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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Michael Kronenwett and Thomas Rigotti

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisal of emotional demands, as well as time pressure and perceived goal progress within the challenge–hindrance framework.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, 91 employees provided daily diary data for one working week. Focusing on within-persons effects, multilevel moderated mediation models using multilevel path analyses were applied.

Findings

Both emotional demands and time pressure exert positive effects on work engagement when people expect resource gain (challenge appraisal), independent of actual resource gain (achievement). Furthermore, results show that goal progress buffers negative effects of perceived blocked resource gain (hindrance appraisal) on both emotional and motivational well-being.

Originality/value

This research proposes an extension and refinement of the challenge–hindrance stressor framework to explain health-impairing and motivational processes of emotional demands and time pressure, combining reasoning from both appraisal and resource theory perspectives. The study identifies demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisals as mediators linking demands to emotional and motivational well-being, emphasizing the influence of goal progress as a resource on these relations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Arnoud T. Evers, Bogdan Yamkovenko and Daniël Van Amersfoort

Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job…

Abstract

Purpose

Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job demands and resources can affect the health and cognitive development of teachers using the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation model.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional sample of 120 teachers in vocational education was used to investigate the proposed relationships and hypotheses with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression method.

Findings

In terms of teacher health and development, significant main effects were found for several predictors. Autonomy was significantly and negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Autonomy, emotional supervisor and colleague support were significantly and positively related to teachers’ development. However, little support was found for matching hypotheses, suggesting that matching demands and resources do not offer more explanatory power for occupation outcomes than other types of interaction effects.

Research limitations/implications

More powerful analyses techniques like structural equation modeling could be used in future research with a larger sample size. A second limitation is common method variance.

Practical implications

Schools in vocational education should provide sufficient job resources, such as autonomy and emotional support, but possibly also put a limit on teacher task variety.

Originality/value

Job demands and resources have until now mainly been related to negative outcomes such as poor health and ill-being, while the relationship with learning has also been hypothesized and is therefore meaningful to examine. In addition, it was investigated whether interaction effects of matching demands and resources, better explain these outcomes.

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Kelly Z. Peng, Chi‐Sum Wong and Hong‐Sheng Che

The purpose of this paper is to preliminary explain the possibly complicated moderating effects of job resources. The paper specifies the missing link between job demand

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2852

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to preliminary explain the possibly complicated moderating effects of job resources. The paper specifies the missing link between job demand and burnout by focusing on the coping strategy argument.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper preliminary supports the mediated moderation model of the missing link by a large sample cross‐sectional survey.

Findings

The two coping strategies as mediators for the relationship between emotional demands and exhaustion are supported. Strong supports for the moderation effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between emotional demands and the two coping strategies are found. Some support for the moderation of supervisor support on the relationship between deep acting and exhaustion are found.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the job demands‐control‐support and job demands‐resources models, as the proposed model helps to explain the inconsistent results for the buffering effect of job resources found in the literature. It also contributes to the literature of emotional intelligence, as it provides clear evidence of its importance in handling emotional demands.

Practical implications

Deep acting is important. An organization may take more efforts in training employees to equip them with it. Emotional intelligence is also a vital resource and so organizations may benefit if they engage in relevant selection and training practices.

Originality/value

Emotional intelligence, an individual ability, is empirically demonstrated to be an important type of job resources that can buffer the negative effect of job demands on employee well‐being.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Shazia Nauman, Usman Raja, Inam Ul Haq and Waqas Bilal

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered…

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1534

Abstract

Purpose

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. The research has yet to consider what factors buffer the negative outcomes of EL. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between workload job demand and employee well-being with mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and moderating effects of emotional intelligence (EI) in service organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two wave data from a sample of 207 emergency medical technicians to test the hypotheses.

Findings

By integrating SA, EI and employee well-being with the conservation of resource theory, the authors found evidence of an indirect effect of workload job demand on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction via SA. The results of moderated mediation show that the negative relationship between SA and job satisfaction was low when EI was high and the positive relationship between SA and emotional exhaustion was low when EI was high.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the present study is that all the participants were male and drawn from a single profession within the same organization. Another limitation is that the data were collected through self-reports.

Practical implications

This research has important theoretical and practical implications for service organizations wishing to buffer the harmful effects of SA on employees. This study presents key theoretical implications for the EL and well-being literatures. An important practical implication is that EI is a good resource for managing SA’s negative outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the extant research by showing that workload job demands have negative effects on employee well-being via SA resulting in reduced job satisfaction and increased emotional exhaustion. Further, the negative outcomes of SA on employee well-being can be buffered through EI by taking EI as an emotional resource. High level of EI helps employees to mitigate the harmful effects of SA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Liang-Chih Huang, Cheng-Chen Lin and Szu-Chi Lu

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the job demands-resources model, the present study proposes viewing abusive supervision as one type of job demand causing employees' emotional exhaustion, which results in psychological withdrawal behavior. In addition, job crafting can be viewed as a means to acquire job resources, and it buffers the influence of abusive supervision on employees' emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the present study also proposes the moderating effect of job crafting on abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior will be mediated by emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the issue of common method variance, data were not only collected in a multi-temporal research design but also tested by Harman's one-factor test. In addition, a series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to ensure the discriminant validity of measures. The moderated mediation hypotheses were tested on a sample of 267 participants.

Findings

The process model analysis showed that emotional exhaustion partially mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and psychological withdrawal behavior. Moreover, job crafting buffers the detrimental effect of abusive supervision on emotional exhaustion, and the less exhausted employees exhibit less psychological withdrawal behavior than those exhausted.

Originality/value

This study proposed a moderated mediation model to examine how and when abusive supervision leads to more employees' psychological withdrawal behaviors, and found that emotional exhaustion is one potential mechanism and job crafting is one potential moderator. Specifically, it was revealed that employees view abusive supervision as a kind of social and organizational aspect of job demands which will exacerbate emotional exhaustion, and, in turn, lead to more psychological withdrawal behavior. However, when employees view themselves as job crafter, they can adopt various job crafting behaviors to decrease the emotional exhaustion, and thus less psychological withdrawal behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2009

Jos Akkermans, Veerle Brenninkmeijer, Roland W.B. Blonk and Lando L.J. Koppes

The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the well‐being, health and performance of young intermediate educated employees. First, employees with low education…

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2045

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the well‐being, health and performance of young intermediate educated employees. First, employees with low education (9 years or less), intermediate education (10‐14 years of education), and high education (15 years or more) are compared on a number of factors related to well‐being, health, and performance at work. Second, determinants of well‐being, health and performance are examined for the intermediate educated group, based on the Job Demands‐Resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from The Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2007 are used: the largest working conditions survey in The Netherlands. ANOVAs with post hoc Bonferroni corrections and linear regression analyses are used for the analyses.

Findings

Young intermediate educated employees differ from high educated employees with regard to job demands, job resources and health. They report less demands, but these demands still have an effect on well‐being and performance. They also report less resources, while these resources are important predictors of their health and performance: both directly and indirectly via job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion.

Limitations/implications

Cross‐sectional data are used and the theoretical model is tested using regression analyses. In a follow‐up study, longitudinal data and structural equation modelling will be used.

Originality/value

The study adds to the limited knowledge on young employees with intermediate education and gives insight into the processes that are important for their well‐being, health, and performance. The study shows that this group deserves the attention of both researchers and professionals.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Gérard Näring and Annemarie van Droffelaar

Nursing comprises interactions with patients which may require emotional labor. This study clarifies the relation of emotional labor with the three burnout dimensions…

Abstract

Nursing comprises interactions with patients which may require emotional labor. This study clarifies the relation of emotional labor with the three burnout dimensions within the context of the Demand Control Support model in nurses. We used the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (D-QEL) to measure surface acting, deep acting, suppression, and emotional consonance. In line with other studies, job characteristics were significantly related to emotional exhaustion and surface acting was significantly related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Emotional consonance, the situation where somebody effortlessly feels the emotion that is required, is related to personal accomplishment.

Details

Functionality, Intentionality and Morality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1414-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Jaewon (Jay) Yoo, Todd J. Arnold and Gary L. Frankwick

The purpose of this model is to explain how person – organization fit (P – O fit) and competitive intensity, conceptualized as a job resource and a job demand

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1533

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this model is to explain how person – organization fit (P – O fit) and competitive intensity, conceptualized as a job resource and a job demand, respectively, ultimately affect the development of frontline employee boundary-spanning behavior (BSB).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey methodology was used in collecting data from a sample of bank employees in South Korea. To analyze the data, a structural equation model procedure using LISREL 8.5 was used (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1996).

Findings

Results suggest that a frontline employee’s P – O fit decreases emotional exhaustion and increases achievement-striving motivation. Competitive intensity significantly reduces achievement-striving motivation. Results also show that competitive intensity significantly attenuates the positive relationship between P – O fit and employee achievement-striving motivation, highlighting the importance of contextual industry stressors upon internal organizational behaviors. Both emotional exhaustion and achievement-striving motivation are found to ultimately affect BSBs except for the link between emotional exhaustion and service delivery.

Originality/value

The current study applies the job-demands resources model to demonstrate how both an externally initiated job demand (competitive intensity) and an internally oriented job resource (person – organization fit) influence employee experience of emotional exhaustion and achievement-striving motivation. Interaction effects of P – O fit and competitive intensity on employee’s psychological states (emotional exhaustion and achievement-striving motivation) are also examined. Further, it is demonstrated that both emotional exhaustion and achievement-striving motivation will directly influence service employee boundary-spanning behaviors, but in differential manners. This highlights the importance of exhaustion and motivation as mediators for the ultimate effect of a job resource (P – O fit), answering a call for such understanding of the developmental process for BSBs (Podsakoff et al., 2000). This is the first empirical study to link both internal and external elements to illuminate the process for developing job demands and resources, as well as boundary spanning behaviors.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Arjun Chakravorty and Pankaj Singh

This study aims to examine the correlates of burnout among primary school teachers working with public schools in Chhattisgarh-India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the correlates of burnout among primary school teachers working with public schools in Chhattisgarh-India.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 713 teachers using a questionnaire survey. Using partial least square path modeling, this study tests the proposed measurement and structural model.

Findings

The study confirmed that general job demands and emotional job demands in a school environment significantly correlated with burnout, which, in turn, has increased somatic symptoms and decreased pro-social behavior among teachers. However, the association of burnout with absenteeism was insignificant. Emotional intelligence (EI) was found to buffer the adverse associations of general job demands and emotional job demands on burnout.

Practical implications

The findings of this study demonstrate that EI has buffering effects on high job demands that consequently reduce burnout. This will help educators and policymakers in shaping and formulating effective policies and practices to deal with burnout.

Originality/value

Earlier studies exploring burnout of primary school teachers, especially in the Indian context, had focused exclusively on demographic factors. This study is an early attempt to understand the impact of contextual factors on burnout thereby helping in designing appropriate interventions thereof. This study additionally rationalizes the unexplored association of burnout with pro-social behavior among educators.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Jamie J. Chapman

Nursing, as a gendered occupation, is one that requires vast amounts of emotional labor to be performed. As careworkers, nurses are required to assume multiple roles at…

Abstract

Nursing, as a gendered occupation, is one that requires vast amounts of emotional labor to be performed. As careworkers, nurses are required to assume multiple roles at work: medical expert, companion, and personal care provider. Roles, or expected behaviors associated with different statuses, have the potential to spillover between work and home environments. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate how nurses perceive their role-taking and emotional labor processes to influence experiences of work–family spillover.

Rooted in interactionist role theory, this investigation seeks to qualitatively examine how nurses assign meaning to their various roles and how they perceive their roles to influence work–family spillover. Using audio diary and interview data, this chapter proposes that nurses who practice role-person merger (Turner, 1978) and empathic role-taking (Shott 1979) will also perceive work–family spillover to be related to their caretaking roles as nurses. Three distinct themes emerged in this qualitative analysis related to how experiences of work–family spillover are influenced by the emotional labor demands of the job and the practice of empathic role-taking by nurses: (1) spillover related to required emotional labor is experienced both positively and negatively; (2) nurses actively exercise personal agency in an attempt to decrease negative spillover; and (3) nurses reported increased work–family spillover when they practiced empathic role-taking.

This analysis extends the literature in this area by demonstrating the connection between the structural influences on emotion, the individual perceptions of roles, and the subsequent experiences of work–family spillover.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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