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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Mike Jolley

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore a particular conception of youth deviance and some of its practical implications. This conception is evident in the way…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore a particular conception of youth deviance and some of its practical implications. This conception is evident in the way that the media and human services construe phenomena like teen violence and “risky” sex in epidemiological terms: as contagious and spreading rapidly through a population.

Methodology/approach – This chapter broaches these questions through review and analysis of human services research and literature as well as their practical recommendations.

Findings – This chapter argues that the concern over transmission of deviant behaviors or characteristics is linked to anxiety over youth sociality and the spaces it occupies. While historically contingent in their manifestations, causal logics using sociality to explain youth deviance (peer pressure, e.g.) continue to resonate with a medicalized viewpoint of the very category of youth.

Contribution to the field – This chapter has contributed to the field through exploring changing conceptions of youth and the sociological question of the medicalization of social problems.

Details

Understanding Emerging Epidemics: Social and Political Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-080-3

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Daniel Belay

Social resources have gained considerable interest from scholars for their effect on youth's labor market outcomes. The available evidence indicates that social capital is…

Abstract

Purpose

Social resources have gained considerable interest from scholars for their effect on youth's labor market outcomes. The available evidence indicates that social capital is a crucial factor in determining youth's labor force status. This paper examines the effect of social capital components on youth self-employment in Holeta town, Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using youth survey data, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on social capital components datasets. This provided the construction of composite indicators for measuring social capital component, which are robust and exhibited construct validity. Following this, the effect of social capital component on youth self-employment was examined using Logit model.

Findings

The results show that institutional trust positively affects the likelihood of young people's decision to be self-employed.

Practical implications

The finding reveals a need to improve the transparency of the institutions' resource delivery, the competency of the institutions' workforce, communication, and information sharing of the institutions with the youth.

Originality/value

Looking at different social capital components simultaneously, the paper provides insight into the wide range of effects of social capital on youth self-employment.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Stephen Case, Charlie E. Sutton, Joanne Greenhalgh, Mark Monaghan and Judy Wright

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why?) specified in the Effects–Mechanisms–Moderators–Implementation–Economic cost (EMMIE) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The EMMIE framework examined findings within a sample of “What Works” style reviews of preventative youth justice intervention effectiveness.

Findings

“What Works” style reviews of evaluations of preventative youth justice interventions often omit the requisite details required to examine all of the necessary elements of effectiveness contained within the EMMIE framework. While effectiveness measures were typically provided, the dominant evaluation evidence-base struggles to consider moderators of effect, mechanisms of change, implementation differences and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, “What Works” samples cannot facilitate sufficient understanding of “what works for whom, in what circumstances and why?”. The authors argue that Realist Synthesis can fill this gap and shed light on the contexts that shape the mechanisms through which youth justice interventions work.

Originality/value

The authors extended the approach adopted by an earlier review of effectiveness reviews (Tompson et al., 2020), considering more recent reviews of the effectiveness of preventative interventions using the EMMIE framework. Unlike previous reviews, the authors prioritised the utility of the EMMIE framework for assessing the factors affecting the effectiveness of preventative interventions in youth justice.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Degsew Melak and Beyene Derso

Currently, there is widespread consensus that training is helpful to the long-term success of business competitive advantages. However, youth continue to invest in various…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, there is widespread consensus that training is helpful to the long-term success of business competitive advantages. However, youth continue to invest in various self-employment business options with low quality of short term trainings. The purpose of this study was to understand the competency level, training need and the role of training to business survival.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the training needs of youth engaged in self-employment and validated its role in sustainable business performance using primary data. To determine training needs, data were analysed using effect size, and probit model was used to understand the predictive validity of training gap to business performance.

Findings

This study has strong evidence that youth engaged in self-employment career have low entrepreneurial competency. The findings of this study revealed that there was little effort to narrow skill and knowledge gaps of youth before entry into self-employment. Training deficiencies were reported in business planning, confidence, risk and time management, conflict management, and communications skills. In addition, self-employment business options were starting up their function with insufficient entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. This would have limited businesses' better chance of long-run survival. Training should be given to bridge the knowledge and skill gaps of youth to ensure the long-term survival of their business. Recommendations include: government should allocate budget for youth short term training, relevant stakeholders should also create access to training for youths before and after entry into self-employment.

Practical implications

Small businesses, during start up with sufficient knowledge and skills, have a better chance of long-term survival. Therefore, this study calls for organized training that would be given to youth to bridge their knowledge and skill gaps on certain competency items and to ensure the long-term survival of micro and small enterprises. Relevant stakeholders should also deliberately create access to training for youth before and after entry into self-employment.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to provide empirical evidence of measurement of training gap and its effects of training on small business performance. Understanding role of training gap in business performance requires measurement of level of competency and training need in operating self-employment schemes. Validating consequence of level of training needs towards business performance of youth is essential to understand the contribution of skill training in the promotion of self-employment. The predictive validity of training need to business performance enhances our knowledge of the importance of training for small enterprise development. Previous studies focus on real training and its quality, however, fails to link youth self-employment initiatives. The finding of this study provides important insights on how strong skill training is important in supporting long term survival of youth self-employment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

John C. Geraci

Presents the conclusions of Harris Interactive’s landmark poll of youth marketers, which reveals the industry’s views on complex issues like the ethics of selling to…

1385

Abstract

Presents the conclusions of Harris Interactive’s landmark poll of youth marketers, which reveals the industry’s views on complex issues like the ethics of selling to children, advertising in schools, violent content in the media, child nutrition and obesity. Outlines the method used, which consisted of 878 online interviews, classifying respondents into youth marketing, advertising and PR, media, non‐profit organisations, market research, and educational institutions. Identifies characteristics of each group over their views about children as consumers, ethics, role models, rating systems for movies and shows, and health. Concludes that those working in youth fields tend to defend their own organisation although they often criticise the industry as a whole.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Trisha Mueller, Diana Bensyl, Sara K. Vesely, Roy F. Oman and Cheryl B. Aspy

Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious…

984

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse among youth in the USA. It also aims to consider the effect of other youth assets, and analyze all by gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional data were examined to assess youth assets and risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to determine whether the assets or religion questions were significant in the presence of the other assets/religion questions. The eight assets examined, in addition to church attendance and involvement in religious groups were adult role models, peer role models, family communication, involvement in sports and groups, community involvement, aspirations for the future, responsible choices, and good health – diet and exercise.

Findings

Involvement in church/religious activities, but not attendance at religious services, was associated with never having had sexual intercourse among males and females. Analysis also determined that several of the other youth assets were protective of sexual intercourse among males and among females.

Research limitations/implications

Findings from this study may be limited by the validity of the self‐reported measures. The data were cross‐sectional, making it impossible to draw inferences about the causal directions of the relationships found in this study. Future research should focus on developing interventions to strengthen youth assets.

Practical implications

Developing gender and culturally specific interventions to promote youth assets may reduce the number of young people engaging in sex.

Originality/value

The paper extends previous research and examines attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse.

Details

Health Education, vol. 110 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Merijke Coenraad

Computing technology is becoming ubiquitous within modern society and youth use technology regularly for school, entertainment and socializing. Yet, despite societal…

Abstract

Purpose

Computing technology is becoming ubiquitous within modern society and youth use technology regularly for school, entertainment and socializing. Yet, despite societal belief that computing technology is neutral, the technologies of today’s society are rife with biases that harm and oppress populations that experience marginalization. While previous research has explored children’s values and perceptions of computing technology, few studies have focused on youth conceptualizations of this technological bias and their understandings of how computing technology discriminates against them and their communities. This paper aims to examine youth conceptualizations of inequities in computing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes a series of codesign sessions and artifacts partnering with eight black youth to learn about their conceptualizations of technology bias.

Findings

Without introduction, the youth demonstrated an awareness of visible negative impacts of technology and provided examples of this bias within their lives, but they did not have a formal vocabulary to discuss said bias or knowledge of biased technologies less visible to the naked eye. Once presented with common technological biases, the youth expanded their conceptualizations to include both visible and invisible biases.

Originality/value

This paper builds on the current body of literature around how youth view computing technology and provides a foundation to ground future pedagogical work around technological bias for youth.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 123 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Ozalle Marie Toms, James C. Collins and Gloria D. Campbell-Whatley

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to define the characteristics of foster youth, discuss the impacts of trauma on their lives, present results from a foster youth

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to define the characteristics of foster youth, discuss the impacts of trauma on their lives, present results from a foster youth survey conducted at a university in the Midwest to assess the needs of former foster youth and discuss the ways universities can support this vulnerable population of students. Several themes emerged from the study. The financial need emerged at the top. The number of essential needs was striking. For example, more than half of the respondents did not have their basic needs met. These needs included food, medical/dental services, clothing and transportation needs.

Design/methodology/approach

Faculty researchers who were part of a university task force developed a survey to assess the needs of former foster youth who were enrolled in classes at the time that this research was conducted. The survey was developed and disseminated through Qualtrics, a software that distributed survey links via email in a confidential manner. The survey consisted of a variety of general questions related to participants’ background and demographic information, as well as the specific needs and services that they were interested in receiving. The survey was sent out one-time peer week for three weeks in the late fall semester.

Findings

Findings indicated that 9% of respondents (n = 4) ranked the greatest areas of need as being financial assistance for school supplies, medical/dental care and financial aid advice. Similarly, 7% of respondents (n = 3) expressed the greatest needs as being affordable housing, housing during semester breaks, financial support for a laptop, financial counseling, counseling services, emergency financial assistance and internship and career counseling.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this research include the use of a small and homogenous participant sample size, with data collected from one university campus. Therefore, results do not necessarily generalize elsewhere and replication is necessary for other geographical regions that include additional participants from varying backgrounds. Because data were not collected from a control group of nonfoster students, it is also unknown whether the identified student needs from this research substantially differ from the general population.

Practical implications

All students do not need the same support, so a menu of services should be provided. These services could include care packages that include basic academic necessities (e.g., laptops, school supplies, book vouchers, health and beauty supplies), financial literacy training, mentorship opportunities, a one-credit course on independent living skills, providing connections to community resources (e.g., childcare, housing, employment) and targeted advising for this specific student population, many of which who are from the first generation and low-income backgrounds. Another opportunity is to provide, possibly mandate, professional development for faculty and staff on the characteristics and needs of these vulnerable students.

Originality/value

Institutions have an opportunity, and arguably an obligation, to identify these students as early as possible. This can be done through collaboration with state human service departments, high school counselors and using demographic data found in the Free Application for Federal Student Aid form. Recruiting, retaining and supporting this population of students are critical because many have needs similar to other marginalized populations that the authors are so intensely focused on.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2022

Shona Robinson-Edwards and Craig Pinkney

Research pertaining to young people, frontline work and faith is fairly limited. This qualitative article proposes that often faith and “on road” youth work are…

Abstract

Purpose

Research pertaining to young people, frontline work and faith is fairly limited. This qualitative article proposes that often faith and “on road” youth work are intertwined. This paper aims to explore the experiences of nine frontline practitioners, those who work with young people in a range of settings. The crux of the discussion is focused on how the religious and cultural views of practitioners impact their frontline practice, as it relates to supporting the young person’s needs. The authors suggest that understanding frontline practice as it relates to faith is imperative to our ability to effectively engage with young people “on road”.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper took a qualitative approach, where semi-structured interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. This allowed the formation of the following three core themes: incarceration, religiosity and “on road” youth work; the nuances of religion and identity “on road”; and the “pains of ‘on road’ youth work”.

Findings

The findings within this paper suggest that faith and “on road” youth work are intertwined. In that frontline practitioners’ personal religious views, and importantly the understanding they have regarding the array of religious identities adopted by young people (YP) is helpful in engaging YP across the board. This paper highlights the complexities between identity, faith, faith-based support and hard-to-reach communities.

Research limitations/implications

This paper explores the complexities between faith on “on road” criminology/“on road” youth work. This area of study is fairly under-researched. This paper seeks to build on existing research surrounding YP, further exploring religiosity from a UK context.

Practical implications

This paper aimed to explore the lived experiences of frontline practitioners in Birmingham UK, many of whom work with YP from Black, Asian or minority backgrounds. Therefore the findings cannot be generalised.

Social implications

This paper’s intention is not to stereotype YP, but to raise awareness of the subjective experience of faith and religiosity on the frontline.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are few studies that explore the concept of “on road” criminology and “on road” youth work. Therefore, findings from this study are important to develop further understanding.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Oluyemi T. Adeosun, Kayode E. Owolabi, Idongesit C. Eshiet and Temitope J. Owolabi

The upsurge in global youth migration remains a major concern for policymakers, politicians and academia at large. Given the emerging interests in youth migration and…

Abstract

Purpose

The upsurge in global youth migration remains a major concern for policymakers, politicians and academia at large. Given the emerging interests in youth migration and informal jobs in cities around the world, this study aims to establish the barriers limiting the transition of migrant youths, in informal settings, into formal jobs and the consequent impact on their livelihood.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging the push-pull approach of the functionalist migration school, this study uses a primary research design. A structured questionnaire was administered among 150 migrant youths who were selected across informal settings in Lagos, using a convenient sampling technique. Then, a structured face-to-face interview was later conducted among 40 selected migrant youths.

Findings

There is a skill mismatch between the competence of the youths and the requirements of firms in the formal sector, and the migrant youths are largely disenfranchised from opportunities that flow within certain networks. Another critical constraint includes language barrier, ethnicity and religious biases by certain employers. Most migrant youths are economically better off compared to where they came from, even though they are yet to exit the poverty trap.

Originality/value

This study critically examined the challenges faced by the migrant youth population in Lagos, Nigeria, in their bid to transition from informal employment to formal employment.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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