Nations are currently facing two big movements: globalization of the market and need for increasing competitiveness. Liberalization and deregulation in international trade…
Nations are currently facing two big movements: globalization of the market and need for increasing competitiveness. Liberalization and deregulation in international trade, finance and investment have drastically reduced global transaction costs and advanced the integration of global markets. But they have simultaneously restricted a range of domestic economic policy options. Despite so, national competitiveness has to be continuously cultivated, so that a nation can fully make use of comparative advantages in the global market. Then, strongly embedded in socio‐economic conditions, national competitiveness requires highly efficient and effective systems of production that match both domestic socio‐economic and global market conditions. Globalization of the market and developing national competitiveness are basically contradictory: globalization compels the development of mechanisms to generate allocative‐efficiency, while national competitiveness requires the development of systems that strengthen national capability and optimize X‐efficiency embedded in socio‐economic conditions. Coping with the two contradictory trends requires the open and flexible adaptation of existing systems to global market conditions, resulting in path dependent globalization. Recent financial deregulation in Japan is a good example, that shows a painful process of path dependent globalization, maintaining national competitiveness while openly and flexibly transferring socio‐economic conditions to suit to new global conditions.
In contrast to the MDGs' top-down approach, the SDGs took the bottom-up approach of participants, creating an open space for soliciting their aspirations, efforts, creativity, and…
In contrast to the MDGs' top-down approach, the SDGs took the bottom-up approach of participants, creating an open space for soliciting their aspirations, efforts, creativity, and commitment. Inclusive business (IB), identified as the key means to alleviate poverty and inequality in developing countries, undeniably struggles in this space to find new ways of thinking and management to achieve a suitable balance between serving social needs and achieving business sustainability. However, multinational corporations have not yet made significant achievements, due to a biased orientation of including the poor into their system of developed countries' institutions. From a neutral position, not asking who includes or yields to whom, this research project proposes to use the concept of institutional interconnections and its various analytical factors to examine how diverse partners are interconnected to overcome institutional differences. Differences in interconnections are hypothesized to differentiate IB's socioeconomic effects and poverty alleviation.
A Novartis social business in India completely separated the activities of its social and business units—the former engaging in raising the health awareness of villagers and…
A Novartis social business in India completely separated the activities of its social and business units—the former engaging in raising the health awareness of villagers and encouraging them to visit free health camps, while the latter developed affordable medicine delivered directly to village pharmacies. Connections between these units were made through open and fluid market-type mechanisms, and by appealing to the needs and interests of villagers with incentives. This synchronized business model was developed partly because Novartis believed in villagers' self-initiated behavior for health improvements, which made it not interfere into marginalized institutions, and more significantly because it used its internalized control and coordination systems with clear goals of social contribution in operating the business unit. Consequently, Novartis achieved economies of scale, business sustainability, and social contribution.
Cross-boundary cooperation with shared goals and values involving the poor has been argued as an indispensable means for inclusive business (IB) success. Cooperation may become…
Cross-boundary cooperation with shared goals and values involving the poor has been argued as an indispensable means for inclusive business (IB) success. Cooperation may become dynamic, especially when exploratory and creative attempts with effective cooperative learning among partners can be realized. Even so, not many companies have reported successful in building the cooperation. One case, providing clean, affordable drinking water to the poor in Tanzanian rural villages, suggests that a delegated and grassroots-based approach in cooperation with a highly trustworthy local partner can successfully promote cooperative learning and transfer know-how in both operations and management. This approach also stimulates local and self-initiated activities for expanding water facilities and generating local businesses in an area where employment is scarce. Deviation from mainstream-institution-based operations and management is one example of institutional interconnections that enable the rural poor to self-manage projects and stimulate self-initiated business activities, consequently contributing to rural development and sustainable development goals.
Inclusive business (IB) is becoming increasingly important as a means to alleviate poverty and inequality in the world, one of the most significant goals set forth by the…
Inclusive business (IB) is becoming increasingly important as a means to alleviate poverty and inequality in the world, one of the most significant goals set forth by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Many companies have been engaging in IB projects. Even so, why are only a limited number of projects reported to be successful? IB involves complex situations, since it tries to achieve contradictory goals of solving social issues and generating a decent level of profit for sustainability. This often requires partnering with social-issue-oriented organizations by developing cross-boundary cooperation, as well as the need to associate with local partners and the poor in developing countries, who have different institutional backgrounds from multinational corporation (MNC) managers in developed countries. IB clearly involves people with diverse institutional backgrounds to develop cooperative relations. The biggest cause of IB failures seems to be MNCs’ difficulties in overcoming institutional differences vis-à-vis local partners and the poor, and interconnecting different institutions among diverse partners in an IB project. By conducting case studies of seven relatively successful IB projects in India, Ghana, and Tanzania, this book explores answers as to how companies overcome institutional differences, interconnect diverse institutions, develop cross-boundary cooperation, and successfully fuse business and social goals, namely, how they develop institutional interconnections. This chapter also briefly introduces the book’s structure and presented cases.
Given the complexity of inclusive business (IB) to combine social contribution and business sustainability, companies make strategic choices. One multinational corporation (MNC…
Given the complexity of inclusive business (IB) to combine social contribution and business sustainability, companies make strategic choices. One multinational corporation (MNC) avoided interconnections with villagers and used only market-based relations with stimulants and incentives in the market. Another one delegated management completely to local partners, succeeding in stimulating the poor’s self-initiated economic activities. MNCs seem to have difficulties in handling institutional interconnections. In such cases, market-based relations or delegating management to the local partners were found to be highly effective for covering missing capabilities. One foreign NGO, despite its well-developed institutional interconnections with the locals, is struggling to develop markets for its social enterprises. In contrast, one local trust successfully cooperated with many local partners, appealing to local institutions (values and beliefs). Also, poor farmers felt the social contributions of two local companies by being incorporated into the companies’ supply chains backed by their corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations and activities. Hence, both foreign and domestic organizations seem to succeed in IB by embedding their projects to their original institutions and developing diverse mechanisms to compensate for missing capabilities. One exception is a local company which successfully coordinated MNCs’ CSR activities, local communities, and governments. However, its success is owing to governmental regulation for CSR contribution. In general, though restricted by institutional backgrounds and business orientations, each case tried to create a fit between business models and its contingencies, achieve scale (at the level of communities, nations, or the global market) and business sustainability, and generate socioeconomic effects.
- Institutional interconnection avoidance
- interest mediation in cross-boundary cooperation
- boundary-blurring cross-boundary cooperation
- self-decision and initiative of the poor
- social-enterprise diversification for risk hedging
- supply-chain-derived human dignity
- behavioral alteration with needs, incentives, and price
- dynamic social activities creating economies of scale
- local, national, or global scale economies
- unexpected businesses opportunities
What does it take to effectively implement an inclusive business in the agro-processing industry? The author examines the experiences of two agro-processing firms in Ghana. The…
What does it take to effectively implement an inclusive business in the agro-processing industry? The author examines the experiences of two agro-processing firms in Ghana. The literature indicates that any business that combines employment opportunities with expanded output of goods and services is both socially and economically beneficial. The author found that the creation of new markets for local suppliers, expanded output of goods and services, and the development of new markets for formerly undetected needs and wants—both domestic and international—offered prospects of transforming the lives of the poor through creation of wealth and dignity.