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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Valter da Silva Faia and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous regulatory focus and sales force control literature suggesting that organizational control system not only moderates but also…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous regulatory focus and sales force control literature suggesting that organizational control system not only moderates but also mediates the interactive effect of the assessment × locomotion on salesperson ambidextrous behavior. Organizational control system, which has behavior and outcome dimensions, moderates the effects of employee regulatory focus on their ambidextrous behavior, sales performance, and satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey with 163 bank frontline employees (FLEs) who sell financial products to final consumers. Each respondent was approached by a professional interviewer who presented the questionnaire and collected the answers. These respondents are FLEs, who are the ones that sell financial services and are responsible for post-sales services, such as answering customer questions and account problems. In the sample, FLEs are the primary source of revenue generation and services activities (ambidextrous features) in banking sector, similar to Bailey et al. (2016).

Findings

First, the moderating and mediation analysis showed that the interactive effect of both regulatory focus, locomotion and assessment, predicts FLE ambidextrous behavior. Second, this interaction effect suffers a three-way interaction under organizational control system. Third, organizational control system also moderates the impact of ambidextrous behavior on performance, such that outcome-based control system amplifies the relationship. Fourth, the authors found a conditional indirect effect, in such ambidextrous behavior, mediates the indirect effect of control system on sales performance, generating stronger (vs weaker) results under an outcome-based control system (vs behavior-based control system).

Research limitations/implications

Since this study adopts the cross-sectional research design, the authors could not empirically demonstrate the causality of the relationships among constructs. The authors also analyzed the organizational control system from the FLEs perspective and not from the supervisors/managers perspective, who daily control employees activities.

Originality/value

The authors propose a conditioning indirect mediating impact of control system on performance and consumer satisfaction through ambidextrous behavior and explore the regulatory focus-ambidexterity-performance moderating chain, theorizing that this sequence depends on the level of control system.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Valter Afonso Vieira, Valter da Silva Faia, James Boles, Bruno Rafael Marioti and Rita Cassia Pereira

The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical model that posits locomotion-assessment ambidextrous orientation as predictor of salesperson acquisition–retention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical model that posits locomotion-assessment ambidextrous orientation as predictor of salesperson acquisition–retention ambidexterity, which as a consequence increases sales. The authors drawing on regulatory focus theory and self-regulatory for this propose.

Design/methodology/approach

Salespeople involved in the study represent different firms selling a wide variety of food and household products to a wholesaler, which resells them to supermarket chains. The authors collected data from 231 industrial salespeople.

Findings

First, salesperson assessment focus amplified locomotion’s effect on acquisition–retention ambidexterity. Second, salespeople increased their performance by implementing an acquisition–retention ambidextrous orientation that balances prospecting for new customers and growing existing customers. Third, findings revealed a mediating effect of ambidextrous orientation on the relationship between regulatory mode and sales performance. Finally, outcomes supported the conditional moderated-mediated effect of regulatory mode in explaining performance through ambidextrous orientation.

Practical implications

Results suggest that salespeople need to equalize their dual orientations in a complementary way to elaborate their selling strategies according to each customer. For example, in an unbalanced orientation, putting high levels of assessment into a sales encounter can reduce the effective and efficient use of time in interacting with customers.

Originality/value

The authors further illustrate the importance of using both locomotion and assessment in attaining sales goals (Pierro et al. 2013). This synergistic effect is known as the complementary hypothesis (Pierro et al., 2006a, 2006b). Each dimension complements the other and has a moderated-mediated effect on performance through acquisition–retention ambidexterity.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Valter Vieira, Fernando Oliveira Santini and Clécio Falcao Araujo

Hedonic and utilitarian shopping values have been researched since the mid-1980s in the fields of marketing, retail and specially on consumer behaviour. A number of studies have…

5022

Abstract

Purpose

Hedonic and utilitarian shopping values have been researched since the mid-1980s in the fields of marketing, retail and specially on consumer behaviour. A number of studies have found evidence of their effects on satisfaction, buying intention and loyalty, but others have found no such effects or negative results. The purpose of this study is to apply a meta-analytic review on the shopping values.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a meta-analysis of the relationship between hedonic and utilitarian value on shopping response, using 190 studies. The authors also limited their search to the past 19 years (1995-2014).

Findings

The findings are as follows: hedonic shopping value is positively associated with utilitarian, ρ = 0.56; hedonic and utilitarian exhibit positive main effects on satisfaction, buying intention, loyalty, perceived benefits and search for information; in general, these associations are stronger (vs weaker) for utilitarian value; the effect size for the association between utilitarian and buying intention is stronger in the experimental condition and the indirect effect of hedonic on value, loyalty and word-of-mouth by the mediating effect of value.

Research limitations/implications

The authors proposed and found support for the parallel mediating effect. They also observed that not only hedonic and utilitarian shopping values had indirect effects on loyalty and word-of-mouth through perceived value and satisfaction but also both shopping values had different effects depending on the respective mediator. The indirect effects of hedonic values occur because the emotional and psychological circumstances of experience increase the perceived value, influencing consumers’ responses.

Practical implications

Retailers can create specific stores for consumers to attend to their shopping values. For example, the Adidas brand centre in Beijing/China provides the consumer with a unique and interactive retail experience. This kind of concept store and its experience (e.g. tunnel entry and team room) are congruent with shoppers’ hedonic value. Conversely, Nike Factory Store in the USA provides the consumer with a simple and fast retail experience.

Originality/value

The authors provide sufficient evidence that the two dimensions, hedonic and utilitarian value, are positively associated. This result is congruent with Batra and Ahtola (1991), Babin et al. (1994) and Spangenberg et al. (1997). The results support Chiu et al.’s (2005) argument that utilitarian and hedonic are positively associated based on Fishbein and Ajzen’s affect–cognition link and suggested that the instrumental and functional values are related to spontaneous responses that are more subjective and personal.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Fernando De Oliveira Santini, Wagner Junior Ladeira, Valter Afonso Vieira, Clécio Falcão Araujo and Claudio Hoffmann Sampaio

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to distinguish between various types of antecedents and consequences of impulse buying. The authors tested it using a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to distinguish between various types of antecedents and consequences of impulse buying. The authors tested it using a meta-analytical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined 12 databases and analyzed 178 relationships in 100 articles. For the quantitative data analysis, the authors used the coefficient of correlation r as a metric to measure the effect size of the studied scope variables.

Findings

The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrated significant relation of antecedents and consequences of the impulse buying behavior, such as consumer impulsiveness (r = 0.464), materialistic consumption (r = 0.344), purchase pleasure (r = 0.270), hedonic value (r = 0.311), income (r = 0.703), gender (r = 0.150), age (r = −0.062), store atmosphere (r = 0.166), decision-making (r = 0.703) and positive emotions (r = 0.323).

Research limitations/implications

This meta-analysis reviewed relationships found worldwide in the literature, expanding and improving the current knowledge. The meta-analysis identified ways that research on impulse buying is lacking and presented suggestions for the elaboration of new studies to allow future researchers to better define their agendas.

Practical implications

This meta-analysis brings important questions, such as impulse buying behavior is associated not only with consumer impulsiveness but also with materialistic consumption.

Originality/value

This research tested the impact of the antecedents and consequences of impulse buying and presented important results through this meta-analytical review. This meta-analysis contributes to the marketing literature, with a set of empirical generalizations, including relationship coefficients and calculated fail-safe numbers.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Valter Afonso Vieira, Juliano Domingues da Silva and Colin Gabler

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to determine the impact of interpersonal identification on sales performance; second, to uncover whether or not that relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to determine the impact of interpersonal identification on sales performance; second, to uncover whether or not that relationship changes direction based on levels organizational prestige; and third, to test the antecedent of managerial support on salesperson interpersonal identification. Ultimately, the authors want to provide sales managers with tangible ways to nurture the self-concept of their sales force while optimizing sales performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the hypotheses using a data set of 196 B2C retail salespeople in the shoe industry. Respondents answered a printed questionnaire, which was analyzed using multiple linear regression and response surface analysis.

Findings

The authors find that managerial support does positively influence interpersonal identification among salespeople which, in turn, increases sales performance. However, the relationship is curvilinear, becoming negative when over-identification occurs. This inverted U-shaped relationship is moderated by organizational prestige such that the negative influence is overcome by employees who have pride and confidence in their organization.

Practical implications

Managers should balance the level of support that they provide their employees. While this mentorship generally leads to positive results, too much can lead to over-identification, and consequently reduce sales performance. However, this negative effect can be overcome if the salesperson perceives his organization as prestigious. Therefore, a mix of guidance and autonomy may foster the strongest self-concept among the sales team and generate the most positive outcomes. Further, managers should monitor their employees’ perceptions of the company, communicating its strong reputation internally to generate organizational prestige.

Originality/value

The authors extend social identity theory in a sales context to provide a better understanding of how self-concept can be altered – for better or worse – by the sales manager. The authors also show the importance of communicating your company’s social value to employees. While over-identification in the manager–employee dyad can create a “tipping point” where sales performance begins to decrease, organizational prestige may be able to overcome this effect, demonstrating the power of prestige. Together, the authors present the importance of contextual and external influences on individual sales performance.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Celso Augusto de Matos, Valter Vieira, Katia Bonfanti and Frederike Monika Budiner Mette

The purpose of this is to propose a model in which materialism is a mediator of the effects of self-esteem, impulsiveness, attitude toward debt, attitude toward credit card and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this is to propose a model in which materialism is a mediator of the effects of self-esteem, impulsiveness, attitude toward debt, attitude toward credit card and economic vulnerability on consumer indebtedness. The effects of financial knowledge, financial ability, credit card use and demographic variables are also taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from a sample of 1,245 low-income consumers from Brazil were used to test the hypotheses using structural equation modeling.

Findings

First, materialism has a significant effect on consumer indebtedness; at the same time, it is influenced by self-esteem, impulsiveness and attitude toward debt. Second, materialism acts as a mediator, e.g. higher impulsiveness triggers materialism, which influences debt level. Third, indebtedness is higher for women and those who use a higher number of credit cards and are more educated.

Social implications

Financial education programs should work to increase individual’s perceived ability to manage money, as the individuals who feel less able to manage their personal finances alone (i.e. lower financial ability) presented higher indebtedness.

Originality/value

This study investigates consumer indebtedness by addressing factors that have been analyzed independently in the literature. The research combines psychological, financial and economic factors with credit card use and demographic variables to explain consumer indebtedness. Moreover, the study supports the mediating role of materialism for the antecedents of consumer indebtedness, e.g. impulsiveness and attitude toward debt.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2023

Elizandra Severgnini, Valter Afonso Vieira, Gustavo Abib and Ronei Leonel

The authors extend the recent research using the risk component of human resource’s (HR’s) compensation plans to examine the effects of risk components on two strategic outcomes…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors extend the recent research using the risk component of human resource’s (HR’s) compensation plans to examine the effects of risk components on two strategic outcomes: within-firm temporal change, or strategic variation, and firm strategic divergence from the industry, or strategic deviation. In addition, the authors examine the role of previous financial performance as a boundary moderator condition of the effects of risk components in the compensation plan and firm strategic outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the effects of low- and high-risk components of executive compensation on strategic variation and deviation over time, the authors collected data from 2,510 companies listed in the Standard and Poor’s 500 index in a panel data format of a 12-year period. The authors gathered financial and other firm-level data from COMPUSTAT, and executive compensation and executive-level data from ExecuComp.

Findings

The findings support the main effects of risk components on strategic change, while both high- and low-risk components act on strategic deviation contingent on the moderating role of total shareholder return (TSR). In the theoretical framework, the authors test the moderating role of total shareholder return (TSR) as a boundary condition of the effects of risk components in the compensation plan. In doing so, the authors provide a fine-grained understanding of the influence of compensation plan risk components on outcomes proximal to executives, such as the maintenance of the status quo and the search for financial gains.

Research limitations/implications

New studies can explore a three-way moderating effect on performance indicators, such as TSR, Tobin’s Q and return on asset. The authors addressed this limitation and did a comparative analysis, but the authors did not include additional moderating mechanisms in these interactive effects.

Practical implications

By disaggregating the executive’s compensation based on the risk components, boards of directors can mitigate any possible unwanted biases in the relationship between principal and agent.

Originality/value

By considering the influence of both low- and high-risk components of compensation plans on strategic outcomes –instead of firm performance – this study expands strategy literature supporting the influence of compensation schema on a firm’s outcomes. This path is new because it offers a moderating perspective to understand the strategic deviations and changes that chief executive officers imprint in their firms.

Propósito

Los autores amplían la investigación reciente usando el componente de riesgo de los planes de compensación de RH para examinar los efectos de los componentes de riesgo en dos resultados estratégicos: cambio temporal dentro de la empresa, o variación estratégica, y divergencia estratégica de la empresa de la industria, o desviación estratégica. Además, examinamos el papel del desempeño financiero anterior como una condición moderadora límite de los efectos de los componentes de riesgo en el plan de compensación y los resultados estratégicos de la empresa.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Para examinar los efectos de los componentes de alto y bajo riesgo de la compensación ejecutiva en la variación y desviación estratégica a lo largo del tiempo, recopilamos datos de 2510 empresas que figuran en el índice Standard & Poor's 500 en un formato de datos de panel de un período de 12 años. Los autores recopilaron datos financieros y de otro tipo a nivel de empresa de COMPUSTAT, y compensación de ejecutivos, y datos a nivel ejecutivo de EXECUCOMP.

Hallazgos

Nuestros hallazgos respaldan los efectos principales de los componentes de riesgo en el cambio estratégico, mientras que los componentes de alto y bajo riesgo actúan sobre la desviación estratégica dependiendo del papel moderador del rendimiento total del accionista. En el marco teórico, los autores prueban el papel moderador del Retorno Total del Accionista como condición límite de los efectos de los componentes de riesgo en el plan de compensación. Al hacerlo, brindamos una comprensión detallada de la influencia de los componentes de riesgo del plan de compensación en los resultados próximos a los ejecutivos, como el mantenimiento del statu quo y la búsqueda de ganancias financieras.

Originalidad

al considerar la influencia de los componentes de bajo y alto riesgo de los planes de compensación en los resultados estratégicos, en lugar del desempeño de la empresa, este estudio amplía la literatura de estrategia que respalda la influencia del esquema de compensación en los resultados de una empresa. Este camino es nuevo porque ofrece una perspectiva moderadora para entender las desviaciones y cambios estratégicos que los CEOs imprimen en sus firmas.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

los nuevos estudios pueden explorar un efecto moderador de tres vías en los indicadores de rendimiento, como TSR, Tobin's Q y ROA. Abordamos esta limitación e hicimos un análisis comparativo, pero no incluimos mecanismos moderadores adicionales en estos efectos interactivos.

Implicaciones prácticas

al desagregar la compensación del ejecutivo en función de los componentes de riesgo, las juntas directivas pueden mitigar cualquier posible sesgo no deseado en la relación entre el principal y el agente.

Objetivo

Os autores estendem a pesquisa recente usando o componente de risco dos planos de remuneração de RH para examinar os efeitos dos componentes de risco em dois resultados estratégicos: mudança temporal dentro da empresa, ou variação estratégica, e divergência estratégica da empresa do setor, ou desvio estratégico. Além disso, examinamos o papel do desempenho financeiro anterior como uma condição moderadora dos efeitos dos componentes de risco no plano de remuneração e nos resultados estratégicos da empresa.

Projeto/metodologia/abordagem

Para examinar os efeitos dos componentes de baixo e alto risco da remuneração executiva na variação e desvio estratégico ao longo do tempo, coletamos dados de 2.510 empresas listadas no índice Standard & Poor's 500 em um formato de dados de painel de um período de 12 anos. Os autores coletaram dados financeiros e de outros níveis da empresa da COMPUSTAT, remuneração executiva e dados de nível executivo da EXECUCOMP.

Resultados

Nossos resultados suportam os principais efeitos dos componentes de risco na mudança estratégica, enquanto os componentes de alto e baixo risco atuam no desvio estratégico contingente ao papel moderador do Retorno Total ao Acionista. No referencial teórico, os autores testam o papel moderador do Total Shareholder Return como condição limite dos efeitos dos componentes de risco no plano de remuneração. Ao fazer isso, fornecemos uma compreensão refinada da influência dos componentes de risco do plano de remuneração nos resultados próximos aos executivos, como a manutenção do status quo e a busca por ganhos financeiros.

Originalidade

ao considerar a influência dos componentes de baixo e alto risco dos planos de remuneração nos resultados estratégicos -em vez do desempenho da empresa- este estudo expande a literatura de estratégia que apoia a influência do esquema de remuneração nos resultados de uma empresa. Esse caminho é novo porque oferece uma perspectiva moderadora para entender os desvios e mudanças estratégicas que os CEOs imprimem em suas empresas.

Limitações/implicações da pesquisa

Novos estudos podem explorar um efeito moderador de três vias em indicadores de desempenho, como TSR, Q de Tobin e ROA. Abordamos essa limitação e fizemos uma análise comparativa, mas não incluímos mecanismos moderadores adicionais nesses efeitos interativos.

Implicações práticas

Ao desagregar a remuneração do executivo com base nos componentes de risco, os conselhos de administração podem mitigar possíveis vieses indesejados na relação entre principal e agente.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2022

Valter Afonso Vieira, Robert Mayberry, James Boles, Julie Johnson-Busbin and Rita Cassia Pereira

Drawing on Foa and Foa’s elaboration of social exchange theory, the authors propose that buyers reciprocate perceived commitment on the part of the salesperson and supplier with…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on Foa and Foa’s elaboration of social exchange theory, the authors propose that buyers reciprocate perceived commitment on the part of the salesperson and supplier with commitment on their own parts because of strengthening of the relationship’s tacit governance mechanism – cooperative norms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from 155 buyers doing business with a multinational supplier. The buyers were from firms generating less than $100,000 in billings. The salesforce of the supplier firm sponsoring the research is responsible for account management and communicating directly with buyers.

Findings

Buyers, who feel that their suppliers are providing a symbolic, long-term, particularistic benefit (commitment), respond with their own strengthened commitment to the relationship; this mutualism is explained entirely by the mediating effect of the relationship’s cooperative norms. Where buyers perceive generally favorable treatment (satisfaction), without these three qualities, their own reciprocal commitment increases directly and cooperative norms play no part. The results also demonstrate the transition of buyer perceptions of the salesperson as they develop into beliefs about the selling firm as a whole.

Practical implications

Drawing on the “reciprocation-in-kind” principle, supplier firms seeking long-term, open-ended commitment from their customers should cultivate it via similarly long-term and open-ended commitments of their own. Attention must be given to the unwritten, often unstated “rules of the road” for business relationships, as these rules represent the mechanism through which investments in long-term, profitable partnerships bear fruit.

Originality/value

The conceptual model draws on and empirically tests Foa and Foa’s framework within social exchange theory to predict what form of buyer reciprocation will result, based on the characteristics of perceived seller-provided benefits. This study illustrates that the tacit governance structure of a B2B relationship – its cooperative norms – plays a critical role in the strength of a buyer’s commitment to its supplier.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2018

Elizandra Severgnini, Valter Afonso Vieira and Edwin Vladimir Cardoza Galdamez

Performance measurement systems (PMSs) have long been used for monitoring and improving administrative performance. In parallel, organizational ambidexterity refers to firms that…

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Abstract

Purpose

Performance measurement systems (PMSs) have long been used for monitoring and improving administrative performance. In parallel, organizational ambidexterity refers to firms that manage different organizational functions and various demands to generate performance. The purpose of this paper is to propose that three dimensions of PMS increase organizational ambidexterity and consequently they influence organizational performance. In this framework, organizational ambidexterity mediates the relationships between three dimensions of PMS and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through a structured questionnaire sent to Brazilian software companies. Owners, directors, project managers and responsible for company strategy answered the questionnaire. The final sample was 227 Brazilian software firms that answered according to their PMSs and organizational ambidexterity.

Findings

The results provide four main findings. First, the three dimensions of PMS, namely—attention focus, legitimization and strategic decision-making—influenced organizational ambidexterity. Second, organizational ambidexterity had a major effect on organizational performance. Third, organizational ambidexterity mediated the indirect effects of attention focus, legitimization and strategic decision-making on organizational performance. Fourth, exploration and exploitation—two dimensions of organizational ambidexterity—mediated the indirect effect of the abovementioned PMS dimensions on organizational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Although there are different dimensions of organizational ambidexterity, this paper is limited to two of the most used ones: exploitation and exploration. In addition, the results were limited to subjective—in contrast to objective—performance measures.

Practical implications

Software companies can use PMS for attention focus, legitimization of firm’s choices and strategic decision-making to increase their exploration and exploitation capabilities. Moreover, software companies can use strategic decision-making to control existing strategies and establish new strategies for legitimizing ambidextrous choices and thereby support their decision-making process.

Originality/value

The data showed that not only organizational ambidexterity mediates the effects of the three dimensions of PMS use on performance, but also exploration and exploitation.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Giuliana Isabella and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender congruency…

4201

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender congruency. Emotional contagion happens when an emotion is transferred from a sender to a receiver by the synchronization of emotions from the emitter. Drawing on emotional contagion theory, the authors expand this concept and propose that smiles in static facial expressions influence product evaluation. They suggest that false smiles do not have the same impact as genuine smiles on product evaluation, and the congruence between the model gender–product in a static ad and the gender of the viewer moderates the effects.

Design/methodology/approach

In Experiment 1, subjects were randomly assigned to view one of the two ad treatments to guard against systematic error (e.g. bias). In Experiment 2, it was investigated whether viewing a static ad featuring a model with a false smile can result in a positive product evaluation as was the case with genuine smiles (H3). In Experiment 3, it was assumed that when consumers evaluate an ad featuring a smiling face, the facial expression influences product evaluation, and this influence is moderated by the congruence between the gender of the ad viewer and the product H gender of the model in the ad.

Findings

Across three experiments, the authors found that the model’s facial expression influenced the product evaluation. Second, they supported the association between a model’s facial expression and mimicry synchronization. Third, they showed that genuine smiles have a higher impact on product evaluation than false smiles. This novel result enlarges the research on genuine smiles to include false smiles. Fourth, the authors supported the gender–product congruence effect in that the gender of the ad’s reader and the model have a moderating effect on the relationship between the model’s facial expression and the reader’s product evaluation.

Originality/value

Marketing managers would benefit from understanding that genuine smiles can encourage positive emotions on the part of consumers via emotional contagion, which would be very useful to create a positive effect on products. The authors improved upon previous psychological theory (Gunnery et al., 2013; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006) showing that a genuine smile results in higher evaluation scores of products presented in static ads. The theoretical explanation for this effect is the genuine smile, which involves contraction of both zygomatic major and orbicularis oculi muscles. These facial muscles can be better perceived and transmit positive emotions (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006).

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

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