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Book part
Publication date: 21 April 2010

Mike Jolley

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore a particular conception of youth deviance and some of its practical implications. This conception is evident in the way…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore a particular conception of youth deviance and some of its practical implications. This conception is evident in the way that the media and human services construe phenomena like teen violence and “risky” sex in epidemiological terms: as contagious and spreading rapidly through a population.

Methodology/approach – This chapter broaches these questions through review and analysis of human services research and literature as well as their practical recommendations.

Findings – This chapter argues that the concern over transmission of deviant behaviors or characteristics is linked to anxiety over youth sociality and the spaces it occupies. While historically contingent in their manifestations, causal logics using sociality to explain youth deviance (peer pressure, e.g.) continue to resonate with a medicalized viewpoint of the very category of youth.

Contribution to the field – This chapter has contributed to the field through exploring changing conceptions of youth and the sociological question of the medicalization of social problems.

Details

Understanding Emerging Epidemics: Social and Political Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-080-3

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Matteo Balliauw, Jasper Bosmans and David Pauwels

Football clubs invest in the implementation of scientific insights that improve the quality of youth academies. In the long run, clubs expect their youth academy…

Abstract

Purpose

Football clubs invest in the implementation of scientific insights that improve the quality of youth academies. In the long run, clubs expect their youth academy investments to result in better trained players. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of the attended youth academies' quality on the future market value of a player.

Design/methodology/approach

A dataset containing 94 players trained in 13 different academies has been constructed. The dataset contains characteristics of the players and information on the quality of their attended academies. The impact of the quality of the attended academies on players' future market values was estimated empirically through multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The quality of a youth academy has a significant positive impact on a player's market value, which in turn is correlated with higher future wages for players and transfer fees for clubs.

Research limitations/implications

Clubs are advised to pay sufficient attention to investments in their youth academy. This will eventually lead to better trained players and higher revenues. Players in turn should strive to be part of the best academies that provide good training and the opportunity to become a top-earning player. For policymakers, such as football federations, the results imply that stimulating club investments in academies can lead to better national team performances.

Originality/value

The impact of the quality of a youth academy on an individual professional football player's career has never been quantified in the literature before. To this end, a new variable has been constructed using scientific assessments of youth academies.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun and Temitope Owolabi

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the perspective of youth employees about owner manager businesses. The owner-manager business (a one-man business) is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the perspective of youth employees about owner manager businesses. The owner-manager business (a one-man business) is the most common in Lagos. Hence, an inquiry into their management style and how it impacts youth employees within the context of decent work is important to explore.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the convenience sample technique to obtain data from 382 owner-managers and youth employees who work in owner-managed businesses across various sectors. They were administered a questionnaire with carefully structured questions, with an 81% return rate. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) technique was used to identify the prominent parameters, and the hypothesis tested and validated accordingly.

Findings

The study identified three prominent factors that youth consider when working for an owner-manager business, i.e. the workplace factor, geographical factors and employee benefit. Consequently, issues regarding sustainable employment, conducive working conditions, job security and pension are paramount in the youths' view. Many owner-managers do not respect labour laws, and job security is low in owner-managed businesses; hence, they experience high turnover as most youth work in one-man businesses to gain experience.

Originality/value

The owner-manager business is the most predominant in the country and yet is under-researched. Furthermore, the perception of youth employees regarding owner-manager businesses provides a better understanding of performance and expected satisfactory outcome required from youth employees and how they can be met through proper channelling of their energies to the right tasks.

Details

Journal of Business and Socio-economic Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-1374

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Scott Storm and Karis Jones

This paper aims to describe the critical literacies of high school students engaged in a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project focused on a roleplaying game…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the critical literacies of high school students engaged in a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project focused on a roleplaying game, Dungeons and Dragons, in a queer-led afterschool space. The paper illustrates how youth critique and resist unjust societal norms while simultaneously envisioning queer utopian futures. Using a queer theory framework, the authors consider how youth performed disidentifications and queer futurity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a discourse analysis of approximately 85 hours of audio collected over one year.

Findings

Youth engaged in deconstructive critique, disidentifications and queer futurity in powerful enactments of critical literacies that involved simultaneous resistance, subversion, imagination and hope as youth envisioned queer utopian world-building through their fantasy storytelling. Youth acknowledged the injustice of the present while radically envisioning a utopian future.

Originality/value

This study offers an empirical grounding for critical literacies centered in queer theory and explores how youth engage with critical literacies in collaboratively co-authored texts. The authors argue that queering critical literacies potentially moves beyond deconstructive critique while simultaneously opening spaces for resistance, imagination and utopian world-making through linguistic and narrative-based tools.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Jason Salisbury

The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate how school and district leaders supported the youth of color leadership initiatives at the district and school levels in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate how school and district leaders supported the youth of color leadership initiatives at the district and school levels in ways to advance youth agencies and transformative change. The specific research question guiding this study was What actions do formalized leaders engage in to share leadership opportunities with the youth of color that protect student agencies and control?

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-site qualitative case study design was used, drawing on the understanding of shared leadership and student voice as analytical lenses.

Findings

Leaders across both sites supported the youth of color leadership in three ways: (1) being open to new and different sources of knowledge related to persistent issues of inequity in their schools; (2) initiating spaces for the youth of color to engage in leadership and (3) buffering student leaders from outside pressures.

Research limitations/implications

This research demonstrates the ways leaders with positional power can support youth of color leadership while not removing youth agencies and independence.

Originality/value

This manuscript contributes to existing scholarship by demonstrating how the understanding of shared leadership and student voice scholarship combines to deepen understanding of supporting youth of color leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

John C. Geraci

Presents the conclusions of Harris Interactive’s landmark poll of youth marketers, which reveals the industry’s views on complex issues like the ethics of selling to…

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Abstract

Presents the conclusions of Harris Interactive’s landmark poll of youth marketers, which reveals the industry’s views on complex issues like the ethics of selling to children, advertising in schools, violent content in the media, child nutrition and obesity. Outlines the method used, which consisted of 878 online interviews, classifying respondents into youth marketing, advertising and PR, media, non‐profit organisations, market research, and educational institutions. Identifies characteristics of each group over their views about children as consumers, ethics, role models, rating systems for movies and shows, and health. Concludes that those working in youth fields tend to defend their own organisation although they often criticise the industry as a whole.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Trisha Mueller, Diana Bensyl, Sara K. Vesely, Roy F. Oman and Cheryl B. Aspy

Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious…

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958

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has shown that religion plays a role in the lives of many youths. This paper aims to extend previous research and examine attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse among youth in the USA. It also aims to consider the effect of other youth assets, and analyze all by gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional data were examined to assess youth assets and risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to determine whether the assets or religion questions were significant in the presence of the other assets/religion questions. The eight assets examined, in addition to church attendance and involvement in religious groups were adult role models, peer role models, family communication, involvement in sports and groups, community involvement, aspirations for the future, responsible choices, and good health – diet and exercise.

Findings

Involvement in church/religious activities, but not attendance at religious services, was associated with never having had sexual intercourse among males and females. Analysis also determined that several of the other youth assets were protective of sexual intercourse among males and among females.

Research limitations/implications

Findings from this study may be limited by the validity of the self‐reported measures. The data were cross‐sectional, making it impossible to draw inferences about the causal directions of the relationships found in this study. Future research should focus on developing interventions to strengthen youth assets.

Practical implications

Developing gender and culturally specific interventions to promote youth assets may reduce the number of young people engaging in sex.

Originality/value

The paper extends previous research and examines attendance at religious services and involvement in religious/church activities as separate items to determine if one aspect was more strongly associated with never having had sexual intercourse.

Details

Health Education, vol. 110 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Caroline Krafft and Reham Rizk

Entrepreneurship is promoted as a solution to high rates of youth unemployment around the world and especially in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is promoted as a solution to high rates of youth unemployment around the world and especially in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This paper investigates the potential for youth entrepreneurship to alleviate unemployment, focusing on Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine who entrepreneurs are (in comparison to the unemployed), using multinomial logit models. The authors compare entrepreneurs' and wage workers' working conditions and earnings. They exploit panel data to assess earnings and occupational dynamics. They specifically use the Labor Market Panel Surveys of 2012 (Egypt), 2016 (Jordan), and 2014 (Tunisia), along with previous waves.

Findings

The authors find that entrepreneurs are the opposite of the unemployed in MENA. The unemployed are disproportionately young, educated and women. Entrepreneurs are older, less educated and primarily men. Entrepreneurship does not generally lead to higher earnings and does have fewer benefits.

Originality/value

Promoting youth entrepreneurship is not only unlikely to be successful in reducing youth unemployment in MENA, but also, if successful, may even be harmful to youth.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Anna Broka and Anu Toots

The authors’ aim is to establish the variance of youth welfare citizenship regimes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and to revisit the applicability of the regime…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors’ aim is to establish the variance of youth welfare citizenship regimes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and to revisit the applicability of the regime approach to the emerging welfare regimes (EWRs).

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis follows the descriptive case study strategy aiming to discover diversity of youth welfare citizenship patterns. The case selection is made within the CEE country group, which includes countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, Eastern Europe and Southeast Europe, all sharing the communist past. The subdivision of these countries in reference to the welfare states can be made via the European Union (EU) membership based on the assumption that EU social policy frameworks and recommendations have an important effect on domestic policies. We included countries which are in the EU, i.e., with a similar political and economic transition path. There were three waves of accession to the EU in CEE countries. In the first wave (2004), all the Baltic countries, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Slovenia joined. In the second wave (2007), Romania and Bulgaria joined. Finally, Croatia joined the EU in 2013. Altogether 11 CEE countries are the EU members today, the remaining CEE countries are non-EU members and thus are excluded from the current research. Those countries which are part of the EU share similarities in social and economic reforms during the pre-accession period and after in order to reach a comparatively similar system with other member states. So, in terms of casing strategy these six countries can be named as emerging welfare regimes (EWRs) evolving transformations across different public policy areas. Handpicking of six countries out of 11 relies on the assumption that the Anglo-Saxon welfare system characteristics are more evident in the Baltic countries (Aidukaite, 2019; Aidukaite et al., 2020; Ainsaar et al., 2020; Rajevska and Rajevska, 2020) and Slovenia, while in Bulgaria and Croatia certain outcomes reflect the Bismarckian principles of social security (Hrast and Rakar, 2020; Stoilova and Krasteva, 2020; Dobrotić, 2020). This brings important variety into our analysis logic. Last but not least, we juxtapose six CEE EWR countries under analysis with six mature welfare regime countries representing different welfare regime types. Those mature welfare regime countries (Finland, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy, UK) are not an explicit object of the study but help to put analysed CEE EWR cases into larger context and thus, reflect upon theoretical claims of the welfare regime literature.

Findings

The authors can confirm that the EWR countries can be rather well explained by the welfare citizenship typology and complement the existing knowledge on youth welfare regime typology clusters in the Western Europe. Estonia is clustered close to the Nordic countries, whereas Latvia, Lithuania, Croatia and Slovenia are close to the Bismarckian welfare model despite rather flexible, non-restricted educational path, universal child and student support. Bulgaria is an outlier; however, it is clustered together with mature Mediterranean welfare regimes. Former intact welfare regime clusters are becoming more diverse. The authors’ findings confirm that there is no any intact cluster of the “post-communist” welfare regime and Eastern European countries are today “on move”.

Research limitations/implications

Altogether 11 CEE countries are the EU members today. The remaining CEE countries are non-EU members and thus are excluded from the current research. Those countries which are part of the EU share similarities in social and economic reforms during the pre-accession period and after in order to reach a comparatively similar system with other member states. At least one CEE country was chosen based on existing theoretical knowledge on the welfare regime typology (Anglo Saxon, Beveridgean, Bismarckian) for the Post-communist country groups.

Practical implications

In the social citizenship dimension we dropped social assistance schemes and tax-relief indices and included poverty risk and housing measures. Youth poverty together with housing showed rather clear distinction between familialized and individualised countries and thus, made the typology stronger. In the economic dimension the preliminary picture was much fuzzier, mainly due to the comprehensive education in the region and intervention of the EU in domestic ALMPs (and VET) reforms. The authors added a new indicator (pro-youth orientation of ALMP) in order better to capture youth-sensitivity of policy.

Social implications

The authors included a working poverty measure (in-work poverty rate) in order to reflect labour market insecurity as an increasing concern. Yet, the analysis results were still mixed and new indicators did not help locating the regime types.

Originality/value

In order to improve the validity of the youth welfare citizenship regime economic dimension, Chevalier's (2020) model may also be worth revisiting. The authors argue that this dichotomy is not sufficient, because inclusive type can have orientation towards general skills or occupational skills (i.e. monitored or enabling citizenship clusters), which is currently ignored. Chevalier (2020) furthermore associates inclusive economic citizenship with “coordinated market economies” (referring to Hall and Soskice, 2001), which seems hardly hold validity in the Nordic and at least some CEE countries.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Nduka Elda Okolo-obasi and Joseph Ikechukwu Uduji

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the agri-business/small and medium investment schemes (AGSMEIS) in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the agri-business/small and medium investment schemes (AGSMEIS) in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the AGSMEIS on youth entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 1,200 respondents were sampled across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria.

Findings

The results from the use of a combined propensity score matching (PSM) and logit model indicate that AGSMEIS initiative generates significance gains in empowering youths in enterprise development, and if enhanced will help many young people become entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

This suggests that AGSMEIS initiative can facilitate youth's access to credit and help them become owners of small and medium enterprises.

Social implications

It implies that investing in young people for small and medium enterprises could bring Nigeria into the modern economy and lift sub-Saharan Africa out of poverty.

Originality/value

This research adds to the literature on youth entrepreneurship development’s debate in developing countries. It concludes that targeting the young people in AGSMEIS should form the foundation of public policy for entrepreneurship, poverty alleviation, and economic development.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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