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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2023

Miriam Arnold and Thomas Rigotti

Health-oriented leadership (HoL) encompasses leaders' health behaviors and attitudes toward their followers (StaffCare) and themselves (SelfCare), and there is ample evidence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Health-oriented leadership (HoL) encompasses leaders' health behaviors and attitudes toward their followers (StaffCare) and themselves (SelfCare), and there is ample evidence of its positive effects on employee well-being. However, research on the antecedents of StaffCare is still in its infancy and does not account for within-person variability. Therefore, the authors adopt a leader-centered perspective and propose a serial mediation model that links leaders' intrapersonal fluctuations in job resources and demands to StaffCare, mediated by leaders' SelfCare, work engagement and emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Over five working weeks, 234 school principals responded to a weekly questionnaire, resulting in a total of 956 responses. Multilevel structural equation models were used for analysis.

Findings

The data supported SelfCare as a mechanism in leaders' motivational and health-impairment processes. The proposed serial mediation of the relationship between job resources and StaffCare via leader SelfCare and work engagement was also supported.

Practical implications

The study can guide job redesign for leaders by highlighting the role of job resources. Investing in interventions aimed at the SelfCare of leaders is likely to have a positive impact on their leadership.

Originality/value

These findings suggest that job characteristics and the leader's well-being shape leader cognitions and behaviors. Therefore, the authors suggest integrating the HoL model into the job demands–resources (JD-R) model for leaders.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Michael Kronenwett and Thomas Rigotti

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisal of emotional demands, as well as time pressure and perceived goal progress within the challenge–hindrance framework.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, 91 employees provided daily diary data for one working week. Focusing on within-persons effects, multilevel moderated mediation models using multilevel path analyses were applied.

Findings

Both emotional demands and time pressure exert positive effects on work engagement when people expect resource gain (challenge appraisal), independent of actual resource gain (achievement). Furthermore, results show that goal progress buffers negative effects of perceived blocked resource gain (hindrance appraisal) on both emotional and motivational well-being.

Originality/value

This research proposes an extension and refinement of the challenge–hindrance stressor framework to explain health-impairing and motivational processes of emotional demands and time pressure, combining reasoning from both appraisal and resource theory perspectives. The study identifies demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisals as mediators linking demands to emotional and motivational well-being, emphasizing the influence of goal progress as a resource on these relations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2023

Xenia Bolschakow, Thomas Rigotti and Kathleen Otto

The benefits of authentic leadership for followers have been thoroughly researched, but the effects on leaders’ well-being remain unclear. To address this research gap, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The benefits of authentic leadership for followers have been thoroughly researched, but the effects on leaders’ well-being remain unclear. To address this research gap, the authors hypothesized reciprocal relationships between authentic leadership and work engagement as well as emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested in a German sample with leaders from different work sectors using a cross-lagged panel design with a time lag of 14 months (N = 137 at T1; N = 217 at T2).

Findings

Well-being significantly predicted leaders’ engagement in authentic leadership at the second measurement point, whereas the reciprocal relationships were not significant.

Research limitations/implications

Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory, possible processes underlying the observed impact of leaders’ well-being on their leadership behavior are discussed. The present research provides evidence that well-being constitutes a crucial basic resource for leaders to engage in constructive leadership behaviors such as authentic leadership.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by uncovering the causal order linking authentic leadership and leaders’ health.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Aleksandra Bujacz, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel, Thomas Rigotti and Petra Lindfors

Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement…

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Abstract

Purpose

Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement between self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers (N=167) were compared using a multigroup multilevel analysis. Participants assessed their job control (general level) and reported their work engagement during work tasks (task level) by means of the Day Reconstruction Method. Aspects of job control (autonomy, creativity, and learning opportunities) and task characteristics (social tasks and core work tasks) were contrasted for the two groups as predictors of work engagement.

Findings

Self-employed workers reported higher levels of job control and work engagement than organizationally employed workers. In both groups, job control predicted work engagement. Employees with more opportunities to be creative and autonomous were more engaged at work. Self-employed workers were more engaged when they had more learning opportunities. On the task level, the self-employed were more engaged during core work tasks and social tasks.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that self-employment is an effective way for high-skilled workers to increase the amount of job control available to them, and to improve their work engagement. From an intervention perspective, self-employed workers may benefit most from more learning opportunities, more social tasks, and more core work tasks. Organizationally employed workers may appreciate more autonomy and opportunities for creativity.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a better understanding of the role that job control and task characteristics play in predicting the work engagement of high-skilled self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2020

Yolanda Estreder, Thomas Rigotti, Inés Tomás and José Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the psychological contract (PC) simultaneously at the individual level (fulfillment of obligations by the organization and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the psychological contract (PC) simultaneously at the individual level (fulfillment of obligations by the organization and PC violation) and the organizational level (normative contract), and their relationship with employees’ evaluations of organizational justice. Based on justice and information processing approaches, the hypothesis is that normative contract has an effect on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice, and also moderates the relationship between PC violation and organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

Multilevel modeling was employed with a multinational sample of 5,338 employees nested in 214 companies.

Findings

Findings showed that beyond the positive effect of fulfillment of obligations by the organization, PC violation has a strong negative effect on organizational justice. In addition, normative contract has a positive effect on organizational justice, showing that when shared perceptions of normative contract are higher, then the organizational justice perceptions of employees are also higher. Furthermore, the normative contract moderated the relationship between PC violation and organizational justice, showing that the negative relationship of PC violation with organizational justice was stronger when the normative contract was higher.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that normative contract has effects on organizational justice, and that PC violation had more negative effects on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice perceptions when colleagues’ shared perceptions of fulfillment were higher. This means that social context (shared perceptions in an organization about the PC) has effects on individual perceptions of organizational justice. Companies need to pay attention to detrimental effects on employees who perceive a worse PC than their colleagues do.

Originality/value

The study extends the current research by demonstrating that employee–employer exchanges are not limited to individual level effects because shared perceptions of PC fulfillment (normative contract) also have relevant effects on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2022

Chris Giebe, Ashita Goswami and Thomas Rigotti

The purpose of the article is to examine the interplay between charismatic leadership and two follower characteristics in predicting safety behaviors during the Covid-19 pandemic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to examine the interplay between charismatic leadership and two follower characteristics in predicting safety behaviors during the Covid-19 pandemic in two distinct countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative investigation was conducted during the first wave of the Covid-19 crisis in India and Germany. Given the importance of safety behaviors during the pandemic, the authors proposed high charismatic public leadership, the perception of crisis and belief in science of the constituent influence safety behaviors.

Findings

Consistent with the hypothesis, the authors found that there was a positive relationship between charismatic leadership and safety behaviors. Contrary to the expectations, belief in science did not moderate the relationship between charisma and safety behaviors. Opposite to the hypotheses, the relationship between charisma and crisis was stronger under followers' low in perception of crisis.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the understanding of charisma during a crisis and the role of followers' perceptions. Implications include raising awareness about the importance of charismatic leadership in encouraging critical safety behaviors during a crisis, but these effects depend in part on the followers' attributions of the public leader.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Chris Giebe and Thomas Rigotti

This study investigated a mechanism by which challenge stressors may affect employee well-being outcomes. This study tested a within-person longitudinal model in which the effects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated a mechanism by which challenge stressors may affect employee well-being outcomes. This study tested a within-person longitudinal model in which the effects of challenge demands relate to basic psychological need satisfaction/thwarting and worker well-being outcomes. In particular, basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting were hypothesized to mediate challenge demands and outcomes at the intraindividual level.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 84 employees from a weekly survey across four weeks (308 observations) were used in Bayesian multilevel path analyses to test hypotheses.

Findings

Although significant indirect effects showed that basic psychological needs mediate between demands and worker outcomes, only a few specific indirect effects (e.g. the path from time pressure via thwarting the need for autonomy to emotional exhaustion) operated as hypothesized. Interestingly, in this study, time pressure was only mediated via thwarting the need for autonomy when considering undesirable worker outcomes (i.e. increased emotional exhaustion, decreased job satisfaction). Job complexity, however, led to decreased emotional exhaustion via the need for competence satisfaction. Implications for need satisfaction and thwarting as mechanisms in the challenge–hindrance framework are discussed.

Originality/value

This study (1) extends the challenge–hindrance framework to include basic psychological needs as a mechanism, (2) expands basic psychological needs to include need thwarting and (3) may enhance our understanding of stressor categories.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jeroen de De Jong, Michael Clinton, Thomas Rigotti and Claudia Bernhard-Oettel

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nonlinear association between proportions of breached obligations within the psychological contract (PC) and three dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nonlinear association between proportions of breached obligations within the psychological contract (PC) and three dimensions of employee well-being, and the mediating role of contract violation in these relationships. With this study the authors gain a more detailed understanding of PC evaluations and their consequences for well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build on asymmetry effects theory and affective events theory to propose that breached obligations outweigh fulfilled obligations in their association with well-being. The hypotheses are tested using a sample of 4,953 employees from six European countries and Israel.

Findings

The results provide support for the hypotheses, as the effect sizes of the indirect relationships for breached obligations on well-being via violation are initially strong compared to fulfilled obligations, but decrease incrementally as the proportion of breached obligations become greater. At a certain point the effect sizes become nonsignificant.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows that PC theory and research needs to better acknowledge the potential for asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, such that the breach of obligations can sometimes have a stronger effect on employee well-being than the fulfillment of obligations.

Practical implications

Those responsible for managing PCs in organizations should be aware of the asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, as trusting on the acceptance or tolerance of employees in dealing with breached obligations may quickly result in lower well-being.

Originality/value

The findings have implications for the understanding of PC breach and its associations with employee well-being.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Michael Clinton, Claudia Bernhard‐Oettel, Thomas Rigotti and Jeroen de Jong

The purpose of this paper is to explore an expanded temporal context of non‐permanent work through an examination of the influence of previous experience of temporary working…

1519

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore an expanded temporal context of non‐permanent work through an examination of the influence of previous experience of temporary working, contract duration and time remaining on contract and expectations of continued employment on reports of job insecurity, job satisfaction, in‐role performance and organisational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using responses of 1,169 temporary workers from a multi‐national, cross‐sectional questionnaire study.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that having previous experience of temporary work was associated with higher in‐role performance. No significant effects were found for contract duration, but shorter time remaining on present contract was associated with greater job insecurity and also greater in‐role performance. However the strongest effects were found for expectations of continued employment, with stronger expectations being linked to more positive reports of each outcome. A number of moderation effects were found that indicated interactions between temporal variables and revealed a moderating role of preference for temporary work.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first to formally consider the influence of a broader temporal context on attitudes and behaviours of temporary workers. Significant associations were found between elements relating to each of the past, present and future and important individual and organisational variables in the present. These effects were sustained above and beyond the influence of variables such as country, sector, preferences, skill level, contract type, and demographics that are known to affect temporary workers' attitudes and behaviours.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Thomas R. Loy and Sven Hartlieb

Purpose – Over the last 15 years, research provided insight into several firm- and country-level determinants of asymmetric cost behavior. Their implicit premise builds on…

Abstract

Purpose – Over the last 15 years, research provided insight into several firm- and country-level determinants of asymmetric cost behavior. Their implicit premise builds on rational trade-off decisions between holding costs of idle resources and adjustment costs. The authors build upon these findings and establish an irrational component – sunlight-induced managerial mood.

Methodology/approach – The authors rely on the established cross-sectional model of asymmetric cost behavior to investigate short-term resource adjustment decisions and extend it by an exogenous proxy for managerial mood (i.e., daily sunshine hours per US county-year).

Findings – Beyond rational trade-off and planning decisions, the authors provide large-sample evidence on the influence of irrational mood on cost decisions. In accordance with research in psychology showing that higher serotine levels, attributable to sunlight, contribute to happiness and optimism, the results suggest that sunlight-induced mood increases the level of asymmetric cost behavior. Managers from firms headquartered in counties with a higher level of sunlight less likely react to a decrease in sales by reducing idle resources. Instead, they seem to be more optimistic about future demand conditions and, thus, more inclined to “sit out” downturns in firm activity until sales recover.

Research limitations/implications – Although the mood proxy is truly exogenous in the setting, the authors are unable to establish causality as the actual cost management decisions could not be observed directly. Moreover, the analyses are limited to the county level, whereas weather undoubtedly oftentimes exhibits intra-county variation.

Originality/value – This study is the first to establish an irrational antecedent of managerial resource adjustment decisions, which adds to the cost stickiness literature by demonstrating the important role of deliberate managerial decisions for corporate cost behavior.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-913-0

Keywords

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