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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Melissa Rector LaGraff and Heidi E. Stolz

Work–family balance is important for working parents, their children, and their family functioning. However, little research has considered how one’s sense of work–family

Abstract

Work–family balance is important for working parents, their children, and their family functioning. However, little research has considered how one’s sense of work–family balance may influence parenting behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether perceived work–family balance of fathers of infants predicts engagement behaviors and whether stress mediates this relationship. The sample (n = 64) completed a phone survey, and data analysis consisted of linear regression tests and path analysis models for mediation. Perceived work–family balance did not significantly predict overall father engagement, but did predict fathers telling stories to their infant more often (B = 0.91, t(55) = 2.22, p < 0.05) and dressing their infant more often (B = 0.70, t(55) = 2.05, p < 0.05). Although perceived work–family balance was found to have a significant negative effect on father stress (r = –0.48, p < 0.001), stress did not mediate the relationship between perceived work–family balance and the two engagement behaviors. Greater perceived work–family balance may encourage engagement in behaviors above and beyond the stereotypical fathering behaviors (e.g., playing) and basic caregiving behaviors (e.g., changing diapers). Limitations include a small sample size, cross-sectional nature of the data, and self-report measures. It is recommended future studies use longitudinal designs, larger samples that differ in family type, and include mothers. This study provides preliminary evidence that one’s perceived work–family balance may influence parenting behaviors; thus, workplace policies that increase work–family balance, through greater job flexibility, for example, could promote positive family outcomes and reduce stress.

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The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Barbara Beham and Sonja Drobnič

The paper seeks to examine the relationships between various work demands and resources and satisfaction with work‐family balance in a sample of German office workers…

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5146

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to examine the relationships between various work demands and resources and satisfaction with work‐family balance in a sample of German office workers. Work‐to‐family conflict is expected to mediate several relationships between dependent and independent variables.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 716 office workers from two service sector organizations in Germany participated in a comprehensive online survey. Hierarchical multivariate regressions were used to test the predicted relationships.

Findings

Perceived high organizational time expectations, psychological job demands and job insecurity were found to be negatively related to employees' satisfaction with work‐family balance. Work‐to‐family conflict partially mediated those relationships. Social support at work and job control revealed positive relationships with satisfaction with work‐family balance, but contrary to predictions this association persisted after controlling for work‐to‐family conflict.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross‐sectional design and employees' self reports which may be problematic in drawing causal conclusions.

Originality/value

The majority of studies in work‐family research look at either work‐family conflict, or more recently, at work‐family facilitation/enrichment, but little research has been conducted on employees' overall assessment of satisfaction with work‐family balance. By investigating relationships between various work demands and resources and the mediating role of work‐to‐family conflict in a sample of German office workers, the study extends previous research and contributes to the work‐family literature by clarifying the relationship between work‐to‐family conflict and satisfaction with work‐family balance.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Farveh Farivar, Roslyn Cameron and Mohsen Yaghoubi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural…

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2721

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural context. Drawing upon Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the study suggests national cultural dimensions can shape the roots of work-family balance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was distributed among employees of 12 companies operating in the health industry. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data through two separate approaches: seven-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. The data were analyzed via thematic exploratory analysis and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis.

Findings

The quantitative data confirms the extant literature in relation to the negative effects of moonlighting, economic hardship and the absence of a comprehensive work-family balance strategy on employee work-family balance. The qualitative data proposes a new variable, weak social interaction, which becomes the most important roots of work-family imbalance at both work and family domain.

Practical implications

The present study suggests certain cultural dimensions such as high power distance hinders social interactions in the work and family domains, thereby increasing levels of work conflict, family conflict, and stress. Findings suggest organizations, especially multinationals, need to be cognizant of the role of cultural dimensions on human resource management practices related to work-family balance.

Originality/value

Very little literature addresses the impact of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on work-family balance issues. The present study has contributed to the existing body of literature by introducing a new variable (weak social interaction) as an antecedent of work-family imbalance. Further, the study is the first in Iran that has collected qualitative data to investigate work-family balance issues.

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Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

Wendy C. Marcinkus, Karen S. Whelan‐Berry and Judith R. Gordon

This paper seeks to examine the relationship of a network of social support for midlife women with their attitudes toward work‐family balance and work outcomes, including…

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7132

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the relationship of a network of social support for midlife women with their attitudes toward work‐family balance and work outcomes, including job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and career accomplishment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,089 women between the ages of 35 and 50 across three organizations were surveyed and then 72 of them interviewed.

Findings

Results indicate that the women generally received more personal social support than work‐based social support and more instrumental than expressive support from all sources. Work‐based social support was positively associated with job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and career accomplishment; personal social support was also associated with job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Work‐family balance may partially mediate the relationship between social support and work outcomes.

Originality/value

Much of what is known about work‐life issues centers on the work‐family conflicts of younger women with children. Perceptions are explored of work‐life balance among women at midlife, an understudied population with significant work and personal responsibilities. This study contributes to research by examining the relationships among the full network of social support, work‐family balance, and work‐related outcomes, as well as the nature of this support for working women. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods provides substantive insights into the complexity of these relationships for women at midlife.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Lorena Ronda, Andrea Ollo-López and Salomé Goñi-Legaz

This paper aims to establish to what extent family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices are positively related to work–family balance and to identify the…

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3122

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish to what extent family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices are positively related to work–family balance and to identify the role played by job satisfaction and working hours as mediators of this relationship

Design/methodology/approach

We use data for a representative sample of almost 17,000 employees of dual-earner couples from European countries. To test the mediation mechanism implied by our hypotheses, we follow the procedure outlined in Baron and Kenny (1986). Given the nature of the dependent variables, ordered probit and regression models were estimated in the analysis.

Findings

The results show that, in general, family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices increase work–family balance and that these positive relationships are partially mediated by job satisfaction and working hours. While both family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices increase job satisfaction, only the first increase working hours. Moreover, job satisfaction increases work–family balance, while working hours reduces it. The net effect of these opposing forces on work–family balance is positive.

Research limitations/implications

The use of secondary data posits some constraints, such as the type of measures and the failure to control for a higher number of family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices. Additionally, the non-longitudinal nature of the data set implies that some relationships cannot be considered causal in the intended direction.

Practical implications

Managers should implement family-friendly practices and high-performance work practices, as, in general, they increase work–family balance. A significant portion of this positive effect is channeled through job satisfaction and working hours.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understanding the relationship between different subsets of human-resources management practices and work–family balance, proposing a model that aims to disentangle the mediating mechanisms through which this relationship occurs.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Meral Erdirençelebi

In recent years, preparations for the transition from the Post-industrial society to Community 5.0 have been continuing at full speed. The change in this process…

Abstract

In recent years, preparations for the transition from the Post-industrial society to Community 5.0 have been continuing at full speed. The change in this process necessitates changes in the roles and structure of the labour force in societies. While work and family living spaces of the individual change the dimensions of his/her interaction, they increase the importance of work–family life balance gradually. The basis of conflicts (imbalances) in roles in work and family life is based on three pillars: time, tension and behaviour. The conflicts in the work and family life spaces take place in two sub-dimensions, namely ‘work-family conflict’ which is directed from work to family and ‘family-work conflict’ which is directed from family to work. The conflict between work and family life leads to individual, organisational and familial consequences. Effective communication with the social support of the organisation and the members of family is of great importance for individuals not to experience a work–family conflict.

Details

Contemporary Global Issues in Human Resource Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-393-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Monica Forret and Suzanne de Janasz

This study sets out to examine whether protégés have more favorable perceptions of an organization's culture for balancing work and family than non‐protégés.

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3585

Abstract

Purpose

This study sets out to examine whether protégés have more favorable perceptions of an organization's culture for balancing work and family than non‐protégés.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from 418 employees of a major public accounting firm who completed a survey on mentoring and work‐family issues. Correlation analyses, t‐tests, and regressions were performed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results strongly support the view that protégés had more favorable perceptions than non‐protégés of the organization's work‐family culture – the degree to which integration of employees' work and family lives is supported. Having a mentor was significantly related to each component of work‐family culture (managerial support, time demands, and career consequences) in the predicted direction.

Research limitations/implications

By focusing on respondents in a single firm, it is impossible to determine whether the findings generalize to individuals in other industries or companies.

Practical implications

To attract and retain employees, organizations have become increasingly concerned about their cultures for balancing work and family. By encouraging mentoring, organizations can transmit the message to their employees of resources and support available to help achieve balance.

Originality/value

Despite strong interest in the fields of mentoring and work‐family balance, few research studies have attempted to link these two domains. This research integrates these areas and demonstrates the important role mentors play in developing perceptions of an organization's culture for work‐family balance.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Loliya Agbani Akobo and Jim Stewart

The existing gender gap in the workplace, that affects job satisfaction and career advancement of women, creates a need to understand further the causes and effects of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing gender gap in the workplace, that affects job satisfaction and career advancement of women, creates a need to understand further the causes and effects of the gender gap phenomenon. Although, there are many challenges that affect women’s job satisfaction and advancement in the workplace, this paper aims to investigate work–life balance using multiple theoretical lenses.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with women from Nigeria and Ghana residing in the UK, they were selected using a purposive sampling method.

Findings

The findings show four main factors that explain the choices these women make in relation to work–family. These are cultural sensitivities, current phase in family and work–life, personality types and other influences such as policies and financial commitment. Results also show how these women make these work–family choices using networks and services.

Practical implications

The paper postulates the need for organisation’s to pay attention to the acculturation and enculturation of these women, which would indicate observing their cultural behaviour’s, values, knowledge and identities to understand how they integrate, assimilate and to also prevent separation and marginalisation. In addition, the use of (internal and external) networks as support systems for these women can create the opportunity for informal learning. Finally, organisation’s should create structure that support workplace learning and should include activities such as decision-making, communication, career advancement planning and flexible work patterns.

Originality/value

This study contributes to theory using multiple theories (work-family, gender inequality and Theories X and Y in explaining the work–family construct of women of African origin in the UK.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 52 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Aqeel Ahmed Soomro, Robert J. Breitenecker and Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah

People in both the developing and developed worlds now face issues like work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to explore…

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6452

Abstract

Purpose

People in both the developing and developed worlds now face issues like work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict and perceived employee performance with job satisfaction serving as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

The object of this study is a full-time teaching faculty. Responses from 280 young university teaching faculty serving in public-sector universities in Islamabad, Pakistan, were investigated by applying linear regression analysis to test six hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that work-life balance and work-family conflict have a positive effect on employee performance. Job satisfaction has moderating effects on the relationships between work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict with perceived employee performance.

Originality/value

The study presents some unique results, which are different from previous studies such as work-family conflict has a positive significant effect on employee performance, family-work conflict has no significant effect on employee performance, and job satisfaction can be a negative moderator between these relations.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Salomé Goñi, Pilar Corredor and Consuelo León

This research addresses how companies develop a process of transformation to a more family responsible behaviour and the role that women play in this process. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This research addresses how companies develop a process of transformation to a more family responsible behaviour and the role that women play in this process. This paper aims to propose a model in which a female workforce is seen as contributing to the development of the family responsible firm. The model includes two paths for transformation, the supportive work–family culture and the managerial strategy for work–family using a mediation model. The analysis was performed in a sample of 1,048 Spanish firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested using Baron and Kenny’s (1986) mediated regression technique, the Sobel’s test (1982) and a bootstrap re-sampling with 5,000 and 10,000 iterations to determine the significance of the mediation.

Findings

The results confirm the impact of the proportion of women in the workforce on organizational culture and managerial strategy, factors that lead to a real increase in the accessibility of work–family policies. The mediation effect is total.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations stemming from the survey used and from the cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

The role of women, the culture and managers in promoting work–family policies appears clear. The need for the active reinforcement of the supportive work–family culture in companies and managerial strategy, diffusion, planning and involvement are all key factors in the development of work–family policies.

Social implications

Governments and society as a whole should urge firms to use all means at their disposal to guarantee the formal adoption of work–family policies.

Originality/value

Research that analyses the way in which work–family culture and the managerial strategy for work–family generate change does not usually incorporate the female component of the labour force as an explanatory element.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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1 – 10 of over 3000