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1 – 10 of over 2000
Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2008

James Rice

The urbanization of poverty is a structural trend embodied in the sprawling urban slums of the developing countries. It remains a largely unacknowledged dynamic. This is…

Abstract

The urbanization of poverty is a structural trend embodied in the sprawling urban slums of the developing countries. It remains a largely unacknowledged dynamic. This is particularly true in terms of the population-level patterns of social well-being derived from urban slum prevalence or proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions. In particular, there is increasing evidence of an “urban penalty” wherein urban slum dwellers exhibit poorer health outcomes than non-slum urban residents and even rural populations. We articulate the proposition that urban slum prevalence is a key factor shaping population-level rates of social well-being in the developing countries, measured at the national level. Further, we develop the proposition drawn from political economy of health theorization suggesting cross-national dependency relations substantially influence urban slum conditions. In turn, the structural dynamics of the world economy underlie urban slum prevalence which itself has a direct influence on population-level patterns of social well-being as measured by infant and under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy at birth. We conclude by arguing for greater empirical attention focusing upon the consequences of dependency relations as expressed in the built urban environment and the impact of urban slum prevalence as a key social condition impacting well-being in the less developed countries.

Details

Care for Major Health Problems and Population Health Concerns: Impacts on Patients, Providers and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-160-2

Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Sugata Bag

This chapter deals with an important but neglected aspect of female labor force participation (FLFP) in urban India. Contemporary literature typically focuses on the…

Abstract

This chapter deals with an important but neglected aspect of female labor force participation (FLFP) in urban India. Contemporary literature typically focuses on the entire urban sector and ignores one important aspect of urban living – the slums and its dwellers. This study fills that critical gap by examining two different household surveys side-by-side: a primary survey of households living in slums and slum-rehabilitated colonies, and the nationally representative Indian Human Development survey-II. This study brings outs a comparative picture of nature/type of FLFP and its various correlates from both slum and non-slum areas of three metro cities of India, viz. Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. It further explores the similarities and the differences of the correlates for FLFP among the slum clusters of these cities. It is found that despite being poorer and marginalized, the slum dwelling women’s LFP rate is not extra-ordinarily high vis-á-vis their non-slum urban counterparts. In slums, a higher proportion of women are engaged in self-employment (including family business) and casual employments (includes domestic helps), whereas in non-slum areas relatively more women are engaged in regular salaried jobs. Regression analysis identifies correlates that have similar effects, but with different intensity, across-the-board – relationship between education and FLFP reflects a flat-bottom J-shaped pattern; being married, higher child dependency ratio and household heads with higher education significantly constrain women’s work choice; strong income effect of other household members earning on FLFP, but asset holding has no bearing. However, there are other factors that affect FLFP differently in slums and non-slum areas. Policy prescriptions are drawn.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Saleh Ahmed and Khan Rubayet Rahaman

Slums, in urban areas of the Global South, are often manifested as the spatial manifestation of urban poverty. In many local contexts, eviction of slums is treated as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Slums, in urban areas of the Global South, are often manifested as the spatial manifestation of urban poverty. In many local contexts, eviction of slums is treated as the recipe of urban development initiative, which is actually wrong and short-sighted unsustainable solution. This chapter addresses some of the interlinked issues and highlights how the megacities of the Global South can pursue a more holistic, pro-poor, and sustainable solutions by dealing this developmental challenge.

Methodology

This chapter is basically an outcome of a policy research, combining information and arguments from different secondary resources.

Findings

This chapter offers a better understanding on the causes and consequences of the slums, along with ideas for the government to tackle this issue and promote better livelihoods for the poor citizens. Even though this chapter focuses on the sustainability challenges in Dhaka, it can have policy implications in other regions with similar social, economic, and political conditions.

Research limitation

The discussion in this chapter does not include an empirical modeling or analysis technique so that the problems can be proven quantitatively. In some future research, a more quantitative approach can help to quantify the losses people are facing in terms of social value, monetary losses, and environmental cohesion.

Social implications

Without making any provisions for jobs and livelihoods for the poor slum dwellers, the process of eviction might cause the total “city management” system to collapse. Then it is no more an urban development initiative, but rather a government-initiated poverty generation process. Therefore, government can think for solutions at different levels – from local to regional scale, including long-term and short-term sustainability strategies.

Originality

Often the governments as well as the policy makers in the Global South treat the poverty problems (including slum formations) from a much narrower perspective. They should rather focus on the issue as part of a big developmental picture. The strategies can start both from macro- and micro-levels. On the macro-level, the government can initiate climate-resilient and pro-poor development strategies. On the micro-level, the government, along with nongovernmental organizations and national and international development partners, can focus on skill development opportunities and policies, so that the poor can live legally, wherever they want, with decent employment and livelihood opportunities.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

A.S.M. Shuaib and Md Masud Parves Rana

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding about sources of water for the urban poor in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh. It evaluates water supply…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding about sources of water for the urban poor in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh. It evaluates water supply performances to identify priority areas of water supply for further improvement. The paper also illustrates whether location of slums in the city has a connection with water supply facilities or not.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a case study of water supply for the urban slum dwellers. Based on a questionnaire survey, it evaluates performances of water supply following a holistic framework for assessing dimensions of water supply system among three slum zones of Rajshahi city. The dimensions of water supply are as follows: technical, biophysical, political, institutional, economic and social.

Findings

The research finds that most of the slum dwellers do not have reliable and sufficient access to water supply. The performance of water supply is location specific, and all of the slums do not have equal access to all dimensions of water supply. Overall performance of water supply is moderate, but individual performances of dimensions are unsatisfactory and unequal among the slums.

Practical implications

The paper suggests location-specific identification of strengths and weaknesses of water supply for the poor. It consolidates a performance evaluation method for identifying priority areas and needs of the urban poor for making Rajshahi city more inclusive and sustainable.

Originality/value

The paper provides an assessment of water supply performance for the urban poor in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Aisha Abubakar, Ombretta Romice and Ashraf M. Salama

Slums have existed as long as cities have and are a growing context in the developing world. The challenge is in their efficient, effective and inclusive management. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Slums have existed as long as cities have and are a growing context in the developing world. The challenge is in their efficient, effective and inclusive management. The purpose of this paper is to frame slums in the broad aim of urban development and the pursuit of prosperity, as active players and positive contributors in every right – a slum-prosperity framework. First, however, they need to be comprehensively defined in a non-exclusive, structured, dynamic and heuristic way; a previous publication was set to resolve this challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by a synthesized operative model for prosperity, such a definition for slums is used to precisely relate their characters to the pursuit of prosperity through a mapping process, whereby these characters are linked to potentials for prosperity, improvement goals, resources and intervention plans.

Findings

Both slums and prosperity are fuzzy, complex and variable terms; the only possibility to deal with them both is to break them down into simple and manageable yet operative units and establish the most influential and effective links between them to organize intervention according to patterns of change in both slums and city.

Research limitations/implications

An intervention agenda like the one proposed here, that gives room for contextual and temporal urban complexities, has the potential to augment urban practice and help curb the slum phenomenon. A final paper (forthcoming) will illustrate the application of both the comprehensive definition of slum and the implementation of a pathway toward prosperity.

Originality/value

The proposal in this paper is derived as part of research conducted for the award of a PhD at the University of Strathclyde Glasgow. This was in general set to contribute to the proactive and inclusive improvement of slums and cities. The proposal is further derived from the authors’ involvement and personal interest in developing regions and is designed on local experience and on wider expertise in urban renewal.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Oluwaseyi Omowunmi Popogbe, Simeon Oludiran Akinleye and Mautin David Oke

This paper aims to measure multi-dimensional poverty in Lagos State slums. This study is relevant because slums are becoming a present-day reality for urban cities and it…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure multi-dimensional poverty in Lagos State slums. This study is relevant because slums are becoming a present-day reality for urban cities and it is now paramount to understand the dynamics of deprivations suffered under various dimensions in the slums.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-stage sampling technique is used to sample 400 respondents from five slums (Makoko, Iwaya, Ilaje, IjoraBadia and Amukoko) in Lagos State and information have gotten using a structured questionnaire. The fuzzy set approach to measuring multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI) is used in estimating the MPI for the slums.

Findings

The findings from the study show that although all the slums have varying MPI; however, the average MPI for the slums is 0.49. Further findings show that majority of the households are largely deprived in the education dimension, proceeded by the living standards dimension and finally, health dimension.

Research limitations/implications

The current study focused on a few selected slums in Lagos State and findings show that it may be erroneous to absolutely adopt policy implications derived for other major slums in cities around the world.

Originality/value

This study advances the frontier of slum studies in Nigeria by following an analytical path in understanding the degree of poverty in the slums.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2019

André Luis de Castro Moura Duarte, Flavio Macau, Cristiano Flores e Silva and Lars Meyer Sanches

The purpose of this paper is to explore last mile delivery (LMD) to the bottom of the pyramid in Brazilian slums, its challenges and how practitioners overcome them. Urban

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore last mile delivery (LMD) to the bottom of the pyramid in Brazilian slums, its challenges and how practitioners overcome them. Urban logistics in precarious circumstances is central to the conceptualization.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, grounded theory methodology is developed, gathering data from companies delivering to slums in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Field notes, documents and interviews led to conceptual categories for LMD to slums.

Findings

The study indicates that while some standard urban logistics practices can be effective for LMD to slums, such unusual contexts often call for unusual solutions. A model is developed using grounded theory categorization, resulting in five dimensions for LMD to slums: employing locally, giving back, acknowledging criminals, vehicle and location.

Research limitations/implications

The model is a qualitative proposition representing LMD to slums in two major Brazilian cities. Even though slums in different cities/countries may face similar conditions, additional studies are needed to confirm and replicate the model.

Practical implications

Companies that successfully engage in LMD to slums must adapt and develop idiosyncratic practices.

Social implications

LMD to slums enables a larger portion of bottom of the pyramid consumers to access a wider range of products and work opportunities, contributing to their social inclusion.

Originality/value

The study provides an understanding of LMD in a new context. The model encourages companies to question their current practices, learning from effective LMD experiences implemented by successful practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Lee Pugalis, Bob Giddings and Kelechi Anyigor

Across the global community the eradication of slums has been identified as a key project as part of the broader goal to eradicate poverty. Entrepreneurial efforts are…

Abstract

Purpose

Across the global community the eradication of slums has been identified as a key project as part of the broader goal to eradicate poverty. Entrepreneurial efforts are viewed as a key means of ‘lifting’ people from poverty. Through a focus on Nigeria, this chapter examines slum upgrading programmes. The primary aim is to identify the opportunities and barriers facing inhabitants of informal settlements to realising entrepreneurial synergies that can occur in particular places.

Methodology/approach

A case study examination of the Kpirikpiri informal settlement in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted that utilised a mixed-method approach. The research passed through three key phases. The first phase comprised a literature survey and review. The second phase involved a household survey to gather some baseline socio-economic and physical data that helped to fill the void of basic data. A total of 142 respondents participated in the survey, representing 10% of the total number of households in the area. The third phase involved the collection of qualitative data through focus group discussions and individual interviews.

Findings

Slum dwellers have skills and formal education equivalent to those in the Global North. Nevertheless, Nigerians tend to view entrepreneurial activities as secondary to other forms of employment, especially positions in the public sector. Paradoxically, slum dwellers place little trust in state authorities. Security of tenure is a major barrier to expanding entrepreneurial activities, as many landlords are reluctant to permit tenants to operate home-based enterprises, which is often a neglected element of place-based development strategies.

Research and practical implications

The chapter demonstrates the need for basic socio-economic datasets alongside user perspectives to shape the efficacy of development initiatives. In the case of Kpirikpiri, slum improvement programmes may have benefited from parallel educational programmes that expound the virtues of entrepreneurialism and concomitant training schemes, improved governance open to local social networks, less emphasis on physical upgrading of some forms of infrastructure and greater attention towards improving security of tenure as a path towards generating more home-based enterprises.

Originality/value of paper

The entrepreneurial potential of the inhabitants of informal settlements is under-acknowledged in ‘upgrading’ interventions and also underplayed in the research literature. The chapter draws some much needed critical attention to the opportunities and barriers facing inhabitants of informal settlements, which helps to challenge some dominant transnational policy assumptions.

Details

Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-641-5

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Oluwaseyi Omowunmi Popogbe, Simeon Oludiran Akinleye and David Mautin Oke

This study aims to examine the social inclusiveness of slum dwellers by focusing on three key institutions which are social relations, government and the labour market…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the social inclusiveness of slum dwellers by focusing on three key institutions which are social relations, government and the labour market. The literature emphasises the activities of these three institutions as indicators of social inclusion. Also, they accurately describe the social interactions of slum inhabitants at different levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Three large slums (Makoko, Ilaje and Iwaya) in Lagos State were purposively selected for this study. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, there was the first level of cluster sampling across the communities and second-level random sampling of household heads in the clusters. In all, 400 respondents were sampled but 388 valid responses were used for the analysis.

Findings

The study found minimal levels of inclusion in many of the indicators. However, Makoko had a higher degree of inclusion with respect to social relations and political participation compared to the other locations. Due to the poor level of governance, the resilience of slum dwellers has waned.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to three of the largest slums in Lagos State. Moreover, due to threats of eviction in recent times, many respondents were reluctant to provide adequate answers to some of the questions asked. However, the responses gotten were adequate to provide appropriate awareness and relevant recommendations.

Originality/value

The use of primary data made it possible for novel results to be generated on social inclusiveness in selected slums. The study extends the frontier of knowledge on social inclusion.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Toseef Azid

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the determinants of malnutrition of primary school‐age (five to ten years) children in urban and slum areas. The ultimate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the determinants of malnutrition of primary school‐age (five to ten years) children in urban and slum areas. The ultimate objective is to frame policy proposals for children's nutritional welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, logit model is applied to 882 observations of primary data. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) is constructed to use an indicator of malnutrition.

Findings

The probability for anthropometric failure increases by age, birth‐order, female sex and activity of the child (child labor or home‐care activity) other than schooling. The parents' education, specifically mothers' education, can play an important role for child's nutritional status. Malnutrition is positively related with congestion in the household (number of household members per room), while provision of electricity, safe drinking water and underground drainage turns out to be negatively affecting children's malnutrition. The children living in slums are more likely to experience anthropometric failure.

Research limitations/implications

From the policy perspective awareness about gender equity of child, adult education, growth of household income specifically of slum areas and improvement in living conditions (through public health works program) may contribute to enhance children's nutritional status.

Practical implications

The slums need targeted policy for children welfare regarding their nutrition in the form of provision of public utilities and income support.

Originality/value

From the methodological point of view, CIAF has been estimated as a measure of malnutrition. The findings of study may support academicians, policy makers and social activists for human development programs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000