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Article

Alison H. Parker, Jen A. Smith, Tania Verdemato, Jeanette Cooke, James Webster and Richard C. Carter

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and…

Abstract

Purpose

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda. Totally, 50 interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with women from villages, internally displaced person (IDP) camps and schools so that the menstrual management of the host population could be compared with the IDPs.

Findings

This study showed that in IDP camps there was a significant lack of materials including soap, underpants and absorbing cloth, and facilities like latrines and bathing shelters. As a consequence women in IDP camps suffer with poor health and diminished dignity. There is also a lack of education about menstruation and reproductive health and practices are strongly influenced by cultural taboos.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the menstrual management of women in IDP or refugee camps has been studied.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Shagoofa Rakhshanda, Sahlil Ahmed, Samuel Saidu, Christine Nderitu, Basanta Thapa, Abdul Awal, Nadia Farnaz, Atiya Rahman, Bachera Aktar and A.S.G. Faruque

About half of the 16% adolescents in the world experience menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a health concern and challenge especially in humanitarian…

Abstract

Purpose

About half of the 16% adolescents in the world experience menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a health concern and challenge especially in humanitarian situations as experienced by Myanmar Rohingya refugees living in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. This study aims to assess knowledge, practice and influencing factors for MHM among Rohingya refugee adolescent girls of 14–18 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used both quantitative (a cross-sectional survey with 340 adolescent girls through a structured questionnaire) and qualitative (7 in-depth interviews with adolescent girls and 2 focus group discussions with the mothers) approaches. Quantitative data, analyzed using STATA version 13.0, were supported by qualitative data, grouped into themes and presented as matrix.

Findings

Around 51% adolescent girls learned about menstruation after menarche, at the mean age of 12 years, from their mothers and older sisters. About 75% used sanitary pads as absorbents which they got mostly as relief material or bought from local stores (83%); the rest used cloths and other materials (25%). About 57% of the respondents disposed of their absorbent by burying. Those who used reusable absorbents washed them with soap and water (40%) and mostly dried them indoors (17%). Factors influencing healthy MHM practice included the use of absorbent, privacy, disposal, washing and drying of clothes, physical activities, hygiene and pain management. Adolescents with secondary or higher education were four times more likely to have better MHM practice (odds ratio = 4.27; confidence interval = 1.19–15.31) than those with no formal schooling.

Originality/value

This paper is based on a research undertaken as part of academic requirement.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article

Thelma Fennie, Mokgadi Moletsane and Anita Padmanabhanunni

This study explores how menstruation is perceived, experienced and navigated by school-going adolescent girls living in low-to-middle income settings in South Africa…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how menstruation is perceived, experienced and navigated by school-going adolescent girls living in low-to-middle income settings in South Africa. Existing research from developing countries suggest that the onset of menstruation has implications for school attendance and academic performance. There is evidence that menstrual cycle–related symptoms (primarily physical) lead to difficulties in, or interference with, and disengagement from school, social relations, and physical activities (van Iersel et al., 2016; Steiner et al., 2011; Kiesner and Pastore, 2010; Taras, 2005). The onset of menstruation can be shame-inducing and has been associated with anxiety and confusion. Few studies have been conducted on menstruation in countries with a history of sectarian violence and characterised by substantial socio-economic disparities and high levels of gender-based violence. Understanding the experiences of girls in these contexts is important in generating contextually-grounded knowledge and appropriate interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used to collect data from 48 adolescent girls aged 13–16 year-old. A total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire among a purposive sampling method. Data collected were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Written parental consent was obtained for participants under 18 years old.

Findings

The findings illustrated complex psychological experiences in response to menarche and menstruation. Experiences of shame in relation to menstruation were aggravated by unsupportive responses from school teachers. Challenges such as scarcity of sanitary products were experienced as creating a barrier for girls' school attendance.

Research limitations/implications

Existing research from developing countries suggests that the onset of menstruation has implications for school attendance and academic performance. The research data includes the views of adolescent learners and their negative reactions and positive experiences towards menstruation within the school environment.

Practical implications

Given the comparative paucity of research emerging from developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper addresses an important gap in the literature by providing contextually-nuanced information about the menstrual experiences of adolescent girls. The study can further provide information for efforts made by the Department of Education and Department of Health regarding the impact of menstruation on adolescent girls' school attendance.

Social implications

This study provides important insights regarding the experiences of South African school girls in relation to menstruation. Although dominant feelings of shame, confusion and disgust may surround menstruation, the study also highlighted potential positive experiences associated with menstruation. Teachers and school administrators need to be oriented towards the needs of adolescent girls if issues regarding poor school attendance are to be addressed.

Originality/value

To reduce absenteeism in schools and ensure learners are provided with improved allocation of sanitary products in schools, there is a need for the advocacy regarding sexuality education and resources to promote the psychological health of adolescent girls.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article

Sufiyan Derbew Tiku

Naturally women have menstruation cycle in permanent time that is once in a month, destroying eggs and leaving the body in the form of bad blood. Girls begin their periods…

Abstract

Purpose

Naturally women have menstruation cycle in permanent time that is once in a month, destroying eggs and leaving the body in the form of bad blood. Girls begin their periods between the ages of 10–18. The average age is 13. Through the ages women have used different forms of menstrual protection. Women often used strips of folded old cloth (rags) to catch their menstrual blood. This old cloth is not recommended for health; in these cases, infection in the body is not friendly with the environment. By considering the above issues for women, the purpose of this paper is to design and develop a feminine reusable pad without a pad holder for economically challenged people around Ethiopian rural area where they live, well supported by the baseline survey and also with different technical tests of fabric and product in order to take care of women’s health-related issues. So a reusable pad is needed to hold off the blood, and it is necessary to change the reusable pad, at least three times a day in order to maintain proper hygiene. A proper reusable pad is made of cotton to absorb the blood, and sticker to stick the pad to the panties.

Design/methodology/approach

The reusable pad is developed with three different types of fabrics, forming three different layers of the product, such as 100 percent white knitted cotton, which is used as a top layer attached to the skin, which acts as an absorbing fluid and creates comfort to the wearer, polywadding (non-woven) fabric is used at the middle layer, which is mainly used for absorbent purposes, easily washable, and retains cotton fabric shapes from deformation, and water-repellent fabric is used as the lower layer, which acts as a resistant for the blood to prevent from seepage.

Findings

This new product is developed free from different harmful chemicals and easily available in the market, and it also has good air permeability, good water absorption, comfort, cost affordable, has the best tensile strength, high capacity to hold liquid, best water repellent, and many more features. With the help of this new product, which is aimed at the middle-/lower-middle class people, it gives a lot of benefits with respect to the cost and also takes care of women’s health with all the unique features.

Originality/value

This is the author’s original research work, which is focused on people who lived in a rural area and were economically challenged. The reusable pad is made up of three different fabrics, such as cotton, polywadding and water repellent. Each of the materials and designs to be used is of the author’s; if it is necessary you can cross-check with other works.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Case study

Sadaf Taimoor and Mahnoor Hameed

A pitch deck for Girlythings has been provided as a supplementary material for this case. Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to…

Abstract

Supplementary materials

A pitch deck for Girlythings has been provided as a supplementary material for this case. Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes

Learning outcomes

In the light of the case and the accompanying case questions, the students should understand the following: socio-cultural perspectives in adopting the use of taboo products in an emerging economy and a conservative society such as Pakistan; role of government and non-governmental agencies in influencing policy framework; the application of the theory of planned behavior in channeling positive attitudes toward the use of personal hygiene products; peculiarities of formulating an expansion strategy for entrepreneurial ventures; and idiosyncrasies of developing effective business pitches.

Case overview/synopsis

Founded in early 2018, Girlythings was a young startup spearheaded by Tanzila Khan. It aimed at not only improving the availability of sanitary products in the emerging Pakistan market but, over and above, also removing the stigma attached to the topic of menstruation in the society. While the startup was still nestled at an incubation center, the protagonist faced the utmost challenge of deciding the fate of the venture due to the taboo nature of the product. This case is a rich description of the stigma that prevails on the topic of women health in conservative societies like Pakistan. It will help students appreciate the idiosyncrasies of operating in emerging markets and spearheading ventures that deal with sensitive issues.

Complexity academic level

This case is geared toward undergraduate students enrolled in courses of strategy, strategic marketing and entrepreneurship.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Abstract

Title

GOONJ: the power of cloth.

Subject area

Strategic management and social innovation

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate and graduate level management/business school students. It can be taught in strategic management and social innovation courses.

Case overview

GOONJ is a non‐profit organization which has life and dignity for lakhs of people in India over the last decade. It aimed at bringing up clothing as one of the important aspects of human life and make it available for the needy keeping their dignity intact. The case begins with Anshu Gupta, founder of GOONJ thinking deeply about the high‐priority meeting to take GOONJ to the next level and scale up the operations of his social innovation. It then tries to bring up the potential problem of clothing and menstrual hygiene in India followed by explanation of the present working model of GOONJ which allows them to manage the operations with 97 paisa per cloth. With the dream of taking GOONJ to the next level and converting it into a nation‐wide phenomenon, will the present model work?

Expected learning outcomes

This case will cover two important aspects: social innovation process (themes, challenges and implications for practice); and strategic management concepts (stakeholder theory, internal‐external factor evaluation).

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Abstract

Supplementary materials

Teaching Note and Exhibits.

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows. The case offers a rare opportunity to understand the unique market dynamics of feminine health and hygiene products in an emerging market. The discussion would enable learners to comprehend different stages of “new product development process”; understand “diffusion of innovation” and consumer adoption process; conduct a comprehensive situation analysis to assess segment attractiveness; and plan market-driven “product commercialization” strategies to increase adoption and sales for long-term performance.

Case overview/synopsis

Peebuddy – “India’s first portable female urination device” that gave women the freedom to stand and pee in unfriendly toilets was launched in 2015. Over two million units were sold by December 2019. Riding on this success, Deep Bajaj – the creator of Peebuddy built a 20-product company from a small bootstrapped start-up, over a four-year period. After receiving two rounds of funding, Bajaj knew that for the next phase of expansion, he needed to showcase Peebuddy as the star product. Facing the challenge of getting over the chasm of limited adoption of an unconventional product in the intimate feminine hygiene and almost taboo space in an emerging market such as India, Bajaj was determined to retain the first mover advantage and emerge as the leader in the category. For this, he had to define his lead user distinctly and design appropriate strategies to increase consumer reach and sales that could overcome the challenges of cultural stereotypes.

Complexity academic level

MBA-level courses in marketing management (core), consumer behavior and product management.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article

Jackie Rodgers

This paper describes a three‐phase study to investigate the experience and management of menstruation for women with learning disabilities. It focuses on the findings of…

Abstract

This paper describes a three‐phase study to investigate the experience and management of menstruation for women with learning disabilities. It focuses on the findings of the second phase of the study, which looked at the experiences of carers and health professionals. It describes the difficult issues that can arise when providing assistance around menstruation. The findings are discussed in relation to ideologies and sensitivities that exist around gender, sexuality and menstruation.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Book part

Prabal K. De

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some…

Abstract

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some essential vaccination. Though a positive association between maternal education and markers of child health like immunization has been long established, the literature has struggled to find a causal relationship, mainly because education is inextricably correlated with other socioeconomic variables like income. In this chapter, I propose a new instrument for women’s education in India using the following facts. First, due to lack of sanitary facilities in schools, particularly rural schools, large number of girls drop out of school once they reach puberty. Second, age at menarche is largely determined by biological factors and not social factors. Together, age at menarche can explain variations in schooling, yet be independent of outcome variables like child immunization. I find that additional years of maternal schooling (conditional on strictly positive years of schooling) do increase the probability of complete immunization of children.

Details

Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

Keywords

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Article

Marjan Havaei, Sara Esmaelzadeh Saeieh and Leili Salehi

This study, a theory-based interventional study, aims to promote self-care behaviors regarding sexual and reproductive health in adolescents (female) in Karaj, Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

This study, a theory-based interventional study, aims to promote self-care behaviors regarding sexual and reproductive health in adolescents (female) in Karaj, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted on 90 female students of the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. For selecting subjects, the researchers went to two girls' dormitories on working days and tried to observe the proportion of students with different fields. Initially, 200 eligible female students were identified in the dormitories of Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Based on the sample size estimation, 100 research units were divided into two groups of receiving counseling (intervention group) and not receiving counseling (control group) by four-digit block randomization. Sexual and reproductive health self-care questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection before, after and one month after intervention. Data were analyzed by using X2 and ANOVA tests using SPSS (16).

Findings

Both groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics before the intervention. The results of the study indicated that after education, sexual and reproductive knowledge (p < 0.001), self-care of sexual health (p < 0.001), self-care of menstrual and genital health (p < 0.001) increased significantly. But, regarding parents' communications (p = 0.11), conversation barriers with parents (p = 0.83), interaction with (p = 0.79) and the perceptions of sexual risk behaviors relationships (p = 0.61) differences are not significant.

Research limitations/implications

Failure of parents to participate in this study and the implementation of this study only on the female sex were main limitations of the present study.

Practical implications

Theory-based education can improve sexual and reproductive health in adolescents' girls.

Originality/value

All Authors declare the manuscript entitled “Sexual and reproductive health self-care: a theory-based intervention” is original work of the author. All data, tables, figures, etc. used in the manuscript are prepared originally by authors; otherwise, the sources are cited and reprint permission is attached.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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