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Article

James Douglas

Summarises the evolution of underfloor heating in buildings. Examines the main types of underfloor heating systems in ground floors. Discusses the pros and cons of this…

Abstract

Summarises the evolution of underfloor heating in buildings. Examines the main types of underfloor heating systems in ground floors. Discusses the pros and cons of this method of heating buildings. Shows that with the introduction of flow‐applied screeds and plastic piping, as well as improved installation and control procedures, underfloor heating is making a comeback in a growing number of new‐build schemes in the UK. However, this study indicates that it will be many years before universal confidence in the system is achieved.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part

Neil Hewitt, Ye Huang, Mingjun Huang and Caterina Brandoni

Currently heating and cooling in buildings is responsible for over 30% of the primary energy consumption in the United Kingdom with a similar amount in China. We analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently heating and cooling in buildings is responsible for over 30% of the primary energy consumption in the United Kingdom with a similar amount in China. We analyze heat pumps and district thermal energy network for efficient buildings. Their advantages are examined (i.e., flexibility in choosing heat sources, reduction of fuel consumption and increased environmental quality, enhanced community energy management, reduced costs for end users) together with their drawbacks, when they are intended as means for efficient building heating and cooling.

Methodology/approach

A literature review observed a range of operating conditions and challenges associated with the efficient operation of district heating and cooling networks, comparing primarily the UK’s and China’s experiences, but also acknowledging the areas of expertise of European, the United States, and Japan. It was noted that the efficiency of cooling networks is still in its infancy but heating networks could benefit from lower distribution temperatures to reduce thermal losses. Such temperatures are suitable for space heating methods provided by, for example, underfloor heating, enhanced area hydronic radiators, or fan-assisted hydronic radiators. However, to use existing higher temperature hydronic radiator systems (typically at a temperatures of >70°C) a modified heat pump was proposed, tested, and evaluated in an administrative building. The results appears to be very successful.

Findings

District heating is a proven energy-efficient mechanism for delivering space heating. They can also be adaptable for space cooling applications with either parallel heating and cooling circuits or in regions of well-defined seasons, on flow and return circuit with a defined change-over period from heating to cooling. Renewable energy sources can provide either heating or cooling through, for example, biomass boilers, photovoltaics, solar thermal, etc. However, for lower loss district heating systems, lower distribution temperatures are required. Advanced heat pumps can efficiently bridge the gap between lower temperature distribution systems and buildings with higher temperature hydronic heating systems

Originality/value

This chapter presents a case for district heating (and cooling). It demonstrates the benefits of reduced temperatures in district heating networks to reduce losses but also illustrates the need for temperature upgrading where building heating systems require higher temperatures. Thus, a novel heat pump was developed and successfully tested.

Details

China and Europe’s Partnership for a More Sustainable World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-331-3

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Article

Tim Sharpe and Donald Shearer

The stone tenement is perhaps the most iconic type of housing in Scotland and to a large extent defines the built environment of its major cities and towns. However in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The stone tenement is perhaps the most iconic type of housing in Scotland and to a large extent defines the built environment of its major cities and towns. However in the context of the climate change agenda which demands reduced energy consumption and CO2 production, such buildings are recognised to be a particular challenge in terms of both their poor energy performance, but also the limitations on improvement measures that do not have a detrimental affect on their form and appearance. As a result interventions that improve performance tend to less mainstream and it is therefore import to assess the effectiveness of these, and this was the purpose of the research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the findings of a post occupancy evaluation that examined the user satisfaction and energy performance of a recently completed (2008) adaptive rehabilitation project of a listed 19th Century sandstone tenement block in Edinburgh city centre. the project undertook a short intensive monitoring programme to gather both qualitative and quantitative data on occupancy and internal environmental conditions.

Findings

The project incorporates low carbon technologies and high thermal performance into an existing and historic structure, including internal insulation, a ground source heat pump with underfloor heating, sunspaces and MVHR, which are intended to reduce energy consumption whilst maintaining the built form and appearance. Although generally successful the research identified problems occurring with systems and users interaction with these, leading to incidences of poor environmental quality and increased energy use.

Research limitations/implications

The research identified issues with higher than designed energy use and poor environmental conditions. More detailed research is required into the design for energy and environmental performance of these buildings, and the effects of poor IAQ on occupants, and how these problems can be avoided in the future.

Practical implications

The paper concludes by discussing improvements which could be made to this structure and future design considerations that could improve performance.

Social implications

Concerns over occupant health in refurbished buildings are likely to affect policy, regulation and user acceptability, which if unmanaged, could undermine the energy reduction agenda.

Originality/value

This research provides original data on environmental performance arising from new forms of energy improvements being implemented to meet building standards and carbon reduction targets in a common building typology.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article

Samantha Organ

Heritage tourism has become increasingly popular, and improving the sustainability of such sites is essential both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage tourism has become increasingly popular, and improving the sustainability of such sites is essential both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities and challenges of improving the condition and sustainability of a chapel at a busy international heritage tourist attraction.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was adopted. This utilised interviews with four of the primary building professionals involved with the refurbishment project. Documentary analysis and observations were also used.

Findings

The present case study presents the opportunities and challenges faced by a tourist heritage attraction. Improvements to the condition and sustainability of such assets are essential to ensure their sustained and enhanced use, and the protection of heritage buildings. Such projects create opportunities to increase knowledge and understanding about these assets as well as enhancing opportunities for meaning making for visitors. The paper highlights the importance of a strong leader and a balanced team working towards common objectives. Further, whilst synergies between conservation and sustainability exist, there are also tensions and compromises.

Research limitations/implications

This case study highlights the opportunities and challenges of improving the condition and sustainability of built cultural heritage at a tourist attraction. Opportunities included increased knowledge and understanding about the heritage asset; enhancement of values for present and future generations; improved condition, increased usability; and increased sustainability. Challenges were: team turnover; delays resulting from archaeological findings; previous work resulting in building defects; the existing building condition; and unfamiliarity and the uncertainty regarding particular measures.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this case study include ensuring clear project objectives and a balanced project team are in place. These should be enhanced by a good system of information recording throughout the project to limit the impact of staff absence. Good communication within the team and with external members such as manufacturers will reduce the impact of unfamiliar products and aid in decision making. Future research should explore whether these findings are applicable to other heritage tourist attractions, and whether visitors’ narrative encounters with the asset change following a sustainability improvement project.

Originality/value

Limited research has been previously performed on improving the sustainability of built cultural heritage at tourist attractions. This research investigates the opportunities and challenges facing building professionals in improving such heritage assets. The improvement of heritage tourist attractions requires careful consideration. Whilst they need to be conserved for future generations, increasing the sustainability of such assets is essential to ensure their continued usability.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

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Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article

Americus

A large number of coatings have been described which serve very specific purposes. An example is a foam coating which may be applied by spraying, dipping, or other normal…

Abstract

A large number of coatings have been described which serve very specific purposes. An example is a foam coating which may be applied by spraying, dipping, or other normal procedures. On curing, however, there is sufficient gas generation to foam the coating. A fine cellular structure results. The resulting layer is thick but light and has a very high strength‐to‐volume ratio as well as insulating properties [Downey Finishing Corp., 1629 S. 55th Ave., Cicero, IL 60650].

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Content available
Article

Jonas Hahn, Jens Hirsch and Sven Bienert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of distinct types of heating technology and their price impact in German residential real estate markets, considering…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of distinct types of heating technology and their price impact in German residential real estate markets, considering a wide range of other housing market determinants. The authors aim to test and to verify specifically, whether the obsolescence of heating technology leads to a significant price discount and whether higher technological standards (and environmental friendliness) come with a price premium on the market.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors create housing market models for rental and sales segments by constructing generalized additive models with explicit multi-layered spatial components. To elaborate a profound and contemporary answer using these models, the authors perform large-sample regression analyses based on more than 400,000 observations covering German residential properties in 2015.

Findings

First and foremost, the heating system indeed shows significant explanatory importance for measuring housing rents and purchasing price. Second, the authors find that it makes a difference whether clean “green” technologies are implemented or whether “brown” systems with obsolete technology or fossil energy sources is on hand. Ultimately, the authors conclude that while low energy consumption indeed comes with a price premium, this needs to be interpreted together with the property’s heating type, as housing markets seem to outweigh the “green premium” by “brown discounts” if low energy consumption figures are powered by a certain type of heating technology system.

Research limitations/implications

Aside of a possible omitted variable bias, the main research limitation is constituted by the integration of asking prices in the analysis, as actual transaction prices are not systematically transparent on national level in Germany. Limitations are discussed at the end of the paper.

Practical implications

This work supports investors who face the challenge of making environmental- and energy-related decisions as well as appraisers who deliver financial fundamentals for such. Third, the paper supports both asset managers as well as investment strategists in argumentation pro-environmental investments beyond all ecological necessity.

Social implications

This paper contributes to the current discussion on climate change and the eclectic role of real estate in this context. The authors deliver evidence on pricing effects as a measure of socioeconomic acceptance of progressive heating technology and environmental friendliness as an imperative of twenty-first century societies.

Originality/value

This is the first study on “green premiums” or “brown discounts” that includes heating technology as a potential and distinct driver of value and rents. It is a contemporary contribution and delivers original information on the quantitative impact of contemporary and anachronistic technology in heating to researchers as well as investors and appraisers.

Details

Property Management, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Content available
Article

Stephen Todd

Abstract

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

M.W. de Jong‐Hofman

The first part of the paper describes the results of an extensive search into two factors which effect, to a high degree, the efficiency of online information retrieval…

Abstract

The first part of the paper describes the results of an extensive search into two factors which effect, to a high degree, the efficiency of online information retrieval: (i) the manner by which classification codes and keywords are chosen as a means of retrieval by the reviewers of the reference work (ii) the degree in which papers with comparable contents are accorded similar keywords. The influence of these two factors on the practical results is shown by the example of extensive searches: these searches were done manually as well as online. It was concluded that the efficiency of the assigned keywords was very low, owing to their insufficient accuracy and the large number of synonyms, spellings and other words that there may be to express one idea. The purpose of the analysis as described in the second part of the paper is to examine the possibility of finding a good search strategy, in spite of the low efficiency of the assigned keywords, that costs little and has a high efficiency factor. Therefore, a three‐fold situation is examined: (i) the relationship of the search strategy to (ii) the factors affecting cost, and (iii) the efficiency of retrieval. The problems arising in choosing a search strategy are examined; 14 different methods were selected from the large number of possibilities to formulate a search. A method of calculating the factors which affect the connect‐time cost and the offprint costs is worked out. The various strategies, employed to achieve the greatest improvements in cost and efficiency, include classification codes and keywords (subject headings and free terms). This procedure was carried out via an ESA terminal. The results are presented in the form of tables comparing the size of the factors affecting the cost, the judged cost per relevant item and the efficiency of retrieval. The conclusion is that the best search consists of using the classification codes, including the subject, coupled with some carefully selected free terms, for the simplest method, the lowest cost and the highest efficiency of retrieval.

Details

Online Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article

WE tell our students to concentrate on policy rather than practice, and this I propose to do here. But I am sure that librarians are interested in the way in which our…

Abstract

WE tell our students to concentrate on policy rather than practice, and this I propose to do here. But I am sure that librarians are interested in the way in which our policy is implemented, so there will be some account of our selection procedures. Some questions of principle will be examined as they arise from the facts given; others will be left to later sections of this paper.

Details

New Library World, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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