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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Barbara A. Wech, Karen Norman Kennedy and Dawn R. Deeter‐Schmelz

As organizations increasingly rely on teams to provide high levels of customer service, one's understanding and research methods related to teams must expand so that…

Abstract

Purpose

As organizations increasingly rely on teams to provide high levels of customer service, one's understanding and research methods related to teams must expand so that multiple hierarchical levels of an organization are analyzed effectively. This study aims to propose and test a model examining multi‐level team relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from customer contact teams in a banking setting were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), a method appropriate for investigating individual and group level variables within an organization.

Findings

Results indicate that teammember exchange, a group‐level variable, is positively associated with employee performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and explained variance in outcomes above and beyond that explained by the individual‐level relationship between the supervisor and subordinate.

Research limitations/implications

Analyzing both individual‐ and group‐level variables through HLM explicates team processes and outcomes. While this study examines the banking environment, certainly, teams are an area fertile for additional study in a variety of industries.

Practical implications

The results provide support for the importance of team development and training as organizations increasingly use teams to provide critical customer service. Attention to the employee‐manager relationship and team member interactions will improve performance.

Originality/value

The paper extends understanding of important team member outcomes in an environment that increasingly relies upon teamwork to serve customers. It examines teammember exchange and its effects on employee performance and OCB in the context of customer contact teams. Additionally, investigates leader‐member exchange in the context of teammember exchange, a relationship that provides a more robust understanding of team processes.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Xianmiao Li, Zhenting Xu and Chenghao Men

This study aims to explore the transmission mechanism of individual idea generation on team idea implementation and elucidate the relationships among team knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the transmission mechanism of individual idea generation on team idea implementation and elucidate the relationships among team knowledge territoriality, team information exchange and team trust, which can better improve team knowledge sharing, decrease individual knowledge hiding or territoriality and assist the team in solving the predicament of idea implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected by the paired method from 56 Chinese companies’ R&D teams, which comprised 356 valid samples. Besides, structure equitation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Team knowledge territoriality had a significant positive impact on individual idea generation, team information exchange and team idea implementation. Team information exchange mediated the relationship between team knowledge territoriality and team idea implementation. Moreover, team information exchange positively moderated the relationship between team knowledge territoriality and individual idea generation. Furthermore, the relationship between individual idea generation and team idea implementation was mediated by team trust.

Originality/value

This study augments the theoretical research of territoriality and innovation process. From the viewpoint of knowledge territoriality to describe the coexistence of knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding in the organization, this study reveals the influence mechanism of team knowledge territoriality on team innovation process. Overall, this study provides empirical support that team territoriality can weaken the adverse impact of individual territoriality on innovation to a certain extent.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2005

Herman H.M. Tse, Marie T. Dasborough and Neal M. Ashkanasy

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX). In particular, little is known of the effect of LMX differentiation (in-group versus out-group) as a process of social exchange that can, in turn, affect TMX quality. To explore this phenomenon, this chapter presents a multi-level model of TMX in organizations, which incorporates LMX differentiation, team identification, team member affect at the individual level, and fairness of LMX differentiation and affective climate at the group-level. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our model for theory, research, and practice.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Christopher H. Thomas, Foster Roberts, Milorad M. Novicevic, Anthony P. Ammeter and Dragan Loncar

In this chapter we examine various human resource management (HRM) implications involved in the leadership of fluid teams. Leadership of fluid teams, which are…

Abstract

In this chapter we examine various human resource management (HRM) implications involved in the leadership of fluid teams. Leadership of fluid teams, which are distinguished by their dynamic composition, requires consideration of issues that may not be as pertinent for stable teams. In particular, we focus on the concept of familiarity. Composing and leading teams with members exhibiting varying degrees of familiarity with one another creates obstacles to effective and efficient functioning and may ultimately lead to poor performance. With this in mind, leaders must pay particular attention to issues of coordination, and composition such that a broad range of generalizable teamwork skills exists within the team. Within this chapter, we explain the concepts of fluid teams, team leadership within fluid teams, and other relevant concepts related to the formation of familiarity. Next, we thoroughly review extant empirical and theoretical research within these areas. We identify areas of correspondence among the various concepts and findings of the reviewed studies and generate an integrated model of fluid team leadership. To conclude, we highlight the distinct HRM implications associated with the use, and leadership, of fluid teams.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-322-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Di Zhao and Wenjun Cai

Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on…

Abstract

Purpose

Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on TMX and the team context have been largely ignored. For filling these gaps, this study explores the effect of employee EI on employee TMX and introduces EI-based leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation as a team context to moderate the EI-TMX relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from 51 teams (consisting of 293 followers and 51 team leaders) selected from 30 companies (across the industries of technology, real estate, commerce and manufacturing).

Findings

Results revealed that employee EI was positively related to employee TMX. EI acted as the basis of LMX differentiation (EI was positively related to LMX, EI variety was positively associated with LMX differentiation), and EI-based LMX differentiation acted as a favorable context for high-EI employees to develop high-quality TMX.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of EI’s significant and complex influence on interpersonal exchange relationships between leaders, followers and coworkers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Mahn Hee Yoon and David J. Yoon

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer service behaviors and also the moderating roles of team-level differentiations in leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) in influencing these mediation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 467 customer-contact employees working in hotel restaurants. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, and moderated path was used to assess the moderated mediation.

Findings

Self-efficacy and team-commitment both mediated the relationship between RLMX and customer service behaviors. The differentiations in LMX and TMX significantly interacted with RLMX in predicting self-efficacy and team commitment and also moderated the indirect effects of RLMX on customer service behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to incorporate customers’ or immediate supervisors’ ratings of subordinates’ customer service behaviors and replicate the findings in different countries and work settings.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers should foster a work environment wherein they develop equal quality relationships with their subordinates in a workgroup and promote high-quality relationships among subordinates in the workgroup to improve subordinates’ self-efficacy, team commitment and, subsequently, their customer service behaviors.

Originality/value

This study incorporates both self-efficacy and team commitment as motivation-based and social exchange-based mediators, respectively, in predicting customer service behavior. It also extends the boundary condition for the mediations by considering the team-level differentiations in both vertical exchange (LMX) and horizontal exchange (TMX).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Sara Kahrobaei and Saeed Mortazavi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader–member exchange quality on creative involvement of teams in creative work through the mediating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader–member exchange quality on creative involvement of teams in creative work through the mediating role of collective energy comprising of affect, cognitive and behavioral energies.

Methodology/approach

In total, a sample of 298 participants in 71 teams working for manufacturing companies producing different auto parts in the eastern part of Iran was examined. A conceptual model was developed, and the hypotheses were analyzed by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, the direct and indirect effects of variables were acquired by a path analysis technique.

Findings

The results revealed that, in teams, leader-members exchange indirectly impacts involvement in creative work via affective, cognitive and behavioral energies. Furthermore, affective energy play the most mediating role and behavioral energy my negatively affect involvement in creative work.

Originality/value

First, this paper makes a significant contribution to the literature of energy through considering a more panoramic view of it at work. This is the first study in which collective energy functions as a mediating factor in teams. Second, it helps to broaden the scope of research on the relationship between leaders and individuals through multi-level analysis.

Details

Team Performance Management, vol. 22 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Katja Babič, Matej Černe, Catherine E. Connelly, Anders Dysvik and Miha Škerlavaj

Although organizations expect employees to share knowledge with each other, knowledge hiding has been documented among coworker dyads. This paper aims to draw on social…

Abstract

Purpose

Although organizations expect employees to share knowledge with each other, knowledge hiding has been documented among coworker dyads. This paper aims to draw on social exchange theory to examine if and why knowledge hiding also occurs in teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies, using experimental (115 student participants on 29 teams) and field (309 employees on 92 teams) data, explore the influence of leader-member exchange (LMX) on knowledge hiding in teams, as well as the moderating role of collective (team-level) prosocial motivation.

Findings

The results of experimental Study 1 showed that collective prosocial motivation and LMX reduce knowledge hiding in teams. Field Study 2 further examined LMX, through its distinctive economic and social facets, and revealed the interaction effect of team prosocial motivation and social LMX on knowledge hiding.

Originality/value

This study complements existing research on knowledge hiding by focusing specifically on the incidence of this phenomenon among members of the same team. This paper presents a multi-level model that explores collective prosocial motivation as a cross-level predictor of knowledge hiding in teams, and examines economic LMX and social LMX as two facets of LMX.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Nai-Wen Chi

This study proposes a multilevel framework to test the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the relationships between positive group affective tone (PGAT) and individual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study proposes a multilevel framework to test the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the relationships between positive group affective tone (PGAT) and individual/team creativity.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Data are collected from 122 research and development (R&D) teams (including 305 members and 122 team leaders). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses and hierarchical regression analyses are performed to test hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that PGAT facilitates individual creativity via enhanced work engagement, and increases team creativity via team information exchange. Supporting the substituting perspective, we found that the positive indirect effects of PGAT on individual/team creativity were attenuated when supervisory support is high.

Research Limitations/Implications

Although all variables were collected at the same time and the individual-level variables were collected from the same source, our findings highlight the mechanisms explaining the beneficial effects of PGAT on individual/team creativity, and how supervisory support can substitute for such effects.

Practical Implications

In order to make the individuals and teams more creative, the organizations need to promote PGAT via the selection of appropriated leader and members or team social events. Moreover, supervisors support is particularly salient in enhancing team creativity when PGAT is low.

Originality/Value

This study is the one of the first study to test the motivational/social mechanisms linking the relationship between PGAT and individual/team creativity, and the competing theoretical perspectives regarding how supervisory support can moderate the PGAT–creativity linkage.

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Rebecca S. Lau, Gordon W. Cheung and Helena D. Cooper–Thomas

This study aims to examine two individual dispositions, propensity to trust and reciprocation wariness, as antecedents of teammember exchange (TMX) and how shared…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine two individual dispositions, propensity to trust and reciprocation wariness, as antecedents of teammember exchange (TMX) and how shared leadership moderates these relationships. It also investigates work engagement as a consequence of TMX.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 175 employees in 42 teams; a multilevel random slope model was used to test the moderating effect of shared leadership at the team level and across levels.

Findings

Shared leadership provides a boundary condition for the relationships from propensity to trust and reciprocation wariness to work engagement through TMX. At the individual level, the positive effects of propensity to trust and negative effects of reciprocation wariness on TMX, and their indirect effects on work engagement through TMX, were weaker at higher shared leadership. At the team level, the positive relationship between propensity to trust and TMX was unconditional on shared leadership, whereas the relationship between reciprocation wariness and TMX was moderated by shared leadership. At the team level, shared leadership had positive effects on TMX and work engagement.

Practical implications

Managers can adopt shared leadership to encourage social exchanges among team members to enhance TMX and work engagement.

Originality/value

The study extends the TMX research by investigating dispositions as antecedents and work engagement as a consequence at both individual and team levels. It also identifies the moderating role played by team-level shared leadership, which provides a strong situation supporting reciprocal interactions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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