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Fuzzy set approach to measuring urban poverty: a case of Lagos State slums

Oluwaseyi Omowunmi Popogbe (Department of Economics, Crawford University, Igbesa, Nigeria)
Simeon Oludiran Akinleye (Department of Economics, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Nigeria)
Mautin David Oke (Department of Economics, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Nigeria)

International Journal of Development Issues

ISSN: 1446-8956

Article publication date: 11 February 2021

Issue publication date: 6 July 2021




This paper aims to measure multi-dimensional poverty in Lagos State slums. This study is relevant because slums are becoming a present-day reality for urban cities and it is now paramount to understand the dynamics of deprivations suffered under various dimensions in the slums.


A multi-stage sampling technique is used to sample 400 respondents from five slums (Makoko, Iwaya, Ilaje, IjoraBadia and Amukoko) in Lagos State and information have gotten using a structured questionnaire. The fuzzy set approach to measuring multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI) is used in estimating the MPI for the slums.


The findings from the study show that although all the slums have varying MPI; however, the average MPI for the slums is 0.49. Further findings show that majority of the households are largely deprived in the education dimension, proceeded by the living standards dimension and finally, health dimension.

Research limitations/implications

The current study focused on a few selected slums in Lagos State and findings show that it may be erroneous to absolutely adopt policy implications derived for other major slums in cities around the world.


This study advances the frontier of slum studies in Nigeria by following an analytical path in understanding the degree of poverty in the slums.



The authors appreciate the efforts of the anonymous reviewers in providing insightful comments and contributions which greatly improved the outcome of this research.

Funding: The authors have received no funding for the research and/or publication of this research.

Declaration of Conflict of Interests: The author declared no potential conflict of interests with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.


Popogbe, O.O., Akinleye, S.O. and Oke, M.D. (2021), "Fuzzy set approach to measuring urban poverty: a case of Lagos State slums", International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 191-209.



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