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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Alexander Preko, Anthony Nkrumah Agyabeng and James Kwame Mensah

The literature has acknowledged that good health is a crucial component of well-being. This study explores the country-specific understanding of slum dwellers'…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature has acknowledged that good health is a crucial component of well-being. This study explores the country-specific understanding of slum dwellers' occupational activities and their environmental behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the environmentally responsible behavior model, the study utilized exploratory qualitative approach to purposely sample 35 respondents, who responded to health-related behaviors through in-depth interviews.

Findings

Findings show that respondents are engaged in diverse socio-economic occupational activities such as selling of cooked and uncooked food in polythene bags, selling of sachet water and burning the waste generated from these activities in the slum environment. In addition, the study found specific occupational activities of masons, carpenters, tilers, salon beauticians, scrap dealers and unhygienic waste disposal in the slums. Finally, this study uncovered divided opinions in terms of respondents' environmental responsibility and awareness of environmental ramifications. Therefore, issues such as health hazards, unhealthy environment and soil deterioration are common at the slum dwellings.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings and the conclusion drawn cannot be generalized to represent the entire population of slum dwellers in Ghana due to the qualitative methodology employed.

Practical implications

This study revealed a country-specific understanding of the environmentally responsible behavior of slum dwellers based on their occupational activities, which can inform health policies.

Originality/value

The outcome of this study advanced contextual culturally specific understanding, concerning health-related behavior of slum dwellers, which is important to policymakers and practitioners in contexts.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Anthony Nkrumah Agyabeng and Alexander Preko

Slum upgrading has received intense attention in the Global South, particularly among stakeholders. This study aims to examine government policy priorities towards slum

Abstract

Purpose

Slum upgrading has received intense attention in the Global South, particularly among stakeholders. This study aims to examine government policy priorities towards slum management with the view of establishing its level of commitment in terms of measures undertaken and identify specific policies to structure the sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study systematically reviewed national policies, guided by the frequency statistics method in identifying key issues relating to slums management. Content analysis was used to identify findings into themes and discussed in line with the study’s objectives.

Findings

The results revealed the government’s determination to upgrade the existing slums, with the establishment of a Ministry for Inner City and Zongo Development to facilitate collaboration between stakeholders in the value chain of slum management. Furthermore, the study established government’s resolve to strengthen the Local Government Act, 1993, and the National Development Planning Act, 1994 within context to pave way for slums upgrading.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a national policy framework to inform the conclusion reached. Further studies are needed in similar contexts to understand the inputs of government and stakeholders and their contributions towards slum management. This would further expand the frontiers of knowledge in the domain.

Practical implications

The findings revealed policy-driven that can be used by policymakers, practitioners, housing managers and other relevant stakeholders to create workable policies for slum management.

Originality/value

This study provides first insight into government commitment to slums management using national policy documents in context.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2008

James Rice

The urbanization of poverty is a structural trend embodied in the sprawling urban slums of the developing countries. It remains a largely unacknowledged dynamic. This is…

Abstract

The urbanization of poverty is a structural trend embodied in the sprawling urban slums of the developing countries. It remains a largely unacknowledged dynamic. This is particularly true in terms of the population-level patterns of social well-being derived from urban slum prevalence or proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions. In particular, there is increasing evidence of an “urban penalty” wherein urban slum dwellers exhibit poorer health outcomes than non-slum urban residents and even rural populations. We articulate the proposition that urban slum prevalence is a key factor shaping population-level rates of social well-being in the developing countries, measured at the national level. Further, we develop the proposition drawn from political economy of health theorization suggesting cross-national dependency relations substantially influence urban slum conditions. In turn, the structural dynamics of the world economy underlie urban slum prevalence which itself has a direct influence on population-level patterns of social well-being as measured by infant and under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy at birth. We conclude by arguing for greater empirical attention focusing upon the consequences of dependency relations as expressed in the built urban environment and the impact of urban slum prevalence as a key social condition impacting well-being in the less developed countries.

Details

Care for Major Health Problems and Population Health Concerns: Impacts on Patients, Providers and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-160-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Saleh Ahmed and Khan Rubayet Rahaman

Slums, in urban areas of the Global South, are often manifested as the spatial manifestation of urban poverty. In many local contexts, eviction of slums is treated as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Slums, in urban areas of the Global South, are often manifested as the spatial manifestation of urban poverty. In many local contexts, eviction of slums is treated as the recipe of urban development initiative, which is actually wrong and short-sighted unsustainable solution. This chapter addresses some of the interlinked issues and highlights how the megacities of the Global South can pursue a more holistic, pro-poor, and sustainable solutions by dealing this developmental challenge.

Methodology

This chapter is basically an outcome of a policy research, combining information and arguments from different secondary resources.

Findings

This chapter offers a better understanding on the causes and consequences of the slums, along with ideas for the government to tackle this issue and promote better livelihoods for the poor citizens. Even though this chapter focuses on the sustainability challenges in Dhaka, it can have policy implications in other regions with similar social, economic, and political conditions.

Research limitation

The discussion in this chapter does not include an empirical modeling or analysis technique so that the problems can be proven quantitatively. In some future research, a more quantitative approach can help to quantify the losses people are facing in terms of social value, monetary losses, and environmental cohesion.

Social implications

Without making any provisions for jobs and livelihoods for the poor slum dwellers, the process of eviction might cause the total “city management” system to collapse. Then it is no more an urban development initiative, but rather a government-initiated poverty generation process. Therefore, government can think for solutions at different levels – from local to regional scale, including long-term and short-term sustainability strategies.

Originality

Often the governments as well as the policy makers in the Global South treat the poverty problems (including slum formations) from a much narrower perspective. They should rather focus on the issue as part of a big developmental picture. The strategies can start both from macro- and micro-levels. On the macro-level, the government can initiate climate-resilient and pro-poor development strategies. On the micro-level, the government, along with nongovernmental organizations and national and international development partners, can focus on skill development opportunities and policies, so that the poor can live legally, wherever they want, with decent employment and livelihood opportunities.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Lee Pugalis, Bob Giddings and Kelechi Anyigor

Across the global community the eradication of slums has been identified as a key project as part of the broader goal to eradicate poverty. Entrepreneurial efforts are…

Abstract

Purpose

Across the global community the eradication of slums has been identified as a key project as part of the broader goal to eradicate poverty. Entrepreneurial efforts are viewed as a key means of ‘lifting’ people from poverty. Through a focus on Nigeria, this chapter examines slum upgrading programmes. The primary aim is to identify the opportunities and barriers facing inhabitants of informal settlements to realising entrepreneurial synergies that can occur in particular places.

Methodology/approach

A case study examination of the Kpirikpiri informal settlement in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was conducted that utilised a mixed-method approach. The research passed through three key phases. The first phase comprised a literature survey and review. The second phase involved a household survey to gather some baseline socio-economic and physical data that helped to fill the void of basic data. A total of 142 respondents participated in the survey, representing 10% of the total number of households in the area. The third phase involved the collection of qualitative data through focus group discussions and individual interviews.

Findings

Slum dwellers have skills and formal education equivalent to those in the Global North. Nevertheless, Nigerians tend to view entrepreneurial activities as secondary to other forms of employment, especially positions in the public sector. Paradoxically, slum dwellers place little trust in state authorities. Security of tenure is a major barrier to expanding entrepreneurial activities, as many landlords are reluctant to permit tenants to operate home-based enterprises, which is often a neglected element of place-based development strategies.

Research and practical implications

The chapter demonstrates the need for basic socio-economic datasets alongside user perspectives to shape the efficacy of development initiatives. In the case of Kpirikpiri, slum improvement programmes may have benefited from parallel educational programmes that expound the virtues of entrepreneurialism and concomitant training schemes, improved governance open to local social networks, less emphasis on physical upgrading of some forms of infrastructure and greater attention towards improving security of tenure as a path towards generating more home-based enterprises.

Originality/value of paper

The entrepreneurial potential of the inhabitants of informal settlements is under-acknowledged in ‘upgrading’ interventions and also underplayed in the research literature. The chapter draws some much needed critical attention to the opportunities and barriers facing inhabitants of informal settlements, which helps to challenge some dominant transnational policy assumptions.

Details

Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-641-5

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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Sugata Bag

This chapter deals with an important but neglected aspect of female labor force participation (FLFP) in urban India. Contemporary literature typically focuses on the…

Abstract

This chapter deals with an important but neglected aspect of female labor force participation (FLFP) in urban India. Contemporary literature typically focuses on the entire urban sector and ignores one important aspect of urban living – the slums and its dwellers. This study fills that critical gap by examining two different household surveys side-by-side: a primary survey of households living in slums and slum-rehabilitated colonies, and the nationally representative Indian Human Development survey-II. This study brings outs a comparative picture of nature/type of FLFP and its various correlates from both slum and non-slum areas of three metro cities of India, viz. Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. It further explores the similarities and the differences of the correlates for FLFP among the slum clusters of these cities. It is found that despite being poorer and marginalized, the slum dwelling women’s LFP rate is not extra-ordinarily high vis-á-vis their non-slum urban counterparts. In slums, a higher proportion of women are engaged in self-employment (including family business) and casual employments (includes domestic helps), whereas in non-slum areas relatively more women are engaged in regular salaried jobs. Regression analysis identifies correlates that have similar effects, but with different intensity, across-the-board – relationship between education and FLFP reflects a flat-bottom J-shaped pattern; being married, higher child dependency ratio and household heads with higher education significantly constrain women’s work choice; strong income effect of other household members earning on FLFP, but asset holding has no bearing. However, there are other factors that affect FLFP differently in slums and non-slum areas. Policy prescriptions are drawn.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Ransford Kwaku Afeadie

The health challenges that characterise most of the migrants' urban slums raises a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step…

Abstract

Purpose

The health challenges that characterise most of the migrants' urban slums raises a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step towards maintaining a healthy life. The importance of contextual issues is necessary to help meet specific community health needs and programmes. Therefore, this study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating health-seeking behaviour disparity among rural–urban labour migrant's slum dwellers before and after migration to the urban slums of Madina in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The author used explanatory sequential approach of research investigation. Questionnaire and interview guides were used to collect data from the respondents however, in the absence of an existing reliable sampling frame, the various communities were selected by the use of cluster sampling proportional to size. At the second stage, a simple random sampling was used to select the various household heads. A total of 241 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondents representing a response rate of 100%. The author used purposive sampling technique to conduct eight in-depth interviews and six key informants' interviews.

Findings

The author found various discrepancies in many of the activities that could fulfil substantial health-seeking behaviour in the slum as compared to migrant's places of origin. The reason for coming to the slum amidst many settlements needs and low education background are the factors that accounted for this. This study, therefore, contradicts the proposition held by the health belief model. It is, therefore, important to note that contextual issues are key, in this case, rural–urban migrant slums present a different dynamic that must be taken into account when designing health programmes for such settings.

Originality/value

Many, if not all the, studies on health-seeking behaviour have focused on urban slums without taking into account urban migrants' slums. Such a failure to take into account the variations of the health needs of migrants' urban slum settings can eventually lead to a mismatch of health programmes meant to address their challenges. Therefore, this study brings to the fore such variations that must be taken into account when designing health programmes. The study also indicates that even with the same people, there were disparities in terms of health-seeking behaviour in the slum and at places of origin.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Oluwaseyi Omowunmi Popogbe, Simeon Oludiran Akinleye and Mautin David Oke

This paper aims to measure multi-dimensional poverty in Lagos State slums. This study is relevant because slums are becoming a present-day reality for urban cities and it…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure multi-dimensional poverty in Lagos State slums. This study is relevant because slums are becoming a present-day reality for urban cities and it is now paramount to understand the dynamics of deprivations suffered under various dimensions in the slums.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-stage sampling technique is used to sample 400 respondents from five slums (Makoko, Iwaya, Ilaje, IjoraBadia and Amukoko) in Lagos State and information have gotten using a structured questionnaire. The fuzzy set approach to measuring multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI) is used in estimating the MPI for the slums.

Findings

The findings from the study show that although all the slums have varying MPI; however, the average MPI for the slums is 0.49. Further findings show that majority of the households are largely deprived in the education dimension, proceeded by the living standards dimension and finally, health dimension.

Research limitations/implications

The current study focused on a few selected slums in Lagos State and findings show that it may be erroneous to absolutely adopt policy implications derived for other major slums in cities around the world.

Originality/value

This study advances the frontier of slum studies in Nigeria by following an analytical path in understanding the degree of poverty in the slums.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Md. Nazmul Haque, Mustafa Saroar, Md. Abdul Fattah, Syed Riad Morshed and Nuzhat Fatema

This paper aims to assess the progress in the provision of basic services in urban slums in Bangladesh during the transition period of millennium development goals (MDGs…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the progress in the provision of basic services in urban slums in Bangladesh during the transition period of millennium development goals (MDGs) to sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a mixed method of research. The empirical part of the research was conducted in three Blocks of Rupsha slum in Khulna city. Randomly selected 120 households were interviewed through a structured questionnaire; three focus group discussion sessions (FGDs) were also conducted. Progress in the slum residents’ access to basic services during the transition from MDGs to SDGs is tacked based on primary data. The User Satisfaction Index (USI) and Network Analysis tools in ArcGIS are used to identify the gaps in service provision.

Findings

Findings show that a very significant proportion of families (56.67%) encounter an acute level of difficulties to gain smooth access to water services. About 89% of respondents have only access to a common or shared toilet facility where one common toilet is used by 20–25 persons. About 31% of families are unable to send their children to primary school even after four years of the adoption of SDGs. Achievements in most indicators of basic services in the slum are in general lower than the national level. Moreover, there exists spatial variability within the same slum. After four years of the transition from MDGs to SDGs, most of the services are poorly satisfying the residents of the Rupsha slum, and water service provision is in worse condition. The findings of this study have unveiled that while achievement in target areas is appreciable at the macro level, at the micro-level; however, good achievement in the provision of few basic services in the low-income settlement is more rhetoric than reality. Therefore, a lot more work needs to be done during the SDG phase to give the slum residents a decent quality of life as they have missed the MDGs’ train.

Originality/value

Study single-out works need to be done during the SDGs phase to give the slum residents a decent quality of life as they have missed the MDGs’ train.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

I. Torres

The purpose of this paper is to explore the case of the Museum of Favela (MUF), which is a NGO set in Rio de Janeiro to develop renewed images of slums, based on their…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the case of the Museum of Favela (MUF), which is a NGO set in Rio de Janeiro to develop renewed images of slums, based on their history of resistance and cultural production. The purpose is to uncover the nuances of this peculiar case, in which a group of slums' residents plays the role of place brand managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a combination of participant observation, document analysis and a series of in‐depth interviews with participants and partners alike, the paper identifies main motivations, networks and actions driving the strategy.

Findings

The major aim of the approached place branding is to tackle deeply‐rooted prejudices against slums and their residents. By expanding residents' networks and skills, MUF supports tourism‐related activities that allow the construction and promotion of new meaning for slums. Despite remarkable gains, scaling up community engagement is still a big challenge for the consolidation of the aspired images.

Practical implications

While current approaches to informal settlements deal mainly with housing and infrastructure access, the perception of residents is clearly neglected. Focusing on the image re‐construction, the paper offers relevant insights for slum upgrading policy frameworks.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the incorporation of a place branding strategy as an attempt of urban inclusion developed on the ground and on the use of slums' cultural heritage – so far overlooked in policy frameworks – to generate re‐imaged slums.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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