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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2006

Jean E. Wallace

Studies suggest that women in law appear dissatisfied with the practice of law due to the difficulties of balancing work and family. Little research has examined how the…

Abstract

Studies suggest that women in law appear dissatisfied with the practice of law due to the difficulties of balancing work and family. Little research has examined how the contextual characteristics of law firms affect women lawyers’ sense of life balance and career satisfaction, which is the focus of this study. I propose that if women in law firms can have children and be just as satisfied with their careers and have the same degree of life balance as women without children, then women practicing law can “have it all”. I show how contextual characteristics of law firms are important in understanding mothers’ and non-mothers’ work experiences.

Details

Professional Service Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-302-0

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Min (Maggie) Wan, Yejun Zhang, Margaret A. Shaffer, Mingze Li and Guanglei Zhang

Drawing on job demands-resources theory (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), this study aims to investigate the roles of work

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on job demands-resources theory (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), this study aims to investigate the roles of work task conflict and coworker support in the experience of daily work-family balance. In particular, this study theorizes work-family balance as a higher-order construct, including both psychological (work-family balance satisfaction) and social (work-family balance effectiveness) dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the proposed model using daily diary survey data collected from 50 full-time corporate employees across five consecutive workdays in a week. The hypotheses were tested using multilevel modeling analyses.

Findings

Analyses show that work task conflict impedes employees’ work-family balance on a daily basis. Results also support the moderating role of coworker support, such that the negative relationship between work task conflict and work-family balance is weaker when coworker support is high.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature by considering work-family balance as a higher-order construct. Further, this research advances theoretical knowledge of the interpersonal predictors of work-family balance. This study also expands previous work by examining the dynamic relationships between interpersonal events and work-family balance.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Melissa Rector LaGraff and Heidi E. Stolz

Workfamily balance is important for working parents, their children, and their family functioning. However, little research has considered how one’s sense of workfamily

Abstract

Workfamily balance is important for working parents, their children, and their family functioning. However, little research has considered how one’s sense of workfamily balance may influence parenting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether perceived workfamily balance of fathers of infants predicts engagement behaviors and whether stress mediates this relationship. The sample (n = 64) completed a phone survey, and data analysis consisted of linear regression tests and path analysis models for mediation. Perceived workfamily balance did not significantly predict overall father engagement, but did predict fathers telling stories to their infant more often (B = 0.91, t(55) = 2.22, p < 0.05) and dressing their infant more often (B = 0.70, t(55) = 2.05, p < 0.05). Although perceived workfamily balance was found to have a significant negative effect on father stress (r = –0.48, p < 0.001), stress did not mediate the relationship between perceived workfamily balance and the two engagement behaviors. Greater perceived workfamily balance may encourage engagement in behaviors above and beyond the stereotypical fathering behaviors (e.g., playing) and basic caregiving behaviors (e.g., changing diapers). Limitations include a small sample size, cross-sectional nature of the data, and self-report measures. It is recommended future studies use longitudinal designs, larger samples that differ in family type, and include mothers. This study provides preliminary evidence that one’s perceived workfamily balance may influence parenting behaviors; thus, workplace policies that increase workfamily balance, through greater job flexibility, for example, could promote positive family outcomes and reduce stress.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Sumaira Rehman and Muhammad Azam Roomi

Increased participation of women in the labor force creates challenges for them to balance work and family obligations. The situation becomes more complicated in…

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Abstract

Purpose

Increased participation of women in the labor force creates challenges for them to balance work and family obligations. The situation becomes more complicated in patriarchal societies such as Pakistan due to women's stereotypical domestic roles, religious prescriptions as well as cultural norms and values. This study aims to explore different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio‐economic and cultural environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA), this study explores different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio‐economic and cultural environment. The methodology helped to analyse data about challenges faced by women entrepreneurs to achieve work‐life balance as well as to have an insight about some of the techniques and effective strategies they use to balance work and family obligation.

Findings

The results show that among other motivational drivers to start their own businesses, achieving work‐life balance is one of the most significant ones. Their own businesses give them flexibility, control and freedom to juggle with their family and social responsibilities. Lack of sufficient time, gender bias, social and cultural norms as well as family responsibilities are the most significant challenges women face to achieve balance in a patriarchal Islamic society. Strategic planning, organising and delegating are the most effective strategies women use to cope with competing roles of work and family.

Originality/value

This ground‐breaking work in Pakistan on women entrepreneurs' work‐life balance may also inspire other women who want to start their entrepreneurial career.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Barbara Beham and Sonja Drobnič

The paper seeks to examine the relationships between various work demands and resources and satisfaction with workfamily balance in a sample of German office workers. Work

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to examine the relationships between various work demands and resources and satisfaction with workfamily balance in a sample of German office workers. Work‐to‐family conflict is expected to mediate several relationships between dependent and independent variables.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 716 office workers from two service sector organizations in Germany participated in a comprehensive online survey. Hierarchical multivariate regressions were used to test the predicted relationships.

Findings

Perceived high organizational time expectations, psychological job demands and job insecurity were found to be negatively related to employees' satisfaction with workfamily balance. Work‐to‐family conflict partially mediated those relationships. Social support at work and job control revealed positive relationships with satisfaction with workfamily balance, but contrary to predictions this association persisted after controlling for work‐to‐family conflict.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross‐sectional design and employees' self reports which may be problematic in drawing causal conclusions.

Originality/value

The majority of studies in workfamily research look at either workfamily conflict, or more recently, at workfamily facilitation/enrichment, but little research has been conducted on employees' overall assessment of satisfaction with workfamily balance. By investigating relationships between various work demands and resources and the mediating role of work‐to‐family conflict in a sample of German office workers, the study extends previous research and contributes to the workfamily literature by clarifying the relationship between work‐to‐family conflict and satisfaction with workfamily balance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Lorena Ronda, Andrea Ollo-López and Salomé Goñi-Legaz

This paper aims to establish to what extent family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices are positively related to workfamily balance and to identify the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish to what extent family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices are positively related to workfamily balance and to identify the role played by job satisfaction and working hours as mediators of this relationship

Design/methodology/approach

We use data for a representative sample of almost 17,000 employees of dual-earner couples from European countries. To test the mediation mechanism implied by our hypotheses, we follow the procedure outlined in Baron and Kenny (1986). Given the nature of the dependent variables, ordered probit and regression models were estimated in the analysis.

Findings

The results show that, in general, family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices increase workfamily balance and that these positive relationships are partially mediated by job satisfaction and working hours. While both family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices increase job satisfaction, only the first increase working hours. Moreover, job satisfaction increases workfamily balance, while working hours reduces it. The net effect of these opposing forces on workfamily balance is positive.

Research limitations/implications

The use of secondary data posits some constraints, such as the type of measures and the failure to control for a higher number of family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices. Additionally, the non-longitudinal nature of the data set implies that some relationships cannot be considered causal in the intended direction.

Practical implications

Managers should implement family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices, as, in general, they increase workfamily balance. A significant portion of this positive effect is channeled through job satisfaction and working hours.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understanding the relationship between different subsets of human-resources management practices and workfamily balance, proposing a model that aims to disentangle the mediating mechanisms through which this relationship occurs.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Jill R. Helmle, Isabel C. Botero and David R. Seibold

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence perceptions of work-life balance among owners of copreneurial firms. Research on work-life balance in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence perceptions of work-life balance among owners of copreneurial firms. Research on work-life balance in the context of family firms has focussed on the effects that perceptions of balance can have on the emotional well-being of business owners and performance of the firm. Less attention has been given to understanding the factors affecting an owner's perceptions of work-life balance. This paper not only explores the antecedents of perceptions of work-life balance but does so with copreneurs, or couples who own and manage a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected using surveys. In all, 210 copreneurs with businesses in nearly 20 industries answered questions about their perceptions of work-life balance, work-life conflict (WLC), life-work conflict, communication practices, characteristics of their jobs, and spousal support.

Findings

WLC was negatively related to perceptions of work-life balance. Job involvement, flexibility at work, and permeability of communication were significantly related to perceptions of WLC. Interestingly spousal support did not affect individual perceptions of life-work balance, but had a direct influence on perceptions of work-life balance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was not randomly selected, and participants were surveyed at only one point in time. Notwithstanding these limitations, the findings have implications for advancing research and theory in the areas of family business, work-life issues, and communication. While the paper focus on copreneurial firms, the findings may have implications for family firms and co-founded ventures.

Practical implications

The potential benefits of copreneurs’ increased awareness of these findings (from readings or through coaching) are important given prior research demonstrating that family to work conflict and work to family conflict affect the emotional well-being of family business owners, their satisfaction with work, and firm performance.

Originality/value

This project offers two important contributions to research in family firms. First, it focusses on copreneurial firms as a unique type of family firm which has the potential to shed light on the differences between family firms. Second, results from this study provide a picture of the predictors of work-life balance for couples who are firm owners.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Farveh Farivar, Roslyn Cameron and Mohsen Yaghoubi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural context. Drawing upon Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the study suggests national cultural dimensions can shape the roots of work-family balance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was distributed among employees of 12 companies operating in the health industry. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data through two separate approaches: seven-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. The data were analyzed via thematic exploratory analysis and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis.

Findings

The quantitative data confirms the extant literature in relation to the negative effects of moonlighting, economic hardship and the absence of a comprehensive work-family balance strategy on employee work-family balance. The qualitative data proposes a new variable, weak social interaction, which becomes the most important roots of work-family imbalance at both work and family domain.

Practical implications

The present study suggests certain cultural dimensions such as high power distance hinders social interactions in the work and family domains, thereby increasing levels of work conflict, family conflict, and stress. Findings suggest organizations, especially multinationals, need to be cognizant of the role of cultural dimensions on human resource management practices related to work-family balance.

Originality/value

Very little literature addresses the impact of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on work-family balance issues. The present study has contributed to the existing body of literature by introducing a new variable (weak social interaction) as an antecedent of work-family imbalance. Further, the study is the first in Iran that has collected qualitative data to investigate work-family balance issues.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

Wendy C. Marcinkus, Karen S. Whelan‐Berry and Judith R. Gordon

This paper seeks to examine the relationship of a network of social support for midlife women with their attitudes toward workfamily balance and work outcomes, including…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the relationship of a network of social support for midlife women with their attitudes toward workfamily balance and work outcomes, including job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and career accomplishment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,089 women between the ages of 35 and 50 across three organizations were surveyed and then 72 of them interviewed.

Findings

Results indicate that the women generally received more personal social support than work‐based social support and more instrumental than expressive support from all sources. Work‐based social support was positively associated with job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and career accomplishment; personal social support was also associated with job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Workfamily balance may partially mediate the relationship between social support and work outcomes.

Originality/value

Much of what is known about work‐life issues centers on the workfamily conflicts of younger women with children. Perceptions are explored of work‐life balance among women at midlife, an understudied population with significant work and personal responsibilities. This study contributes to research by examining the relationships among the full network of social support, workfamily balance, and work‐related outcomes, as well as the nature of this support for working women. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods provides substantive insights into the complexity of these relationships for women at midlife.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

S.B. Burnett, C.J. Gatrell, C.L. Cooper and P. Sparrow

The paper considers the impact of work‐life balance policies on the work and family practices of professional, dual‐earner parents with dependent children, by assessing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper considers the impact of work‐life balance policies on the work and family practices of professional, dual‐earner parents with dependent children, by assessing the extent to which “well‐balanced families” have been resultantly facilitated. It poses two research questions: the first centres on how far work‐life balance policies have better enabled working parents to manage their commitments to employers and children, whilst the second focuses on how far parental and employer responses to work‐life balance policies may be gendered. The ultimate aim is to (re)‐articulate the importance of gender in the work‐life balance agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon historical and conceptual research on work and family practices. It invokes gender as a lens through which notions of the “well‐balanced family” are considered.

Findings

It is argued that work‐life balance policies have not led to well‐balanced, or “gender‐neutral”, work and family practices. This is for two reasons, both relating to gender. First, the take up of work‐life balance policies is gendered, with more mothers than fathers working flexibly. This is partly because organizational expectations fail to acknowledge social change around the paternal parenting role. Second, work‐life balance policies focus mainly on the issues of paid work and childcare, failing to take account of domestic labour, the main burden of which continues to be carried by mothers.

Practical implications

Deeply ingrained social assumptions about the gendered division of labour within heterosexual couples limit the impact of work‐life balance policies on work family practices.

Originality/value

The paper moves forward the debate on work‐life balance through taking an interdisciplinary approach to an issue which has often been addressed previously from discipline‐specific approaches such as health, psychology or policy.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 47000