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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Sharon M. Davidson and Amy Rummel

The state of Maine was selected for study, since adequate sales tax records were available during the early 1990s, when Wal‐Mart entered the state. The sales tax reports…

Abstract

The state of Maine was selected for study, since adequate sales tax records were available during the early 1990s, when Wal‐Mart entered the state. The sales tax reports were used to document the retail sales of Wal‐Mart towns, neighboring towns, and other towns in the state, in the years before and after a Wal‐Mart store’s arrival. The change in each community’s various categories of retail trade (building supply, food stores, general merchandise, other retail, auto and restaurants) was examined. The results indicate that the towns in each of the three categories were affected in the same manner: Wal‐Mart towns attract new shoppers and total retail sales increased at rates substantially higher than other towns in the state, while neighboring towns’ retail sales levels declined or increased at very low rates.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 28 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Nari Sivanandam Arunraj and Diane Ahrens

Weather is often referred as an uncontrollable factor, which influences customer’s buying decisions and causes the demand to move in any direction. Such a risk usually…

Abstract

Purpose

Weather is often referred as an uncontrollable factor, which influences customer’s buying decisions and causes the demand to move in any direction. Such a risk usually leads to loss to industries. However, only few research studies about weather and retail shopping are available in literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model and to analyze the relationship between weather and retail shopping behavior (i.e. store traffic and sales).

Design/methodology/approach

The data set for this research study is obtained from two food retail stores and a fashion retail store located in Lower Bavaria, Germany. All these three retail stores are in same geographical location. The weather data set was provided by a German weather service agency and is from a weather station nearer to the retail stores under study. The analysis for the study was drawn using multiple linear regression with autoregressive elements (MLR-AR). The estimated coefficients of weather variables using MLR-AR model represent corresponding weather impacts on the store traffic and the sales.

Findings

The snowfall has a significant effect on the store traffic and the sales in both food and fashion retail stores. In food retail store, the risk due to snowfall varies depending on the location of stores. There are also significant lagging effects of snowfall in the fashion retail store. However, the rainfall has a significant effect only on the store traffic in the food retail stores. In addition to these effects, the sales in the fashion retail store are highly affected by the temperature deviation.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations in availability of data for the weather variables and other demand influencing factors (e.g. promotion, tourism, online shopping, demography of customers, etc.) may reduce efficiency of the proposed MLR-AR model. In spite of these limitations, this study can be able to quantify the effects of weather variables on the store traffic and the sales.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the field of retail distribution by providing significant evidence of relationship between weather and retail business. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model tries to consider autocorrelation property, main and interaction effects between weather variables, temperature deviation and lagging effects of snowfall on the store traffic or the sales. The estimated weather impacts from this model can act as a reliable tool for retailers to explain the importance of different non-catastrophic weather events.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Linda S. Pettijohn and Charles E. Pettijohn

The retail environment of the future is likely to be increasinglycompetitive. Department and specialty stores must provide services whichdistinguish them from the…

Abstract

The retail environment of the future is likely to be increasingly competitive. Department and specialty stores must provide services which distinguish them from the competition. One method that may be used in attaining a distinctive position entails the development of a well‐trained, skilled retail salesforce. Examines retail sales training from the perspectives of 202 retail salespeople employed by full‐service retailers. Provides insight into the amount of training which should be provided and the topics which should be included in sales training programs.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Chao Yu, Chuanxu Wang and Suyong Zhang

This paper aims to analyze the impact of the cost coefficient of product emission reduction, coefficient of low-carbon product advertising effort cost, and sharing ratio…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the impact of the cost coefficient of product emission reduction, coefficient of low-carbon product advertising effort cost, and sharing ratio of low-carbon product advertising effort cost on the profit of a dual-channel supply chain. After determining the best model and relevant influencing factors, the paper puts forward corresponding management inspirations and suggestions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opts for an exploratory study using Stackelberg game theory to construct a centralized decision-making (MC mode), a low carbon product advertising effort cost free sharing decentralized decision-making (SD model) and a low carbon product advertising effort cost sharing decentralized decision-making (JD model) game model. Through using optimization methods to get the equilibrium solution, the relevant management suggestions are obtained by comparison analysis.

Findings

The paper shows that the JD model is better than the SD model in terms of the profits of the manufacturer, retailer and supply chain, and the improvement of Pareto is realized. The proportion of cost sharing of low carbon product advertising effort is positively related to the wholesale price and direct influence coefficient of low carbon product advertising effort on channel, while negatively related to the retail price and the cross influence coefficient of low carbon product advertising effort on alternative channels. Under the JD model, the manufacturer can reduce advertising costs through improving the efficiency and pertinence of direct channel advertising and urging the retailer to do a better job in sales management to improve gross margin and require the retailer to increase advertising efficiency and pertinence of retail channel to reduce advertising costs of retail channel and other ways to increase their profits. The retailer can make use of its advantages closer with consumers to improve the efficiency and pertinence of advertising in the retail channel to raise the influence coefficient of advertising and reduce the advertising cost in the retail channel.

Originality/value

The innovations of this paper are listed as follows: First, it has considered advertising investment from both the manufacturer and the retailer simultaneously. Second, it has considered a low-carbon background to investigate cooperative advertising decision for low-carbon products. Third, it has considered the decision on the level of product emission reduction and the level of low-carbon product advertising effort investment simultaneously.

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Jean-Louis Bertrand and Miia Parnaudeau

Retailers have long been aware that weather affects the sales of a myriad of products, but until now, most were not in a position to manage the risks weather presents…

Abstract

Purpose

Retailers have long been aware that weather affects the sales of a myriad of products, but until now, most were not in a position to manage the risks weather presents. Rising weather variability combined with advances in weather-index financial instruments have prompted new interest in investigating the relationship between sales and weather. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of changes in weather on UK retail sales, to estimate the contribution of weather to sales, and evaluate the maximum potential loss caused by adverse weather, for each season and retail sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present a methodology to identify and quantify the extent to which a company is exposed to weather risks, in order to incorporate them into its risk management policy and take actions to mitigate these risks. For each season and each retail category, the authors provide a measure of the impact of weather on sales that can be used as a benchmark to analyse sales performance.

Findings

The authors propose a new risk assessment indicator to evaluate the potential losses caused by adverse weather (WeatherRisk). The authors show that intra-annual changes in weather significantly affect retail sales. The exposure of retail categories to weather are not the same depending on the season, and the response of individual retail categories to the same change in weather varies considerably. Although temperature is a predominant explanatory variable, the authors show that weather-sensitivity analysis should include precipitation, humidity rate and wind.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the authors individually compute WeatherRisk for each significant weather variable. Further research could explore new approaches to evaluate Total WeatherRisk, which take into account potential multicollinearity issues between weather variables.

Practical implications

The methodology allows retailers to measure the effects of weather on sales performance, evaluate the risks at stake, and protect sales and margins from weather risks, with newly available index-based financial instruments. Managers may now actively use weather as a differential advantage, and at the same time focus their efforts on improving resiliency to increasing climate variability.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors produce a detailed analysis of the exposure of each retail sectors to unseasonal weather. This is the first time all retail sectors are analysed and ranked per season at a national level. The authors provide managers with actionable information to improve their understanding of how weather impact sales over each season, and to allow them to structure weather-index-based instruments with financial partners.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Julie Johnson‐Hillery, Jikyeong Kang and Wen‐Jan Tuan

Suggests that a significant trend affecting American society today is the dramatic rise in the number of persons aged over 65. Consequently, retailers are interested in…

Abstract

Suggests that a significant trend affecting American society today is the dramatic rise in the number of persons aged over 65. Consequently, retailers are interested in knowing how this segment can be best served in the marketplace. Outlines a study which utilized person perception theory to examine how retail sales personnel’s perceptions relate to elderly consumers’ satisfaction. Results indicate that elderly consumers viewed older sales personnel more positively than they viewed younger sales personnel. Also reveals that retail sales personnel’s perceptions of elderly consumers’ marketplace preferences and satisfaction were significantly different from those reported by elderly consumers. In addition to the theoretical implications, findings provide retailers with valuable information for improving their service to elderly consumers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1981

A. Meenaghan and Peter W. Turnbull

Reviews product life cycle theory and examines empirical evidence. Reports on empirical research carried out to determine the applicability of the theory to popular record…

Abstract

Reviews product life cycle theory and examines empirical evidence. Reports on empirical research carried out to determine the applicability of the theory to popular record products. Proposes a framework of the relationship between the producer life cycle and the marketing mix.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Komang Ayu Krisnadewi and Noorlailie Soewarno

With a particular emphasis on corporate strategies for innovation, the purpose of this paper is to examine how cost behaviour operates under conditions of strong…

Abstract

Purpose

With a particular emphasis on corporate strategies for innovation, the purpose of this paper is to examine how cost behaviour operates under conditions of strong competition in the retail industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Retail companies listed on the Indonesian, Singaporean and Malaysian capital markets are studied using the regression analysis method.

Findings

The findings of this study show the sticky behaviour of changes in the selling, general and administrative (SGA) costs when companies are under competitive pressure. When sales increase, SGA costs will increase; however, when sales decline, SGA costs evidently increase. This is especially true for retail companies which have suffered a decrease in their sales of less than 7 per cent, but experienced positive sales growth in the previous period. The suggestion would seem to be that competition leads to greater aggression and the contemporary real options theory bears this out.

Research limitations/implications

This study only uses data from retail companies listed on stock exchanges in Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Practical implications

The type of industry, the extent of the competition and the corporate strategy employed might influence the extent of cost stickiness. Therefore, the users of financial statements need to understand these factors.

Originality/value

While previous studies incorporated a variety of industries, this paper focuses on examining cost behaviour amid the competitive pressure from recent phenomena in the retail industry. The study provides empirical evidence for supporting the contemporary real options theory. When an industry experiences competition, investing in an uncertain situation will add value to a company, even if it causes sticky cost behaviour. This result contributes to the literature on cost behaviour and strategy management.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

LINCOLN NORTH

In contrast to rents which are prescribed by contract to remain fixed or constant during the term of a lease, the expression variable rents simply implies that the rent to…

Abstract

In contrast to rents which are prescribed by contract to remain fixed or constant during the term of a lease, the expression variable rents simply implies that the rent to be paid during the tenure of occupancy will be subject to change with the passage of time.

Details

Journal of Valuation, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7480

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Susan D. Sampson

This study aims to examine the evolution of category killers or big‐box retailers over a 17‐year time span and the impact that this retail format has had on seven retail

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the evolution of category killers or big‐box retailers over a 17‐year time span and the impact that this retail format has had on seven retail sectors, sales revenue, and per capita retail consumption in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Sales revenue, average store size and per capita income were examined over a 17‐year period – 1988‐2004 – for the book, sporting goods, home center, electronic, toy, home furnishings and the grocery sector (warehouse stores) to determine the effect of large retail formats on sales revenue and per capita spending.

Findings

This longitudinal study demonstrates that evolving to big‐box formats had a positive impact on both sales revenue and per capita spending in each of the retail sectors.

Research/limitations/implications

It is a starting‐point for fully understanding the impact of large retail formats on the retail industry.

Originality/value

The evolution of large format retailers has not been studied from a macro view. Most studies have focused on their impact on small markets. This study focuses on the overall trend and examines their impact on the industry and per capita spending.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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