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Discussion and Conclusion *

Institutional Interconnections and Cross-Boundary Cooperation in Inclusive Business

ISBN: 978-1-80117-213-4, eISBN: 978-1-80117-212-7

Publication date: 5 November 2021


Given the complexity of inclusive business (IB) to combine social contribution and business sustainability, companies make strategic choices. One multinational corporation (MNC) avoided interconnections with villagers and used only market-based relations with stimulants and incentives in the market. Another one delegated management completely to local partners, succeeding in stimulating the poor’s self-initiated economic activities. MNCs seem to have difficulties in handling institutional interconnections. In such cases, market-based relations or delegating management to the local partners were found to be highly effective for covering missing capabilities. One foreign NGO, despite its well-developed institutional interconnections with the locals, is struggling to develop markets for its social enterprises. In contrast, one local trust successfully cooperated with many local partners, appealing to local institutions (values and beliefs). Also, poor farmers felt the social contributions of two local companies by being incorporated into the companies’ supply chains backed by their corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientations and activities. Hence, both foreign and domestic organizations seem to succeed in IB by embedding their projects to their original institutions and developing diverse mechanisms to compensate for missing capabilities. One exception is a local company which successfully coordinated MNCs’ CSR activities, local communities, and governments. However, its success is owing to governmental regulation for CSR contribution. In general, though restricted by institutional backgrounds and business orientations, each case tried to create a fit between business models and its contingencies, achieve scale (at the level of communities, nations, or the global market) and business sustainability, and generate socioeconomic effects.



Okada, Y., Stanislawski, S. and Amponsah, S. (2021), "Discussion and Conclusion * ", Okada, Y. and Stanislawski, S. (Ed.) Institutional Interconnections and Cross-Boundary Cooperation in Inclusive Business, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 199-222.



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Copyright © 2022 Yoshitaka Okada, Sumire Stanislawski, and Samuel Amponsah. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited