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Health promotion programs in global health systems need to incorporate culturally competent care and provide linguistic access. This article describes the challenges in…
Health promotion programs in global health systems need to incorporate culturally competent care and provide linguistic access. This article describes the challenges in one country, the United States, and reports on research studies, which articulate the current gaps in meeting the above goals. Health care providers are bound by both legal and ethical standards to provide such care. Legal standards are cited. Regardless of legal standards, health care providers are also bound ethically to provide such care. An analysis of basic ethical concepts of principalism is described for the importance of these aspects of care.
The premise of this article is that one cannot have a successful health system without inclusion of culturally competent health promotion programs. And, one cannot have such health promotion programs without an understanding of the role that cultural and linguistic competence plays in the provision of clinically competent and cost-effective services. Not only is there a need for culturally competent care that is legally mandated in some countries, such care is ethically necessary. The first part of this paper will address the need for culturally and linguistically appropriate care and applicable laws and standards. The latter part of the paper will provide an ethical analysis. However, before doing that, one global perspective of health care concerns for underserved populations will be presented as well as a discussion of the importance of the use of ethical frameworks.
Three important lessons can be drawn from the health situation in developing and democratizing world. First lesson is that the societal health does not occur in the vacuum…
Three important lessons can be drawn from the health situation in developing and democratizing world. First lesson is that the societal health does not occur in the vacuum of societal life or social structures, but it simultaneously inspires development of all major spheres of political, economic, and cultural life of society. Second, health policy transpires simultaneously in all major social institutions, including economy, political institutions, and culture. Furthermore, because all social institutions are interconnected, the initiation of health reforms causes enormous, multilevel changes in all social strata and affects the performance of all essential institutions. Third, according to the World Health Organization, health is considered an integral part of human security, human rights, and peace. Consequently, societal health is determined and depends on the fullest cooperation of governments, world-scale communities, and local health care providers.
Urban green space can be viewed as a preventative public health measure. Nature contributes to health through disease prevention, disease management, and well-being…
Urban green space can be viewed as a preventative public health measure. Nature contributes to health through disease prevention, disease management, and well-being (physical, mental, and social) promotion. Those contributions are based on improvement in health determinants. Nature and green spaces have been related to more physical activity, restoration and less stress, more social capital, and ecosystem services such as better air quality, less traffic noise, less heat island effects, more biodiversity, among others. Nature, vegetation, and green spaces have also been associated with better mental health, immune system, metabolic system, pregnancy outcomes, reduced cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. This chapter presents the connections between nature and health, describing how nature impacts key health determinants, how those health determinants are associated with health outcomes (i.e. diseases, injuries, deaths), and provides examples of urban nature interventions that have been related to public health.
Objective: Our study examines the association between social support and use of mental health services in Asian American men and women. Specifically, we report on the…
Objective: Our study examines the association between social support and use of mental health services in Asian American men and women. Specifically, we report on the association between types of social support and types of health services used (general medical care and specialty mental health care).
Method: We use data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, a nationally representative survey of the US household population of Latino and Asian Americans. Our present study is based on data from the sample of Asian Americans (N = 2,095).
Results: Overall, our findings suggest that Asian Americans use general medical care services more than specialty mental health care. Our findings also showed variations in levels of social support, and the use of health services among different Asian subgroups (Vietnamese, Filipino, Chinese, and Other Asian) and nativity status (US-born versus foreign-born Asians). Specific types of social support influenced the use of specialty mental health care services, while other types of social support inhibited use of specialist services.
Conclusion: Compared to using generalist services, Asian Americans demonstrated lower rates of using specialist services. Our results emphasize the importance of considering other social factors to explain between group differences as well as factors contributing to the underutilization of specialty mental health services by Asian Americans.
Purpose – This chapter reports on experts’ perspectives on health information technology (HIT) and how it may be used to improve health care quality and to lower health…
Purpose – This chapter reports on experts’ perspectives on health information technology (HIT) and how it may be used to improve health care quality and to lower health care costs.
Design/methodology/approach – Two roundtables were convened that focused on how to best use HIT to improve the quality of health care while ensuring it is accessible and affordable. Participants drew upon lessons learned in the Netherlands, the United States, and other countries.
Findings – The first roundtable focused on the use of (1) electronic health records (EHRs) by health care providers, (2) cloud computing for EHRs and health portals for consumers, and (3) data registries and networks for public health surveillance. The second roundtable highlighted (1) the rapid growth of personalized medicine, (2) the corresponding growth and sophistication of bioinformatics and analytics, (3) the increasing presence of mobile HIT, and (4) the disruptive changes in the institutional structures of biomedical research and development.
Practical implications – Governmental sponsorship of small pilot projects to solve practicable health system problems would encourage HIT innovation among key stakeholders. However, large-scale HIT solutions – developed through small pilot projects – should be pursued through public–private partnerships. At the same time, governments should speed up legislative and regulatory procedures to encourage adoption of cost-effective HIT innovations.
Social implications – Mobile HIT and social media are capable of fostering disease prevention and encouraging personal responsibility for improving or stabilizing chronic diseases.
Originality/value – Both health services researchers and policy makers should find this chapter of value since it highlights trends in HIT and addresses how health care quality may be improved while costs are contained.
Health care spending in the U.S. continues to outpace inflation and wage growth, which is likely to keep the burden of rising health care costs in the spotlight. As health care costs increase, health insurers face the challenges of providing quality health care at a reasonable cost. Some health care providers and insurers use economic measures such as return on investment to assess the effectiveness of health care. How does one measure the value of health? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using economic measures to evaluate health care?
This paper looks health care costs and who pays for them. What portion of health care costs is borne by employers? What portion by employees? Who does or should pay for health care of people who are uninsured? What is the role of insurance? If people do not have health care insurance, does it matter whether the reason they are uninsured is because they cannot afford it or because they choose not to be insured?
Selvam (2002) belives that the number one ethical dilemma in the U.S. is how to address the almost 40 million Americans who lack health care coverage. With rising hospital costs, even the hardest-working and most prudent persons are at risk. Many workers do not have health insurance and even if they are covered, they may not get what they need. What are some of the ethical issues facing patients, health care providers and insurers? What role should government have in assuring that all people receive quality health care?