 100 years since occupational therapy was formalised in Clifton Springs, New York, USA. Occupational therapy is a relatively young profession, and great opportunities exist to research its history in Ireland to capture the memories and experiences of the pioneers who laid the foundation of the profession as well as to situate the development of the profession in the broader social, cultural and scientific contexts within which it developed.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Rebecca Cahill and Judith Pettigrew

In the early to mid-twentieth century, psychiatrist-led occupational therapy departments emerged in Irish psychiatric hospitals. This marked a transition towards…

Abstract

Purpose

In the early to mid-twentieth century, psychiatrist-led occupational therapy departments emerged in Irish psychiatric hospitals. This marked a transition towards establishing rehabilitative services in institutional settings. This paper aims to examine the development of occupational therapy in Grangegorman Mental Hospital and its auxiliary hospital, Portrane Mental Hospital from 1934-1954.

Design/methodology/approach

Historical documentary research methods were used to analyse primary source data from Grangegorman Committee Minutes, Inspector of Mental Hospital Reports, Boroughs of Mental Hospitals, Department of Foreign Affairs documents and newspaper archives. The archival data was analysed using both a chronological and thematic approach.

Findings

The main key event emerged in 1935 when four Grangegorman nursing staff were sent to Cardiff Mental Hospital to undergo a six month training course in occupational therapy. The following themes emerged – “establishing occupational therapy in Grangegorman and Portrane”; “the role of short-course trained nursing staff in providing occupational therapy services” and “therapeutic rationales vs hospital management rationales”.

Originality/value

This study throws light on the early practitioners of occupational therapy in Grangegorman and highlights the complexities of occupational therapy’s role origins in mid-twentieth century Ireland. In line with contemporaneous psychiatric hospitals, the occupational therapy activities promoted in Grangegorman were mainly handicraft or productivity based. The absence of patients’ voices means there are limitations to determining the therapeutic nature of this early occupational therapy service.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Anna Joy Stickley and Kelly J. Hall

Occupational therapists are increasingly working in organisations outside of the public sector. UK government policy over the past decade has promoted health and social…

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1260

Abstract

Purpose

Occupational therapists are increasingly working in organisations outside of the public sector. UK government policy over the past decade has promoted health and social care provision by social enterprises. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of occupational therapy practice and a social enterprise environment, within the UK and questions if this approach may enhance experiences of social inclusion for people who use these services.

Design/methodology/approach

Case study methodology was used with eight social enterprises in the UK. Data were collected through: semi-structured interviews, formal organisational documents, and field visits and observations. Interviews were conducted with 26 participants who were occupational therapists, service users and social entrepreneurs/managers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Occupational therapists experienced job satisfaction, professional autonomy and were able to practise according to their professional philosophy. Service users valued support with: employment, routine, social relationships, and developing a sense of identity, particularly outside of a medical model definition. To a degree therefore, people using these services claimed socially inclusive benefits. Challenges with funding social enterprises, however, impacted occupational therapy delivery in some cases.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of social enterprise research is drawn from case study methodology; however, this was the most appropriate research design to gain greatest insight into a small but developing phenomenon. Further research into occupational therapy practice within social enterprises is required, particularly on the effectiveness of returning to work and social inclusion.

Social implications

Social enterprises can provide therapeutic environments to promote recovery and social inclusion which is also compatible with occupational therapy practice.

Originality/value

This is the first known national research into occupational therapy provision in social enterprises within the UK, which evidences a compatibility within occupational therapy practice within a social enterprise environment and the benefits of this.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Esther Linnane and Alison Warren

Role-emerging placements have been used internationally within occupational therapy education but are relatively new to Ireland. At times, there has been a debate in the…

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1541

Abstract

Purpose

Role-emerging placements have been used internationally within occupational therapy education but are relatively new to Ireland. At times, there has been a debate in the profession regarding the use of this placement model. This paper aims to generate views from both occupational therapists and occupational therapy students on the use of role-emerging placements in the Republic of Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic surveys were administered to occupational therapy students and occupational therapists in Ireland. Quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS Statistics software package and the content of the open question responses were analysed into themes.

Findings

Occupational therapists (n = 60) and occupational therapy students (n = 45) indicated that there were inconsistent views surrounding role-emerging placements. It is deemed as an effective method for student learning, but apprehension exists around inclusion within occupational therapy programmes in the Republic of Ireland. Preference was indicated towards inclusion of role-emerging placements on a part-time basis within formal occupational therapy education.

Originality/value

Both respondent groups viewed that role-emerging placements can positively influence new areas of occupational therapy practice and concern over the use of the placement model requires further exploration and debate. This study is from an Irish context, although there are similarities with other countries’ use of the placement model. There is a need for research through an in-depth exploration of the learning experience of undertaking role-emerging placements from the students’ perspective and identification of supports required to promote an optimal learning experience.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Bríd D. Dunne, Katie Robinson and Judith Pettigrew

This paper aims to examine the relationship between psychiatry and occupational therapy in Ireland through a case study of the development of the occupational therapy

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2479

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between psychiatry and occupational therapy in Ireland through a case study of the development of the occupational therapy department in St. Patrick’s Hospital, Dublin, from 1935 to 1969. Patronage by psychiatrists was an important factor in the professionalisation of occupational therapy internationally.

Design/methodology/approach

Documentary sources and oral history interviews were analysed to conduct an instrumental case study of occupational therapy at St. Patrick’s Hospital from 1935 to 1969.

Findings

The research identified key individuals associated with the development of occupational therapy at St. Patrick’s Hospital, including psychiatrist Norman Moore, occupational therapy worker Olga Gale, occupational therapist Margaret Sinclair, and social therapist Irene Violet Grey. Occupational therapy was considered by the hospital authorities to be “an important part in the treatment of all types of psychiatric illness” (Board Meeting Minutes, 1956). It aimed to develop patient’s self-esteem and facilitate social participation. To achieve these objectives, patients engaged in activities such as dances, arts and crafts, and social activities.

Originality/value

This study has highlighted the contributions of key individuals, identified the links between occupational therapy and psychiatry, and provided an insight into the development of the profession in Ireland prior to the establishment of occupational therapy education in 1963. Occupational therapy practice at St. Patrick’s Hospital from 1935 to 1969 was congruent with the prevailing philosophy of occupational therapy internationally, which involved treatment through activities to enhance participation in society.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Deirdre Anne Ryan and Pauline Boland

Diagnosis of substance use disorders and addictive behaviours are growing worldwide. It is timely to examine and collate literature on the nature of occupational therapy

Abstract

Purpose

Diagnosis of substance use disorders and addictive behaviours are growing worldwide. It is timely to examine and collate literature on the nature of occupational therapy intervention in this field, to increase understanding of current practice and inform future directions. The purpose of this paper is to source and synthesise literature on occupational therapy interventions used in the treatment of people experiencing addiction.

Design/methodology/approach

Four databases were searched in August 2019. A total of 597 titles were screened, and 18 studies with varying methods met inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the included literature was arranged into themes to summarise key findings.

Findings

Findings were grouped into three themes about occupational therapy provision to people experiencing addiction: single occupation focused intervention; skills training (including sub-themes on daily living skills and vocational skills); and establishing a community-based sober routine.

Research limitations/implications

Further research on this topic should focus on efficacy of treatments and build on current findings to develop more rigorous research with appropriate sample sizes to support evidence-based practice.

Originality/value

This study presents a synthesis of how occupational therapy interventions have been used to treat people experiencing addiction issues. Findings indicate occupational therapy appears to fit well within addiction treatment and assert that occupational therapy is most supportive when interventions go beyond the teaching of skills alone to prioritise occupational engagement and client centred practice.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Anita Louise Hamilton, Jo Coldwell-Neilson and Annemieke Craig

Digital technology has changed how people interact with information and each other. Being able to access and share information ensures healthcare practitioners can keep

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1171

Abstract

Purpose

Digital technology has changed how people interact with information and each other. Being able to access and share information ensures healthcare practitioners can keep abreast of new and ever changing information and improve services. The purpose of this paper is to present an information management-knowledge transfer (IM-KT) framework which emerged from a study looking at digital literacy in the occupational therapy profession.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was undertaken in three stages. First an in-depth literature review was undertaken, which enabled the creation of an initial conceptual framework which in turn, informed the second stage of the research: the development of a survey about the use of digital technologies. Occupational therapy students, academics and practitioners across five different countries completed the survey, after which refinements to the framework were made. The IM-KT framework presented in this paper emerged as a result of the third stage of the study, which was completed using the Delphi technique where 18 experts were consulted over four rounds of qualitative questionnaires.

Findings

The IM-KT framework assists individuals and groups to better understand how information management and knowledge transfer occurs. The framework highlights the central role of information literacy and digital literacy and the influence of context on knowledge transfer activities.

Originality/value

The IM-KT framework delineates clearly between information and knowledge and demonstrates the essential role of information literacy and digital literacy in the knowledge era. This framework was developed for the occupational therapy profession and may be applicable to other professions striving to keep up to date with best evidence.

Details

VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Róisín Kearns, Nancy Salmon, Mairead Cahill and Eithne Egan

No occupational therapy outcome measures have been designed specifically for recovery-orientated services.This paper aims to identify occupational therapy outcome measures…

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1660

Abstract

Purpose

No occupational therapy outcome measures have been designed specifically for recovery-orientated services.This paper aims to identify occupational therapy outcome measures relevant to mental health practice and assess them against recovery principles adopted by Irish Mental Health Services.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative review methodology was used to appraise outcome measures against CHIME recovery principles.

Findings

A systematic search across 13 databases identified eight well-established outcome measures commonly used within occupational therapy mental health literature. The included outcome measures were appraised using a recovery alignment tool.

Practical implications

All outcome measures connected to some recovery processes. Those using semi-structured interview formats and notably the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) had the strongest alignment to recovery processes.

Originality/value

This is the first known review which provides some validation that the included outcome measures support recovery processes, yet the measures rely heavily on therapist’s skills for processes to be facilitated. It recommends that ways to better support the process of partnership in occupational therapy mental health outcome measures be explored and further research be undertaken.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 April 2019

Rachel O’Mahony, Emma Connolly and Patrick Hynes

Hippotherapy is an emerging area of paediatric occupational therapy practice in Ireland. It is a treatment strategy used by specially trained occupational therapy

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2691

Abstract

Purpose

Hippotherapy is an emerging area of paediatric occupational therapy practice in Ireland. It is a treatment strategy used by specially trained occupational therapy practitioners, physical therapists and speech language pathologists as part of the intervention programme to facilitate functional gains. This paper aims to explore parents’ perspectives on children’s participation in home-based occupations following hippotherapy treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In accordance with thematic analysis, line-by-line coding was completed to identify codes. Codes were organised into categories, which were grouped to develop themes.

Findings

Three core themes were identified: lack of knowledge regarding hippotherapy as an occupational therapy intervention; children’s increased participation in home-based occupations secondary to improved physical, psychological, communication and social skills; and the unique hippotherapy environment as a motivating factor for children to engage in occupational therapy intervention.

Originality/value

Findings from this study support the growing body of evidence that hippotherapy is an effective means of intervention for increasing physical, psychological, social and communication skills. The participants report positive effects following hippotherapy on their children’s participation in home-based occupations. It highlights a link between the unique hippotherapy environment and children’s increased engagement in occupational therapy. Given that no published hippotherapy-specific literature related to occupational therapy exists in the Irish context, and given that hippotherapy is an emerging area of practice in Ireland, this paper contributes to the knowledge base.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Jo Dwyer and Judith Reep

Occupational therapists are concerned with how people perform across the various daily activities that are important to them. It is recognised within occupational therapy

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1184

Abstract

Occupational therapists are concerned with how people perform across the various daily activities that are important to them. It is recognised within occupational therapy that the presence of illness or disability might affect this performance.In order to assess how a person complete a task and identify what is making it unsatisfying, the occupational therapist will observe the person engaged in familiar activities. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) provides a standardised framework within which to make these observations. We have found the AMPS to be useful in assessing the performance of people with learning disabilities generally, as well as in assessing those with additional mental illness.We recognise that occupational therapy assessment plays a useful part in a wider multi‐professional, multi‐agency approach to identifying and managing the needs of people with learning disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

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