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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Michael Kronenwett and Thomas Rigotti

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from both the transactional theory of stress and the conservation of resources theory, this paper sets out to investigate the role of demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisal of emotional demands, as well as time pressure and perceived goal progress within the challenge–hindrance framework.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, 91 employees provided daily diary data for one working week. Focusing on within-persons effects, multilevel moderated mediation models using multilevel path analyses were applied.

Findings

Both emotional demands and time pressure exert positive effects on work engagement when people expect resource gain (challenge appraisal), independent of actual resource gain (achievement). Furthermore, results show that goal progress buffers negative effects of perceived blocked resource gain (hindrance appraisal) on both emotional and motivational well-being.

Originality/value

This research proposes an extension and refinement of the challenge–hindrance stressor framework to explain health-impairing and motivational processes of emotional demands and time pressure, combining reasoning from both appraisal and resource theory perspectives. The study identifies demand-specific challenge and hindrance appraisals as mediators linking demands to emotional and motivational well-being, emphasizing the influence of goal progress as a resource on these relations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Fei Zhu, Katrin Burmeister-Lamp and Dan Kai Hsu

The purpose of this paper is to examine how family support affects challenge and hindrance appraisals, which in turn, influence entrepreneurs’ venture exit intention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how family support affects challenge and hindrance appraisals, which in turn, influence entrepreneurs’ venture exit intention drawing on the challenge-hindrance job stressor model, family support, and the venture exit literature.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study (Study 1) was conducted to establish the relationships among family support, challenge and hindrance appraisals, and entrepreneurs’ venture exit intention. Two survey studies (Study 2 and Study 3) were conducted to extend the external validity of findings in Study 1 and to examine whether the theoretical framework holds in both the US and Chinese contexts.

Findings

All three studies demonstrate that family support decreases entrepreneurs’ venture exit intention by reducing hindrance appraisal. Study 3 also shows the mediating role of challenge appraisal in the family support – venture exit intention relationship.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the family embeddedness perspective not only by showing its relevance to the venture exit context but also by validating the relationship of family support with cognitive appraisals and venture exit intention in two cultural contexts. It also contributes to venture exit research by highlighting the unique role of cognitive appraisals in the formation of entrepreneurs’ venture exit intention.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Zhining Wang, Shuang Ren and Lijun Meng

The purpose of this paper is to provide a balanced and nuanced understanding of the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and employee thriving at work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a balanced and nuanced understanding of the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and employee thriving at work by aiming to consider the “dark-side” of HPWS and to uncover the “black box.”

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws from data from 377 employees nested in 77 work teams and tests a multilevel moderated mediation model using multilevel path analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that employees appraise HPWS as both a challenge and a hindrance simultaneously. The challenge appraisal associated with HPWS positively influences employees' thriving at work whereas hindrance appraisal of HPWS negatively influences thriving experience. The results also support the hypothesized relationships in which servant leadership moderates the indirect effect of HPWS on employee thriving via challenge and hindrance appraisals accordingly.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates both positive and negative sides of HPWS as evaluated by employees in relation to an important employee outcome of thriving at work. It enriches the strategic HRM literature by identifying the “black box” of HPWS-employee outcomes and associated boundary condition from the theoretical perspective of cognitive appraisals.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Li Ding

This study aims to examine the effect of restaurant employees’ challenge-hindrance appraisals toward smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics and algorithms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of restaurant employees’ challenge-hindrance appraisals toward smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics and algorithms (STARA) awareness on individual competitive productivity (ICP) and explore the mediating roles of employees’ work engagement and organizational commitment on the relationship between challenge-hindrance appraisals and ICP.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online survey. One hundred and ninety employees who worked at full-time and non-management positions in the USA quick-service restaurants participated. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for the data analysis.

Findings

The study identified that restaurant employees’ challenge appraisals toward STARA awareness positively influenced ICP. This relationship is positively mediated by employees’ work engagement.

Practical implications

This study makes practical contributions to human resource practices in restaurants. Employees’ challenge appraisals toward STARA awareness transmit the job insecurity stressor to a higher level of ICP. Restaurant managers should provide employees with adequate resources and support for non-management employees’ professional competency growth. Quick-service restaurants can enjoy a competitive advantage in the market by enhancing employees’ CP.

Originality/value

This study enriches the literature on the CP model, cognitive appraisal theory and person-environment fit theory. The study investigated employees’ challenge and hindrance appraisals toward emerging STARA awareness and emphasized their distinct characteristics to drive ICP in the quick-service restaurant sector.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Rachel Williamson Smith, Michael M. DeNunzio, Nicholas J. Haynes and Aneeqa Thiele

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of appraisals in three stressor–well-being relationships: (1) the mediating role of challenge appraisals in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of appraisals in three stressor–well-being relationships: (1) the mediating role of challenge appraisals in the relationship between daily skill demands and daily work engagement, (2) the mediating role of hindrance appraisals in the relationship between daily interruptions and daily depletion and (3) the mediating role of threat appraisals in the relationship between daily emotional demands and daily anxiety. We also examined the moderating influence of conscientiousness on the daily skill demands–challenge appraisal relationship, the moderating role of extraversion on the daily interruptions–hindrance appraisal relationship and the moderating influence of neuroticism on the daily emotional demands–threat appraisal relationship. Supplemental analyses also examined the moderating influence of the aforementioned personality traits on the respective direct effects of stressors on well-being outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

We tested our hypotheses using a 5-days experience sampling design in a sample of 114 working adults and employed multilevel modeling.

Findings

All hypothesized mediating mechanisms were supported, however, the majority of moderation hypotheses were not supported.

Originality/value

We sought to extend the relatively recent advancement in the challenge–hindrance framework to provide additional evidence of the utility of distinguishing between challenge, hindrance and threat stressors. Although not supported, this is the one of the first papers to test the moderating influence of personality traits on the stressor–appraisal relationship.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Morteza Charkhabi

The purpose of this paper is to detect the association between qualitative job insecurity and well-being related outcomes and to determine the extent to which cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detect the association between qualitative job insecurity and well-being related outcomes and to determine the extent to which cognitive appraisals of job insecurity moderate this association. According to appraisal theory, it is anticipated a hindrance appraisal of job insecurity to amplify and a challenge appraisal of job insecurity to buffer this association.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, 250 healthcare employees from different departments of an Iranian large public hospital were recruited. Participants responded to scales on qualitative job insecurity, cognitive appraisals, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, absenteeism and presenteeism.

Findings

Results showed that qualitative job insecurity negatively influenced both psychological and behavioral well-being; however, this influence was greater for psychological well-being than for behavioral well-being. Besides, the moderation tests showed that only the hindrance appraisals of job insecurity amplified the link between job insecurity and psychological outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This study sampled employees from a public hospital and did not include employees from private hospitals. This may limit the generalizability of the findings. Also, due to using a cross-sectional research design we encourage future studies to replicate the same findings using other different research designs.

Practical implications

The findings aid occupational health psychologists to design particular interventions for protecting those aspects of employee’s well-being that are more vulnerable when qualitative job insecurity is chronically perceived.

Originality/value

Together, these findings suggest that the hindrance appraisals of qualitative job insecurity are more likely to moderate the link between job insecurity and well-being outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Andrew A. Bennett, Stephen E. Lanivich, M. Mahdi Moeini Gharagozloo and Yusuf Akbulut

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how stress appraisals (i.e. cognitive evaluations) influence entrepreneurial outcomes like expected financial well-being, life…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how stress appraisals (i.e. cognitive evaluations) influence entrepreneurial outcomes like expected financial well-being, life satisfaction, business growth and exit intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-methods approach to provide methodological triangulation by analyzing data from two independent samples (qualitative data from 100 entrepreneurs in Study 1; quantitative regression analysis of a sample of 142 entrepreneurs in Study 2).

Findings

Results from the qualitative exploration (Study 1) show that entrepreneurs appraised venture-related stressors differently as a challenge, threat or hindrance. The quantitative study (Study 2) found that challenge stress appraisals were positively related to expected financial well-being and expected life satisfaction, threat stress appraisals were negatively related to expected financial well-being and positively related to business exit intentions, and hindrance stress appraisals were positively related to expected business growth and negatively related to business exit intentions.

Originality/value

Most entrepreneurship research focuses on stressors rather than appraisals of the stressor. Drawing upon the transactional theory of stress that explains how stress appraisals are an important consideration for understanding the stress process, these two studies showed that stress appraisals differ for each entrepreneur (Study 1) and that stress appraisals explain more variance in many entrepreneurial outcomes than stressors (Study 2).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Jinia Mukerjee, Francesco Montani and Christian Vandenberghe

Organizational change is usually stressful and destabilizing for employees, for whom coping with the induced stress is primordial to commit to the change. This paper aims…

1557

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational change is usually stressful and destabilizing for employees, for whom coping with the induced stress is primordial to commit to the change. This paper aims to unravel how and when change recipients can enact different coping strategies and, ultimately, manifest different forms of commitment to change.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose a theoretical model that identifies challenge appraisal and hindrance appraisal as two primary appraisals of organizational change that fuel, respectively, proactive and preventive coping strategies and, indirectly, affective and normative forms of commitment to change. Moreover, this framework suggests that coping strategies and commitment are influenced by the secondary appraisal of two vital resources – resilience and POS – allowing individuals to react effectively to primary change-related appraisals. Finally, the relationship between coping strategies and the components of commitment to change is proposed to be moderated by employees' regulatory focus.

Findings

Using appraisal theory and conservation of resources theory as guiding frameworks, our integrated model describes the antecedents, processes and boundary conditions associated with coping with the stress of organizational change and how they ultimately influence commitment to it.

Originality/value

This is the first theoretical paper to identify a conditional dual path to disclose the different reactions that change recipients can manifest in response to the stressful aspects of organizational change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Tahseen Anwer Arshi, Sardar Islam and Nirmal Gunupudi

Considerable evidence suggests that although they overlap, entrepreneurial and employee stressors have different causal antecedents and outcomes. However, limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Considerable evidence suggests that although they overlap, entrepreneurial and employee stressors have different causal antecedents and outcomes. However, limited empirical data explain how entrepreneurial traits, work and life drive entrepreneurial stressors and create entrepreneurial strain (commonly called entrepreneurial stress). Drawing on the challenge-hindrance framework (CHF), this paper hypothesises the causal effect of hindrance stressors on entrepreneurial strain. Furthermore, the study posits that entrepreneurial stressors and the resultant strain affect entrepreneurial behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts an SEM-based machine-learning approach. Cross-lagged path models using SEM are used to analyse the data and train the machine-learning algorithm for cross-validation and generalisation. The sample consists of 415 entrepreneurs from three countries: India, Oman and United Arab Emirates. The entrepreneurs completed two self-report surveys over 12 months.

Findings

The results show that hindrances to personal and professional goal achievement, demand-capability gap and contradictions between aspiration and reality, primarily due to unique resource constraints, characterise entrepreneurial stressors leading to entrepreneurial strain. The study further asserts that entrepreneurial strain is a significant predictor of entrepreneurial behaviour, significantly affecting innovativeness behaviour. Finally, the finding suggests that psychological capital moderates the adverse impact of stressors on entrepreneurial strain over time.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the CHF by demonstrating the value of hindrance stressors in studying entrepreneurial strain and providing new insights into entrepreneurial coping. It argues that entrepreneurs cope effectively against hindrance stressors by utilising psychological capital. Furthermore, the study provides more evidence about the causal, reversed and reciprocal relationships between stressors and entrepreneurial strain through a cross-lagged analysis. This study is one of the first to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurial strain on entrepreneurial behaviour. Using a machine-learning approach is a new possibility for using machine learning for SEM and entrepreneurial strain.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Sheldon Carvalho, Fallan Kirby Carvalho and Charles Carvalho

Scholars in the feedback seeking domain have predominantly focused on subordinate feedback seeking. The authors still know very little about feedback seeking when the…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars in the feedback seeking domain have predominantly focused on subordinate feedback seeking. The authors still know very little about feedback seeking when the leader is the “seeker” and subordinates are the “targets” of such seeking. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework that explores the potential benefits and costs of leader feedback seeking, specifically, leader feedback inquiry for subordinates.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw upon the transactional theory of stress to propose a framework in which leader feedback inquiry influences two subordinate behaviors (in-role and proactive skill development behaviors) via appraisal processes (challenge and threat appraisals). With insights from regulatory focus theory, the authors propose that individual characteristics, namely, the regulatory focus of subordinates (promotion and prevention focus), determine the appraisals of leader feedback inquiry, subsequently influencing subordinate behavioral outcomes.

Findings

The authors contend that leader feedback inquiry can be appraised as a challenge which then produces beneficial subordinate behaviors (i.e. higher in-role and proactive skill development behaviors). However, leader feedback inquiry can also be appraised as a threat which then elicits detrimental subordinate behaviors (i.e. lower in-role and proactive skill development behaviors). The authors then argue that subordinates with a high promotion focus appraise leader feedback inquiry as challenging, thereby enabling beneficial behaviors. Subordinates with a high prevention focus, by contrast, appraise leader feedback inquiry as threatening, thereby prompting detrimental behaviors.

Originality/value

The authors shed light on the benefits and costs of leader feedback seeking for subordinates. The resulting framework underlines the importance of including individual characteristics and cognitive appraisal processes in research investigating the effects of leader feedback inquiry on subordinate outcomes.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000