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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Opeoluwa Aiyenitaju and Olatunji David Adekoya

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected women in unique gender-specific ways, particularly their traditional status as home managers. This study aims to draw on the role theory…

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Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected women in unique gender-specific ways, particularly their traditional status as home managers. This study aims to draw on the role theory to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women's work–family balance during the lockdown.

Design/methodology/approach

The current COVID-19 pandemic, which has altered the ways in which we live and work, requires specific methodological tools to be understood. The authors, therefore, opted for an interpretive–constructivist and constructivist–phenomenologist approach. The dataset, thus, comprises of semi-structured interviews with 26 working women in the UK.

Findings

The findings illustrate how the COVID-19 lockdown has intensified British women's domestic workload and has, thus, caused unbridled role conflict, which has further been exacerbated by structural and interactional roles undertaken by women, especially during the lockdown. Remote working has contributed to women's role congestion and role conflict and poses severe challenges to role differentiation. Furthermore, we found that the lockdown has facilitated the rediscovery of family values and closeness, which is connected to the decline in juvenile delinquency and low crime rate that has resulted from the lockdown.

Originality/value

Through the lens of the role theory, this study concludes that the cohabitation of work and family duties within the domestic space undermines the ability to achieve work–family balance and role differentiation due to the occurrence of inter-role conflicts. This study enriches our understanding of the effect of remote working on female employees' work–family balance during the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Olatunji David Adekoya and Olajumoke Okoya

The trend of domestic employment thrives almost in every society. It is most common in developing countries and Nigeria is no exception. This paper aims to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The trend of domestic employment thrives almost in every society. It is most common in developing countries and Nigeria is no exception. This paper aims to examine the nature of the role of a domestic worker in Nigeria and the work-life conflict issues involved in such work.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a qualitative research approach to examine the nature of the role of domestic workers and the associated work-life conflict issues.

Findings

The findings show that the nature of the jobs of domestic workers in Nigeria gives rise to a situation of modern-day slavery in which an employee works without a formal employment contract, with little or no rights to private time. Long and unstructured working hours, employers’ perceptions about domestic workers and a huge workload fuel and exacerbate work-life conflict amongst domestic workers in Nigeria.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited and selected sample of the research and the research context.

Practical implications

The primacy of the employer over the employee in domestic employment means that both time and work-based conflicts continue to buffer work-life conflict if domestic workers’ working hours remain unscheduled and their employers’ perceptions about them remain unchanged. This invariably has a negative impact on the domestic workers’ health and productivity. Therefore, domestic employment should be regulated by law and domestic workers should be treated like other formal employees.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the debates on the work-life conflict by highlighting the nature of the role of domestic workers in a non-western context, Nigeria and provides a nuanced insight into the work-life conflict issues involved in such work. The findings add conceptual thought and empirical evidence to the debate on work-life conflict.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Chima Mordi and Babatunde Akanji

Work–family research has mainly focused on nuclear families, neglecting other types of families, such as single self-employed parents. To what extent does the freedom and…

Abstract

Purpose

Work–family research has mainly focused on nuclear families, neglecting other types of families, such as single self-employed parents. To what extent does the freedom and flexibility attached to being single and self-employed hinder or enhance single parents' work–family balance? Using role theory as a theoretical lens, this study examines single-self-employed parents' work–family balance.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the accounts of 25 single self-employed parents in Nigeria, the article uses semi-structured interviews to examine how this group achieves work–family balance.

Findings

We found that the freedom and flexibility associated with being single and self-employed form a double-edged sword that increases the spate of singlehood and intensifies commitments to work, altogether preventing the participants in the study from achieving work–family balance. The findings also indicate that singlehood and a lack of spousal support cause and exacerbate work–family imbalance for this group. The findings further indicate that the reconstruction of functions, and the recreation of the traditional masculine gender role overwhelm single self-employed women in their entrepreneurial activities, thereby causing a lack of time and the energy required to function well in a family role, thus creating imbalance between the different spheres of life.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited sample and scope of the research.

Practical implications

While literature espouses freedom and flexibility as important ingredients needed to achieve work–family balance, this study shows that they enhance inter-role role conflict. The study suggests creation of private or family time, devoid of work or entrepreneurial engagements, for single female entrepreneurs. This will ensure quality time and energy for the family and for fresh relationship – all of which will impact business positively.

Originality/value

Rather than enhancing work–family balance, the freedom and flexibility attached to being single and self-employed remain the main source of work–family imbalance for Nigerian single self-employed parents.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Issa Abdulraheem and Sulu Babaita Isiaka

Research on the impact of patriarchy and patriarchal norms on women’s work-life balance is scarce. A typical patriarchal society, such as Nigeria, tends to be organised…

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Abstract

Purpose

Research on the impact of patriarchy and patriarchal norms on women’s work-life balance is scarce. A typical patriarchal society, such as Nigeria, tends to be organised based on gender, and the construct is embedded in the culture. This paper aims to investigate the impact of patriarchy on women’s work-life balance in a non-Western context: Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a qualitative research approach to enhance their insight into the issue of patriarchy and women’s work-life balance. Data for the study were collected over a four-month period, using semi-structured interviews as the primary method of data collection.

Findings

The findings of the thematic analysis reveal the impact of patriarchy on women’s work-life balance in Sub-Saharan Africa, specifically Nigeria. Women’s aspirations to achieve work-life balance in this part of the world are often frustrated by patriarchal norms, which are deeply ingrained in the culture. The findings of this study reveal that male dominance of and excessive subordination of females, domestic and gender-based division of labour and higher patriarchal proclivities among men are the ingredients of a patriarchal society. These issues make the achievement of work-life balance difficult for women.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited sample size and the selected research context.

Practical implications

The insights gleaned from this research suggest that there are still major challenges for women in the global south, specifically Nigeria, in terms of achieving work-life balance due to the prevalent patriarchy and patriarchal norms in the society. Strong patriarchal norms and proclivity negatively affect women’s work-life balance and in turn may impact employee productivity, organisational effectiveness, employee performance and employee punctuality at work. However, an Australian “Champion of Change” initiative may be adopted to ease the patriarchal proclivity and help women to achieve work-life balance.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable insights by bringing patriarchy into the discussion of work-life balance. This issue has been hitherto rare in the literature. It therefore enriches the literature on work-life balance from a patriarchal perspective.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Gbolahan Gbadamosi, Tonbara Mordi and Chima Mordi

Does the self-employed nature of entrepreneurs’ business ventures mean that they have perfect boundaries between their work and nonwork lives? Drawing on border theory…

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1113

Abstract

Purpose

Does the self-employed nature of entrepreneurs’ business ventures mean that they have perfect boundaries between their work and nonwork lives? Drawing on border theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine entrepreneurs’ work–life balance (WLB) in terms of how they construct and manage the borders between their work and nonwork lives.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a qualitative research approach to enhance their insight into entrepreneurs’ WLB using border theory. The study benefits from its empirical focus on Nigerian migrants in London who represent a distinct minority group living in urban areas in the developed world. Data for the study was collected over a three-month period, utilising semi-structured interviews as the primary method of data collection.

Findings

The study’s findings indicate that entrepreneurs prioritise “work” over “life” and reveal that entrepreneurs have little desire for boundaries as they work everywhere, which makes long working hours prevalent among them. Furthermore, the findings bring to the fore the prevalent social anomaly of entrepreneurs preferring to be unmarried, single and even divorced as a result of or associated with the entrepreneurs’ boundaries creation and management.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited and selected sample of the research.

Practical implications

Research on human resource management (HRM) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or businesses in which entrepreneurs operate is still under developed. The issue of the size and the nature of an organisation (i.e. labour or product market influences, ownership structures, etc.) have profound implications for human resources (HR) structures, policies and practices and the quality of the WLB of entrepreneurs. Research on HRM and entrepreneurship is still evolving. Consequently, HRM in several entrepreneurial business ventures is sometimes (if not often) organisationally fluid and ad hoc. The main implication for this work environment is that there may be little structure in HRM policies and processes to help self-employed entrepreneurs in their ability to comprehensively manage border crossing and to achieve WLB.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable insights into entrepreneurs’ work/nonwork boundaries, which is hugely influenced by the commodification of time and money. It also enriches work–life border theory and its social constructionist perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Fang Lee Cooke and Vanessa Iwowo

By conceptualising patriarchy in the workplace as a social situation, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of patriarchal attitudes and their impact on…

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1981

Abstract

Purpose

By conceptualising patriarchy in the workplace as a social situation, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of patriarchal attitudes and their impact on women’s workplace behaviour among Nigerian organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative research approach, drawing on data from 32 semi-structured interviews with female employees and managers in two high-street banks in Nigeria.

Findings

The study finds that patriarchy shapes women’s behaviour in ways that undermine their performance and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Furthermore, the study finds that patriarchal attitudes, often practised at home, are frequently transferred to organisational settings. This transference affects women’s workplace behaviour and maintains men’s (self-perceived) superior status quo, whereby women are dominated, discriminated against and permanently placed in inferior positions.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited sample and scope of the research.

Practical implications

The challenges posed by the strong patriarchy on women’s workplace behaviour are real and complex, and organisations must address them in order to create a fairer workplace in which employees can thrive. It is therefore essential for organisations to examine periodically their culture to ensure that all employees, regardless of gender, are involved in the organisation’s affairs. Furthermore, organisations need to help women become more proactive in combating patriarchal behaviour, which often affects their performance and OCB. This requires organisations to affirm consistently their equal opportunities, equal rights and equal treatment policies. It is essential that organisations take this problem seriously by attaching due penalty to gender discrimination, as this will go a long way in ensuring positive outcomes for women and providing a fairer workplace.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence that a more egalitarian work environment (in Nigerian banking) will result in improved performance from female employees and organisations. It calls for greater policy and organisational interventions to create a more inclusive work environment and an equal society.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Ellis L.C. Osabutey and Gbolahan Gbadamosi

The implications of the work-family balance (WFB) of dual-earner couples are well known; however, the extant literature on this topic has failed to adequately explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

The implications of the work-family balance (WFB) of dual-earner couples are well known; however, the extant literature on this topic has failed to adequately explore the context of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), specifically Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of the WFB of dual-earner couples in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a qualitative methodology in order to explore the effect of couples’ dual-earner status on their WFB in an African context by using Nigerian medical practitioners as the empirical focus.

Findings

The findings reveal that the dual-earner status provides some respite from financial hardship and improves family finances, which subsequently enhances WFB. However, the dual-earner status also has negative impacts on WFB in terms of work performance, dysfunctionality, and associated societal problems.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into the WFB of dual-earner couples in the non-western context of SSA, highlighting the previously unexplored implications of dual-earner status in the context of SSA.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Chidiebere Ogbonnaya and Olatunji David Adekoya

Through the lens of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explores how remote working inhibits employee engagement. The authors offer a fresh perspective on…

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1519

Abstract

Purpose

Through the lens of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explores how remote working inhibits employee engagement. The authors offer a fresh perspective on the most salient work- and nonwork-related risk factors that make remote working particularly challenging in the context of Covid-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from semi-structured interviews with 32 employees working from home during the Covid-19 lockdown. Based on the interpretivist philosophical approach, the authors offer new insights into how employees can optimize work- and nonwork-related experiences when working remotely.

Findings

The authors show that the sudden transition from in-person to online modes of working during the pandemic brought about work intensification, online presenteeism, employment insecurity and poor adaptation to new ways of working from home. These stress factors are capable of depleting vital social and personal resources, thereby impacting negatively on employee engagement levels.

Practical implications

Employers, leaders and human resource teams should be more thoughtful about the risks and challenges employees face when working from home. They must ensure employees are properly equipped with the relevant resources and support to perform their jobs more effectively.

Originality/value

While previous research has focused on the benefits of remote working, the current study explores how it might be detrimental for employee engagement during a pandemic. The study provides new evidence on the most salient risks and challenges faced by remote workers, and how the unique Covid-19 context has made them more pronounced.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Gbolahan Gbadamosi and Ellis L.C. Osabutey

Given the reality that working mothers experience difficulties in achieving work-family balance because of the social restrictions that arise from parenting combined with…

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2210

Abstract

Purpose

Given the reality that working mothers experience difficulties in achieving work-family balance because of the social restrictions that arise from parenting combined with career goals, this paper aims to explore the various coping strategies that are used by working mothers in the cities of London (Great Britain) and Lagos (Nigeria).

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 mothers who worked in banks in London (Great Britain) and Lagos (Nigeria). Thematic analysis and investigator triangulation are used.

Findings

The findings reveal various coping strategies used by working mothers in the cities of Lagos and London. The paper also unearths the efficiency and the shortcomings of the use of au pairs among British working mothers and the similarities and disparities in terms of such use compared to the traditional use of housekeepers in Nigeria.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing work–family balance literature by exploring the coping strategies of working mothers because of sociocultural and institutional differences in Great Britain and Nigeria.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Babatunde Akanji, Chima Mordi, Ruth Simpson, Toyin Ajibade Adisa and Emeka Smart Oruh

This study investigates the overarching ideology of work–life balance (WLB) or conflict as predominantly being a work–family affair. Based on a Nigerian study, and using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the overarching ideology of work–life balance (WLB) or conflict as predominantly being a work–family affair. Based on a Nigerian study, and using organisational justice as a theoretical lens, it explores perceived fairness in accessing family-friendly policies by managers and professionals who are single and do not have children – a workgroup conventionally ignored in research on WLB.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on an interpretivist approach, the data set comprises of interviews with 24 bank managers and 20 medical doctors working in Nigeria.

Findings

The authors’ findings highlight employers' misconceptions concerning the non-work preferences and commitments of singles as well as an undervaluation by employers of their non-work time. Conceptualised as “time biases”, such time is routinely invaded by the organisation, with profound implications for perceptions of fairness. This fosters backlash behaviours with potential detrimental effects in terms of organisational effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to investigating the WLB of singles in high-status roles, namely banking and medical careers. Future research may examine the experiences of a more diverse range of occupations. The sample comprises heterosexual, never-married professionals, whose experiences may differ from other categories of single workers, such as childless divorced people, widows, non-heterosexual singles and partners who have no children.

Practical implications

In order to avoid counterproductive behaviours in the workplace, WLB policies should not only focus on those with childcare concerns. Inclusive work–life policies for other household structures, such as single-persons, are necessary for improving overall organisational well-being.

Originality/value

The majority of WLB studies have been undertaken in Western and Asian contexts, to the neglect of the Sub-Saharan African experience. Additionally, research tends to focus on WLB issues on the part of working parents, overlooking the difficulties faced by singles.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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