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Book part

Julia Fan Li and Elizabeth Garnsey

Healthcare innovations for bottom-of-pyramid populations face considerable risks and few economic incentives. Can entrepreneurial innovators provide new solutions for…

Abstract

Healthcare innovations for bottom-of-pyramid populations face considerable risks and few economic incentives. Can entrepreneurial innovators provide new solutions for global health? This chapter examines how a technology enterprise built a collaborative network and supportive ecosystem making it possible to steer an innovation for TB patients through discovery, development, and delivery. Ecosystem resources were mobilized and upstream and downstream co-innovation risks were mitigated to commercialize a new diagnostic test. Detailed evidence on this innovation for TB care uses ecosystem analysis to clarify core issues in the context of joint value creation. The case study shows how resources from private and public partners can be leveraged and combined by the focal firm to build joint value and to lower execution, co-innovation, and adoption risks in healthcare ecosystems combating diseases of poverty.

Details

Collaboration and Competition in Business Ecosystems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-826-6

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Article

Mersiha Tepic, Frances Fortuin, Ron G.M. Kemp and Onno Omta

The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously identified success factors and innovation project performance.

Design/methodology/approach

These differences are established on the basis of logistic regression analysis, using 38 innovation projects (18 F&B and 20 technology-based).

Findings

Newness of the innovation project to the company, communication capabilities and market potential have a more negative impact on innovation project performance in the F&B than the tech-based industry. Especially functional upstream capabilities increase the likelihood of success in F&B, when compared to tech-based innovation projects.

Practical implications

While functional upstream capabilities are important for success of F&B innovation projects, there is still room for improvement in order to deal effectively with newness of the innovation project to the company. Internalization of resources from the network and a balanced radical/incremental innovation project portfolio contribute to additional enhancement of functional capabilities of the F&B companies, improving their capacity to deal with newness. Through a larger focus on co-innovation with retail, F&B companies can improve their intra- and inter-firm communication capabilities to attain more consumer-oriented integration of R&D and marketing activities, improving the market potential of their innovations.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that the previously identified critical success factors for innovation projects differ in impact and importance for F&B innovation project performance when compared to innovation projects in the technology-based industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part

Ashish Arora, Andrea Fosfuri and Alfonso Gambardella

Firms have typically tried to profit from their technical innovations by selling them indirectly, embedded in goods and services. Markets for technology, in which…

Abstract

Firms have typically tried to profit from their technical innovations by selling them indirectly, embedded in goods and services. Markets for technology, in which innovations are sold or licensed, have been much rarer. Yet, trade in technology has grown systematically over the past 20 years, as reflected in the growth of arrangements such as licensing agreements, R&D joint ventures, and contract R&D. Recent estimates indicate that royalties received by American corporations for industrial processes may amount to about a quarter of total U.S. R&D. A number of supporting institutions that facilitate effective dissemination of information, standardization, and contracting are vital to the rise and functioning of markets for technology. Intellectual property rights, and in particular patents, are one such institution. The main objectives of this survey are to review critically the literature on the relationship between trade in technology and patent protection, and to assess the contribution of stricter and better-defined patent protection to the emergence of technology markets. We start our survey by providing a tentative taxonomy of markets for technology and some recent evidence on their extent and evolution. We then explore several reasons why firms would be willing to act as suppliers in the market for technology. The core of the survey revolves around the idea that patents facilitate the development of markets for technology in several ways: They enhance the ability of the licensor to extract rents from its innovation; they reduce costs in technology trade by forcing an increased codification of knowledge; they reduce information asymmetries, opportunistic behaviors, and transaction costs. However, the literature also points to some potential costs of stronger patents, including litigation costs and the problem of “anti-commons.” Finally, we explore the implications of patents and markets for technology for entry, competition and industry dynamics.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Article

Vittoria Giada Scalera, Debmalya Mukherjee, Alessandra Perri and Ram Mudambi

The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the innovation trajectory, and knowledge pipelines of mature industry multinational enterprises (MNEs). The ability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the innovation trajectory, and knowledge pipelines of mature industry multinational enterprises (MNEs). The ability to innovate constantly amidst a turbulent and competitive environment is often the key force behind MNE survival and dominance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts an in-depth longitudinal study of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, a global manufacturing company in the tire and rubber industry. The findings are based on USPTO patent and trademark data from 1975-2005.

Findings

The analysis reveals three crucial trends: the major role of continuous investment in innovation in the firm’s survival and turnaround; the evolution of the firm’s innovation network from a headquarters-centric model toward more geographical dispersal; and the changing mix of innovation from traditional “hard” science-based research toward a greater emphasis on “softer” competencies in design and trademarks. This third trend, in particular, opens up important new avenues for research on MNE innovation practices.

Originality/value

This study integrates historical analysis of a single firm in the context of its changing industry environment. The historical analysis is enriched by a detailed longitudinal quantitative analysis using a variegated dataset of patents and trademarks to investigate innovation.

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Book part

Alessandra Perri and Grazia D. Santangelo

Multinational corporations (MNCs) have increasingly sourced knowledge across borders, and foreign subsidiaries operations have played a critical role in MNC international…

Abstract

Multinational corporations (MNCs) have increasingly sourced knowledge across borders, and foreign subsidiaries operations have played a critical role in MNC international knowledge sourcing strategies. The growing responsibility of foreign subsidiaries has paralleled an interest on the geography of this phenomenon by international business and international management scholars. In this chapter, we review this research. In addition, based on recent research in economics and management drawing on economic geography and innovation studies, we highlight possible avenues of research to enrich our understanding of the geographical aspects of international knowledge sourcing. In particular, we suggest three lines of research opportunities. A first opportunity relates to the explicit consideration of distance and border effects. A further research opportunity arises from investigating the geographical distance of heterogeneous host country knowledge sources from the foreign subsidiary. A final research opportunity we discuss is about the contribution of heterogeneous host country knowledge sources to the variety of knowledge developed by the foreign subsidiary.

Details

Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

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Article

Brian Low, Wesley J. Johnston and Jennifer Wang

The purpose of this paper is to establish the importance and approaches in securing an organization's legitimacy from the network community of customers, suppliers and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the importance and approaches in securing an organization's legitimacy from the network community of customers, suppliers and manufacturers, including private investors and state‐owned institutions when marketing their products.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an inductive interpretative approach complimented by action‐based research founded on inquiry and testing.

Findings

The paper finds that the key to legitimacy success involves using legitimacy orientations to demonstrate commitment to the interests of constituents, acquiring legitimacy from them, but concurrently considering the central government's influence on a firm's legitimacy performance.

Research limitations/implications

The multiple interactions proposed in this paper remain untested and might have to be modified pending further empirical testing and analysis.

Practical implications

In China's telecommunication market, a company's legitimacy emanates first and foremost from the development and commercialization of innovative and creative technological solutions. This requires good, creative management of technological resource and activity links, connecting the company's technology to network constituents which include local manufacturers, carriers, software developers, investors.

Originality/value

This is the first published paper that examines the proposed interactions among legitimacy orientations, alignments, and performances from a “market‐as‐network” perspective in a dynamic, transitional Chinese telecommunication market.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Geoffrey J. Simmons, Mark G. Durkin, Pauric McGowan and Gillian A. Armstrong

As evidence mounts on the importance of small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) to national and international economies and the opportunities presented to them by the…

Abstract

Purpose

As evidence mounts on the importance of small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) to national and international economies and the opportunities presented to them by the internet, it becomes important to understand the key issues which determine internet adoption and utilisation. With literature on SME internet adoption fragmented and incoherent, there is also a need for conceptual framework development and testing to provide more focused research in this important area. Several researchers have also highlighted a need for research which concentrates more on specific industrial sectors rather than taking a more generalist approach to SME internet adoption. Within this evolving research context, the agri‐food industry makes a particularly relevant area of study, which this paper aims to study.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper addresses this purpose by conducting a study of 50 Northern Ireland SME agri‐food companies. The study utilises and tests a conceptual framework derived from the extant literature in relation to the determinants of SME web site adoption and utilisation.

Findings

The findings of this study point to the need for SME agri‐food companies to develop an awareness of the internet's efficacy for their business and a subsequent dynamic strategic approach in adoption and utilisation. However, the lack of marketing ability and negative industry norms prevalent within developed economy agri‐food industries will contribute negatively to internet adoption and utilisation. These will need to be addressed if the internet, and web site adoption and utilisation in particular, are to provide an effective business tool. The research findings support the conceptual framework's usefulness as a research tool. The findings point to the importance of marketing ability and industry norms in relation to their impact on the central determinants of internet adoption by the SME agri‐food companies studied.

Originality/value

In this paper it is contended that a lack of marketing ability and negative industry attitudes towards internet adoption and utilisation will constrain levels of awareness of the efficacy of the internet as a business tool for the individual businesses researched. The findings reveal that this will subsequently contribute to a lack of strategic web site development and subsequent utilisation.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Ouidade Sabri, Amina Djedidi and Mouhoub Hani

This study aims to examine the critical role of types of coopetition (upstream/downstream), market structure (concentrated/competitive) and innovation (low vs high degree…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the critical role of types of coopetition (upstream/downstream), market structure (concentrated/competitive) and innovation (low vs high degree of innovation) that can affect the way consumers perceive the resulting price (un)fairness of new offerings.

Design/methodology/approach

Three between-subjects experiments involving different participant populations and product categories were conducted to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The valence of the effect of types of coopetition (upstream/downstream) on price fairness is conditional on the market structure and the degree of innovation associated with the new product offering. Downstream (as opposed to upstream) coopetition is much more detrimental to perceptions of price fairness in a concentrated market than in a competitive and fragmented market. However, within a competitive market, downstream coopetition may lead to greater price fairness perception than upstream coopetition when the new product offering is highly innovative.

Research limitations/implications

The current study uses lab experiments with fictitious scenarios and focuses on two moderating variables: market structure and innovation perceptions. Future research may use field experiments and explore additional moderating variables that may annihilate the negative effect of downstream coopetition on price fairness perception, especially in a concentrated market.

Practical implications

In concentrated markets, firms should opt for upstream rather than downstream coopetition to limit the negative effect the announcement of coopetition has on price fairness evaluation. However, within a competitive market, when the new product offering resulting from coopetition is associated with a high perceived degree of innovation, firms should opt for downstream rather than upstream coopetition because of its positive impact on price fairness evaluation.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that new product development from coopetition has important implications for the perception of price fairness, leading to positive or negative effects depending on market structure and the degree of innovation of the new product offering. It then explores the conditions under which types of coopetition (upstream/downstream) might backfire.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Mark Casson

This article is concerned with the role of theory in explaining the inter‐industry variation of vertical integration (VI). Why, for example, is the world aluminium…

Abstract

This article is concerned with the role of theory in explaining the inter‐industry variation of vertical integration (VI). Why, for example, is the world aluminium industry highly integrated (Stukey, 1983) whereas the tin industry is not (Hennart, 1982)? The article is not concerned with explaining differences in the average level of VI across countries, although these are undoubtedly significant (Chandler and Daeins, 1980).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Xueli Zhang and Defeng Yang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions under which working with an incumbent downstream competitor could be a beneficial strategy for upstream firms as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions under which working with an incumbent downstream competitor could be a beneficial strategy for upstream firms as the case of the relationship between banks and third-party payment providers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a game model, this study considers a market with two upstream firms (banks) and two downstream firms (third-party payment providers). One downstream firm is an incumbent that poses a competitive threat to the upstream market, and the other downstream firm does not.

Findings

The results show that the optimal decision for banks depends on the number of loyal users the incumbent third-party payment providers and banks have. When the bank has more loyal users than the competitive third-party provider to a certain level, it would terminate cooperation with the provider; otherwise, the bank would maintain cooperation. This is true whether the duopoly banks are symmetrical or asymmetrical.

Originality/value

This study makes contribution to the theory of co-opetition lies in the fact that it examines a special case of competition and cooperation between vertical enterprises in the bank context. This study investigates how the upstream firms do when threatened by a downstream firm while the upstream firms have other options. This study also contributes to bank marketing theory through providing explanations for some of the incomprehensible cooperation in China's payment market, which is characterized by consumer loyalty. This study extends previous new-entry competition for banks by differentiating between incumbent and new-entry downstream firms.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJBM-11-2019-0414

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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