Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing

Initial data are expected to become available before the end of the year, and subject to evidence of safety and efficacy, to be submitted for approval and fast-tracked so…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB256851

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Daniel M. Gordon and Corwin A. Robertson

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of the vaccine manufacturer in the global vaccine enterprise.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of the vaccine manufacturer in the global vaccine enterprise.

Design/methodology/approach

Narrative review.

Findings

Pharmaceutical companies involved in the vaccine enterprise play critical and often unrecognized roles in the global health management arena. In addition to the obvious role of vaccine production and distribution, companies are often involved in the identification of infectious agents for which vaccines may be of benefit, basic and applied research, process development, pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of vaccine candidates, as well as continuous post-licensure safety monitoring efforts. Vaccine manufacturers interact with health and regulatory agencies, academia and agencies interested in supporting cost-effective means of vaccine distribution to areas most in need of life-saving vaccines.

Originality/value

This review provides the reader with an understanding of the many roles of the manufacturer in the global vaccine enterprise.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing

A rise in cases and deaths has increased pressure on the government over its sluggish vaccine roll-out. Despite an announcement recently that a local laboratory will soon…

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Wilson Kia Onn Wong

This paper analyses the escalating Sino-Western race to develop a safe, efficacious and durable vaccine (i.e. “Goldilocks COVID-19 vaccine”). It argues that such efforts…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the escalating Sino-Western race to develop a safe, efficacious and durable vaccine (i.e. “Goldilocks COVID-19 vaccine”). It argues that such efforts would be considerably more effective if there is greater international cooperation instead of the corrosive rivalry driven by misplaced nationalism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study deploys a case-study approach, supported by literature on existing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine development efforts.

Findings

Despite the seeming success of recent COVID-19 vaccines, their actual efficacy is far from certain. Moreover, access to these vaccines would not be equitable internationally. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that their unique properties make storage and distribution prohibitively expensive, and international mechanisms to provide distribution to economically depressed regions are non-existent. Given the significant difficulties, it would be incumbent upon the great powers (i.e. China and America) to work together not only in vaccine development but also in the establishment of a distribution platform to ensure equitable access worldwide.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few social science research papers on COVID-19 vaccine development and its implications for society at large.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Mario C. Cerilles Jr and Harry Gwynn Omar M. Fernan

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated economies and public health systems across the globe, increasing the anticipation for the creation of an effective vaccine. With this…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated economies and public health systems across the globe, increasing the anticipation for the creation of an effective vaccine. With this comes the reinforcement of debates between the right to health and pharmaceutical patent rights. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how the Philippines could attempt to balance the right to health with pharmaceutical patent rights in the introduction of a potential COVID-19 vaccine into the country.

Design/methodology/approach

This will be accomplished through an examination of the flexibilities allowed by international agreements and domestic patent laws.

Findings

With the economic and health challenges brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Philippine Government will have a strong justification to pursue parallel importation and compulsory licencing under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. This is exacerbated by the bold leadership of President Duterte, whose administration has so far shown a propensity to decide in favor of the right to health at the expense of other rights in dealing with the pandemic.

Originality/value

While this paper focuses on the Philippines, it has a potential application in the least developed and developing countries which aim to gain access to a prospective COVID-19 vaccine. Moreover, while this study discusses the harmonization of laws on the right to health and patent laws as a solution to the COVID-19 pandemic and the lack of access to vaccines, it also calls for solutions that go beyond the application of the law.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Jennifer A. Reich

Public health programs facilitate access to resources that not only provide individuals’ options but also often foreclose individual preference through prescriptive…

Abstract

Public health programs facilitate access to resources that not only provide individuals’ options but also often foreclose individual preference through prescriptive requirements. This chapter takes two disparate cases from public health – vaccines and family planning –that reveal patterns of inequality in who has access to individual choice and who requires state support to exercise choice. Looking specifically at dynamics of funding and compulsion, this chapter elucidates how reliance on the rhetoric of individual choice as an expression of freedom rewards those with the greatest access to resources and fails to make sure that all members of the community have the resources to shape their own outcomes or to make sure collective health is protected.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others…

Abstract

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others. However, the primary risk is borne by the child left unvaccinated. Although living in a developed country with high vaccination rates provides a certain amount of protection through population immunity, the unvaccinated child is still exposed to a considerably greater risk of preventable diseases than one who is vaccinated. I explore the tension between parental choice and the child’s right to be free of preventable diseases. The chapter’s goal is twofold: to advocate for moving from a dyadic framework – considering the interests of the parents against those of the state – to a triadic one, in which the interests of the child are given as much weight as those of the parent and the state; and to discuss which protections are available, and how they can be improved. Specific legal tools available to protect that child are examined, including tort liability of the parents to the child, whether and to what degree criminal law has a role, under what circumstances parental choice should be overridden, and the role of school immunization requirements in protecting the individual child.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Tommy Tsung Ying Shih

Researchers continue to seek understanding of industrialization as a state managed process. How to create and implement new industries based on advanced knowledge is on…

Abstract

Researchers continue to seek understanding of industrialization as a state managed process. How to create and implement new industries based on advanced knowledge is on the policy agenda of many advanced nations. Measures that promote these developments include national capacity building in science and technology, the formation of technology transfer systems, and the establishment of industrial clusters. What these templates often overlook is an analysis of use. This chapter aims to increase the understanding of the processes that embed new solutions in structures from an industrial network perspective. The chapter describes an empirical study of high-technology industrialization in Taiwan that the researcher conducts to this end. The study shows that the Taiwanese industrial model is oversimplified and omits several important factors in the development of new industries. This study bases its findings on the notions that resource combination occurs in different time and space, the new always builds on existing resource structures, and the users are important as active participants in development processes.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Kathy Livingston, Kathleen M. Sutherland and Lauren M. Sardi

The purpose of this research is to investigate how parents and caregivers describe their concerns about the HPV vaccine for their children on open Internet websites. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate how parents and caregivers describe their concerns about the HPV vaccine for their children on open Internet websites. The study examines what the discourse among parents reveals about their concerns regarding the HPV vaccine.

Methodology/approach

Our exploratory study utilized a grounded theory approach as a method of collecting data and simultaneously formulating research questions based on emerging themes from the data. We used purposeful sampling to select sets of comments posted on websites that provided news, scientific information, or parental support regarding HPV and its vaccine.

Findings

Findings suggest support for Bond and Nolan’s (2011) theory that familiarity with a disease is central to parents’ assessment of risk, and that dread of a serious disease such as cervical cancer is weaker than dread of unknown possible side effects in parents’ motivation to give or withhold the vaccine for their children.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations include our usage of a purposeful convenience sample of websites. The limitation of this sampling technique is that the comments made by website “users” and used in the analysis may not be representative of the wider population, and may include Americans as well as non-Americans.

Originality/value of chapter

Our research fills an important gap in the literature by looking at the ways in which parents share their concerns about the HPV vaccine on Internet websites as they consider whether to reject, delay, or consent to the vaccine.

Details

Technology, Communication, Disparities and Government Options in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-645-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Derek S. Brown, Christine Poulos, F. Reed Johnson, Linda Chamiec-Case and Mark L. Messonnier

To measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of…

Abstract

Purpose

To measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of vaccination and potential vaccine uptake.

Design/methodology/approach

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed to measure adolescent girls’ preferences over features of HPV vaccines. The survey was fielded to a U.S. sample of 307 girls aged 13–17 years who had not yet received an HPV vaccine in June 2008.

Findings

In a latent class logit model, two distinct groups were identified – one with strong preferences against vaccination which largely did not differentiate between vaccine features, and another that was receptive to vaccination and had well-defined preferences over vaccine features. Based on the mean estimates over the entire sample, we estimate that girls’ valuation of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines ranged between $400 and $460 in 2008, measured as willingness-to-pay (WTP). The additional value of genital warts protection was $145, although cervical cancer efficacy was the most preferred feature. We estimate maximum uptake of 54–65%, close to the 53% reported for one dose in 2011 surveillance data, but higher than the 35% for three doses in surveillance data.

Research limitations/implications

We conclude that adolescent girls do form clear opinions and some place significant value on HPV vaccination, making research on their preferences vital to understanding the determinants of HPV vaccine demand.

Originality/value

DCE studies may be used to design more effective vaccine-promotion programs and for reassessing public health recommendations and guidelines as new vaccines are made available.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000