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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Alison H. Parker, Jen A. Smith, Tania Verdemato, Jeanette Cooke, James Webster and Richard C. Carter

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda. Totally, 50 interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with women from villages, internally displaced person (IDP) camps and schools so that the menstrual management of the host population could be compared with the IDPs.

Findings

This study showed that in IDP camps there was a significant lack of materials including soap, underpants and absorbing cloth, and facilities like latrines and bathing shelters. As a consequence women in IDP camps suffer with poor health and diminished dignity. There is also a lack of education about menstruation and reproductive health and practices are strongly influenced by cultural taboos.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the menstrual management of women in IDP or refugee camps has been studied.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Siobhan Warrington, Mimi Coultas, Mitali Das and Effat Nur

In Bangladesh, as elsewhere, menstruation is surrounded by stigma, silence, and shame. Despite being a critical part of women’s and girls’ sexual and reproductive health…

Abstract

Purpose

In Bangladesh, as elsewhere, menstruation is surrounded by stigma, silence, and shame. Despite being a critical part of women’s and girls’ sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), it remains significantly under-researched and addressed. However, the focus on menstrual health (MH) programming is growing globally, with increased awareness of the importance of holistic and rights-based approaches. This case study aims to examine and reflect upon the MH landscape and programming in Bangladesh, assessing the progress, challenges, and potential ways forward.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study is based on a non-systematic review of recent global and national literature, eight semi-structured interviews, a review of national television adverts and the authors’ experiences of MH research and programming in Bangladesh.

Findings

Hygiene-based education delivered through schools is a common entry point for MH programming in Bangladesh, with limited activities conducted in communities (including with men and boys) and through media. The focus of MH programming has tended to be narrow, with insufficient recognition of the wider gender equality and health implications of menstruation. There are growing efforts to coordinate MH work by different agencies and to collectively advocate for increased government engagement. While significant progress has been made, this case study identifies several gaps and tensions that reflect the complexity of addressing MH.

Originality/value

This case study presents an overview of recent MH experiences and programming in Bangladesh. It recognises the different sectors, sites and stakeholders involved, and includes experiences and perspectives of practitioners, academics, and programme participants.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Shagoofa Rakhshanda, Sahlil Ahmed, Samuel Saidu, Christine Nderitu, Basanta Thapa, Abdul Awal, Nadia Farnaz, Atiya Rahman, Bachera Aktar and A.S.G. Faruque

About half of the 16% adolescents in the world experience menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a health concern and challenge especially in humanitarian…

Abstract

Purpose

About half of the 16% adolescents in the world experience menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is a health concern and challenge especially in humanitarian situations as experienced by Myanmar Rohingya refugees living in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. This study aims to assess knowledge, practice and influencing factors for MHM among Rohingya refugee adolescent girls of 14–18 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used both quantitative (a cross-sectional survey with 340 adolescent girls through a structured questionnaire) and qualitative (7 in-depth interviews with adolescent girls and 2 focus group discussions with the mothers) approaches. Quantitative data, analyzed using STATA version 13.0, were supported by qualitative data, grouped into themes and presented as matrix.

Findings

Around 51% adolescent girls learned about menstruation after menarche, at the mean age of 12 years, from their mothers and older sisters. About 75% used sanitary pads as absorbents which they got mostly as relief material or bought from local stores (83%); the rest used cloths and other materials (25%). About 57% of the respondents disposed of their absorbent by burying. Those who used reusable absorbents washed them with soap and water (40%) and mostly dried them indoors (17%). Factors influencing healthy MHM practice included the use of absorbent, privacy, disposal, washing and drying of clothes, physical activities, hygiene and pain management. Adolescents with secondary or higher education were four times more likely to have better MHM practice (odds ratio = 4.27; confidence interval = 1.19–15.31) than those with no formal schooling.

Originality/value

This paper is based on a research undertaken as part of academic requirement.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 21 March 2022

Debabrata Chatterjee and Jasleen Kaur

The learning outcomes are as follows: Understand the concept and characteristics of Bottom of Pyramid (BoP) markets; understand the concept and characteristics of frugal…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: Understand the concept and characteristics of Bottom of Pyramid (BoP) markets; understand the concept and characteristics of frugal innovations; understand the Design Thinking approach to product design and how it might be useful to develop frugal innovations for BoP markets.

Case overview/Synopsis

The case details the journey of a group of students at a premier engineering college in India. The group aimed to develop and implement a social innovation that addressed a serious and important health issue – menstrual hygiene practices among urban slum dwellers in India. The case begins with how a chance visit to an NGO inspired a pair of students to take up this issue, how the project unfolded at their college, the challenges faced in their journey and, finally, an outcome that was only a partial success. It raises important questions of challenges that are specific to bottom of pyramid markets in emerging economies. The case can provide a context for discussions on approaching frugal innovations from a Design Thinking perspective.

Complexity academic level

This case can be used in social innovation courses/modules at an undergraduate or graduate level in social innovation and social entrepreneurship courses. The case is best positioned towards the beginning of the course as an overview of the process of Social Innovation, and to discuss the relevance of concepts of BoP markets and frugal innovation.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 7: Management Science.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Thelma Fennie, Mokgadi Moletsane and Anita Padmanabhanunni

This study explores how menstruation is perceived, experienced and navigated by school-going adolescent girls living in low-to-middle income settings in South Africa…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how menstruation is perceived, experienced and navigated by school-going adolescent girls living in low-to-middle income settings in South Africa. Existing research from developing countries suggest that the onset of menstruation has implications for school attendance and academic performance. There is evidence that menstrual cycle–related symptoms (primarily physical) lead to difficulties in, or interference with, and disengagement from school, social relations, and physical activities (van Iersel et al., 2016; Steiner et al., 2011; Kiesner and Pastore, 2010; Taras, 2005). The onset of menstruation can be shame-inducing and has been associated with anxiety and confusion. Few studies have been conducted on menstruation in countries with a history of sectarian violence and characterised by substantial socio-economic disparities and high levels of gender-based violence. Understanding the experiences of girls in these contexts is important in generating contextually-grounded knowledge and appropriate interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used to collect data from 48 adolescent girls aged 13–16 year-old. A total of six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire among a purposive sampling method. Data collected were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Written parental consent was obtained for participants under 18 years old.

Findings

The findings illustrated complex psychological experiences in response to menarche and menstruation. Experiences of shame in relation to menstruation were aggravated by unsupportive responses from school teachers. Challenges such as scarcity of sanitary products were experienced as creating a barrier for girls' school attendance.

Research limitations/implications

Existing research from developing countries suggests that the onset of menstruation has implications for school attendance and academic performance. The research data includes the views of adolescent learners and their negative reactions and positive experiences towards menstruation within the school environment.

Practical implications

Given the comparative paucity of research emerging from developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper addresses an important gap in the literature by providing contextually-nuanced information about the menstrual experiences of adolescent girls. The study can further provide information for efforts made by the Department of Education and Department of Health regarding the impact of menstruation on adolescent girls' school attendance.

Social implications

This study provides important insights regarding the experiences of South African school girls in relation to menstruation. Although dominant feelings of shame, confusion and disgust may surround menstruation, the study also highlighted potential positive experiences associated with menstruation. Teachers and school administrators need to be oriented towards the needs of adolescent girls if issues regarding poor school attendance are to be addressed.

Originality/value

To reduce absenteeism in schools and ensure learners are provided with improved allocation of sanitary products in schools, there is a need for the advocacy regarding sexuality education and resources to promote the psychological health of adolescent girls.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Jennifer Rothchild

The goal of this project is to link the analysis of gender construction to reproductive health, sexuality, and development within the postdisaster context of Nepal and…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this project is to link the analysis of gender construction to reproductive health, sexuality, and development within the postdisaster context of Nepal and thereby, inform our understandings of these linkages more broadly, as well as provide new opportunities for promoting gender equity, reproductive health, and development in areas of conflict or disaster.

Methodology/Approach

Using life history narratives, I examine the intersections among reproductive health, gender, and sexuality before, during, and postdisaster.

Findings

These life history interviews shed light on how socialization processes shape and determine adolescent girls' future actions and women's life opportunities. At both the individual and state levels, issues related to gender, sexuality, and reproductive health are exacerbated in times of crisis.

Research Limitations/Implications

Life histories provide rich, thick descriptions of social life. However, they are limited in terms of reliability and making generalizations about larger populations. This chapter engages the reader, scholars, students, practitioners, and policy makers in contemplating policy reform and initiation of context-based programs in times of natural disaster, political conflict, and other catastrophic events that disenfranchise those without agency and power.

Originality/Value of Paper

This paper is unique in that it is the first to examine reproductive health and sexuality from the perspective of women living within a society bound by rigid gender and sexuality norms, but torn apart by natural disasters and the political and economic instability that follow in countries like Nepal.

Details

Health and Health Care Inequities, Infectious Diseases and Social Factors
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-940-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Gulsan Ara Parvin, Nina Takashino, Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Habibur Rahman, Md. Anwarul Abedin and Mrittika Basu

This study aims to explore whether socio-economic factors determine the level of menstrual knowledge and perceptions of schoolgirls in Bangladesh. The aim of this study is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether socio-economic factors determine the level of menstrual knowledge and perceptions of schoolgirls in Bangladesh. The aim of this study is to understand how knowledge and perceptions vary with variations in the different socio-economic factors in a schoolgirl’s life such as place of residence, religion, age, grade, parents’ education, parents’ occupation, family income and even family size.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from four schools (two in urban areas and two in rural areas). A total of 450 schoolgirls from grades V–X were interviewed to examine how knowledge and perceptions varied with different socio-economic aspects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to measure the associations between various socio-economic variables and perceptions of and knowledge about menstruation.

Findings

Respondents from urban areas were 4.75 times more likely and those 14–16 years old were two times more likely to report higher levels of knowledge about menstruation compared to their counterparts. Based on the father’s occupation, respondents whose father was engaged in a professional occupation were 1.983 times more likely to have a higher level of knowledge on menstruation compared to those whose fathers were in an unskilled profession. Similarly, the odds of positive perceptions on menstruation were 1.456 and 1.987 times higher, respectively, among respondents living in urban areas and those 14–16 years old, compared to their counterparts.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence that different socio-economic and even demographic factors are important in the development of menstrual knowledge and perceptions. Policy formulation and development actions related to adolescent girls’ physical and reproductive health development need to consider these factors in Bangladesh and in other developing countries, where poor knowledge and perception related to menstruation are hindering girls’ mental and physical development. This is expected that better knowledge and perception will facilitate girls’ right to have better health and social lives.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Abstract

Study level/applicability

This case study can be used at the graduate and executive levels.

Subject area

This case study can be used in entrepreneurship, leadership, social entrepreneurship and human resource management.

Case overview

Healing Fields Foundation is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) that was co-founded by Mukti Bosco to create an affordable and quality health-care ecosystem, primarily through women. The pragmatism of Mukti and her strong alignment with the core values of the foundation ensured that they emerged unscathed from past challenges. During the second wave of the pandemic in 2021, they employed bikers on a contractual basis to satisfy last-mile delivery demand in rural India. However, owing to the recovery post the second wave, the demand for their services dropped and subsequently their earnings. Being provided with four options by her COO, Mukti is cognisant of the social implications her decisions will have on all the stakeholders in the ecosystem.

Expected learning outcomes

A. Identify and prioritise key stakeholders of the organisation for effective decision-making. B. Differentiate effectual from causal reasoning and apply their right balance while making decisions. C. Delineate social entrepreneurs from their for-profit, non-mission-driven counterparts. D. Create value for the organisation’s stakeholders through the management of its diverse workforce. E. Formulate entrepreneurial solutions through the application of relevant concepts and frameworks.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

The Case For Women, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2732-4443

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Sufiyan Derbew Tiku

Naturally women have menstruation cycle in permanent time that is once in a month, destroying eggs and leaving the body in the form of bad blood. Girls begin their periods…

Abstract

Purpose

Naturally women have menstruation cycle in permanent time that is once in a month, destroying eggs and leaving the body in the form of bad blood. Girls begin their periods between the ages of 10–18. The average age is 13. Through the ages women have used different forms of menstrual protection. Women often used strips of folded old cloth (rags) to catch their menstrual blood. This old cloth is not recommended for health; in these cases, infection in the body is not friendly with the environment. By considering the above issues for women, the purpose of this paper is to design and develop a feminine reusable pad without a pad holder for economically challenged people around Ethiopian rural area where they live, well supported by the baseline survey and also with different technical tests of fabric and product in order to take care of women’s health-related issues. So a reusable pad is needed to hold off the blood, and it is necessary to change the reusable pad, at least three times a day in order to maintain proper hygiene. A proper reusable pad is made of cotton to absorb the blood, and sticker to stick the pad to the panties.

Design/methodology/approach

The reusable pad is developed with three different types of fabrics, forming three different layers of the product, such as 100 percent white knitted cotton, which is used as a top layer attached to the skin, which acts as an absorbing fluid and creates comfort to the wearer, polywadding (non-woven) fabric is used at the middle layer, which is mainly used for absorbent purposes, easily washable, and retains cotton fabric shapes from deformation, and water-repellent fabric is used as the lower layer, which acts as a resistant for the blood to prevent from seepage.

Findings

This new product is developed free from different harmful chemicals and easily available in the market, and it also has good air permeability, good water absorption, comfort, cost affordable, has the best tensile strength, high capacity to hold liquid, best water repellent, and many more features. With the help of this new product, which is aimed at the middle-/lower-middle class people, it gives a lot of benefits with respect to the cost and also takes care of women’s health with all the unique features.

Originality/value

This is the author’s original research work, which is focused on people who lived in a rural area and were economically challenged. The reusable pad is made up of three different fabrics, such as cotton, polywadding and water repellent. Each of the materials and designs to be used is of the author’s; if it is necessary you can cross-check with other works.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 19 October 2019

Sadaf Taimoor and Mahnoor Hameed

A pitch deck for Girlythings has been provided as a supplementary material for this case. Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to…

Abstract

Supplementary materials

A pitch deck for Girlythings has been provided as a supplementary material for this case. Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes

Learning outcomes

In the light of the case and the accompanying case questions, the students should understand the following: socio-cultural perspectives in adopting the use of taboo products in an emerging economy and a conservative society such as Pakistan; role of government and non-governmental agencies in influencing policy framework; the application of the theory of planned behavior in channeling positive attitudes toward the use of personal hygiene products; peculiarities of formulating an expansion strategy for entrepreneurial ventures; and idiosyncrasies of developing effective business pitches.

Case overview/synopsis

Founded in early 2018, Girlythings was a young startup spearheaded by Tanzila Khan. It aimed at not only improving the availability of sanitary products in the emerging Pakistan market but, over and above, also removing the stigma attached to the topic of menstruation in the society. While the startup was still nestled at an incubation center, the protagonist faced the utmost challenge of deciding the fate of the venture due to the taboo nature of the product. This case is a rich description of the stigma that prevails on the topic of women health in conservative societies like Pakistan. It will help students appreciate the idiosyncrasies of operating in emerging markets and spearheading ventures that deal with sensitive issues.

Complexity academic level

This case is geared toward undergraduate students enrolled in courses of strategy, strategic marketing and entrepreneurship.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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