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Article

Kihyun Lee and Yeon Joo Chae

The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on group performance has been considered ambiguous. The purpose of this paper is to resolve this ambiguity by…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on group performance has been considered ambiguous. The purpose of this paper is to resolve this ambiguity by theorizing and examining a curvilinear relationship between LMX differentiation and group performance, and the moderating effects of group diversity on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from 63 work groups (consisting of 322 members and 63 group leaders) selected from 27 technology service companies in South Korea. Group members rated their perceived LMX quality, while the human resource (HR) directors of each company assessed group performance.

Findings

The results showed that LMX differentiation had an inverted U-shaped relationship with group performance and that gender diversity and age diversity negatively moderated that relationship. However, the interaction between LMX differentiation and education-level diversity was not significant.

Originality/value

This study extends extant research by addressing the inconsistency among theoretical perspectives on the effects of LMX differentiation. This study transcends earlier research by considering the complex process of LMX differentiation, such as the curvilinear relationship between LMX differentiation and group performance, and the moderating effects of group diversity on that relationship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Ling Yuan, Shiying Xiao, Jian Li, Chen Chen and Lutao Ning

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation and team members’ job performance. The conceptual model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation and team members’ job performance. The conceptual model developed in this paper also investigates the moderating role of the perception of organisational politics (POP) in affecting the association between LMX differentiation and team members’ job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data using a survey from 32 Chinese firms. The questionnaire included scales measuring LMX, POP, job performance, and demographic variables. The final sample consisted of 122 teams with 561 employees. The hypothesised relationships among variables were assessed using hierarchical linear modelling.

Findings

The results show that the higher the LMX differentiation, the lower the level of team members’ contextual performance. The authors also found that POP has a significant effect in positively moderating the relationships between LMX differentiation and team members’ contextual and task performances.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual model developed and verified in this paper provides essential insights for the research on LMX and job performance. Future studies are suggested to collect cross-national data to examine the conclusions of this study.

Originality/value

The association between LMX differentiation and team members’ job performance is moderated by the degree of POP.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Mahn Hee Yoon and David J. Yoon

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer service behaviors and also the moderating roles of team-level differentiations in leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) in influencing these mediation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 467 customer-contact employees working in hotel restaurants. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, and moderated path was used to assess the moderated mediation.

Findings

Self-efficacy and team-commitment both mediated the relationship between RLMX and customer service behaviors. The differentiations in LMX and TMX significantly interacted with RLMX in predicting self-efficacy and team commitment and also moderated the indirect effects of RLMX on customer service behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to incorporate customers’ or immediate supervisors’ ratings of subordinates’ customer service behaviors and replicate the findings in different countries and work settings.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers should foster a work environment wherein they develop equal quality relationships with their subordinates in a workgroup and promote high-quality relationships among subordinates in the workgroup to improve subordinates’ self-efficacy, team commitment and, subsequently, their customer service behaviors.

Originality/value

This study incorporates both self-efficacy and team commitment as motivation-based and social exchange-based mediators, respectively, in predicting customer service behavior. It also extends the boundary condition for the mediations by considering the team-level differentiations in both vertical exchange (LMX) and horizontal exchange (TMX).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Herman H.M. Tse

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model that delineates the psychological process and boundary condition of how leader-member exchange (LMX

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model that delineates the psychological process and boundary condition of how leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation influences team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on theories of LMX and social information processing, it is argued that several important mechanisms underpin the relationship between LMX differentiation and team performance. The role of these variables in the relationship is discussed.

Findings

The team mechanisms such as affective climate and team-member exchange (TMX) serve as a boundary condition and psychological process to influence the LMX differentiation-team performance relationship. Their conceptual significance and how they affect the relationship are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study focusses on theorizing TMX and affective climate as key variables in the LMX differentiation-team performance relationship. Future research considers examining the relative importance of other variables such as team potency or team cohesion to advance the understanding of the precise mechanisms that explain the relationship.

Practical implications

The proposed model increases the understanding of the role of affective climate in the relationships between LMX differentiation, TMX and team performance. It helps minimize the negative effect of LMX differentiation, and may ultimately lead to better team performance.

Originality/value

Although the implication of LMX differentiation has been discussed extensively, the research has not yet led to a firm conclusion as to its relationship with team outcomes. This study is one of the first to theorize affective climate and TMX as an important psychological mechanism and boundary condition to simultaneously influence the LMX differentiation – team performance relationship.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Hongdan Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of relationship conflict in linking LMX differentiation with team creativity and the moderating role of team-member exchange (TMX) median in influencing the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the model with a time-lagged field survey data from 358 employees and 98 supervisors belonging to 98 teams in a large diversified company with more than 15,000 employees, based in Shanghai, Southeastern China. In the first stage (T1), employees assessed LMX, TMX, relationship conflict, and control variables. In the second stage (T2), the leaders were asked to report team creativity.

Findings

Results indicated that the relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity was mediated by relationship conflict. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that relationship conflict mediated the relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity for only those teams with low-TMX median.

Research limitations/implications

Testing the moderated mediation model helps to advance our theoretical understanding of the intervening processes that underlie the effect of LMX differentiation on team creativity. The findings may also help Chinese managers to inform the importance of helping subordinates better adapt to LMX differentiation, reducing relationship conflict, and constructing high-quality TMX relationships within groups, in order to promote team creativity.

Originality/value

This empirical study provides preliminary evidence of the mediating role of relationship conflict in the negative relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity. The moderated mediation model also extends the existing finding by showing that not only the quality of social exchange relationships with a supervisor (i.e. LMX) but also with team members (i.e. TMX), can moderate the impact of LMX differentiation on team outcomes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part

Herman H.M. Tse, Marie T. Dasborough and Neal M. Ashkanasy

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX). In particular, little is known of the effect of LMX differentiation (in-group versus out-group) as a process of social exchange that can, in turn, affect TMX quality. To explore this phenomenon, this chapter presents a multi-level model of TMX in organizations, which incorporates LMX differentiation, team identification, team member affect at the individual level, and fairness of LMX differentiation and affective climate at the group-level. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our model for theory, research, and practice.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

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Article

Chao Chen and Xinmei Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of team-member exchange (TMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of team-member exchange (TMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of team proactivity in linking TMX differentiation with team creativity and the moderating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) median in influencing the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

A time-lagged field survey data from 331 employees and 68 team leaders in more than ten high-technology firms from Northern China was used to test the model.

Findings

Results indicated that the negative relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity was mediated by team proactivity. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that team proactivity mediated the relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity for only those teams with a low-LMX median.

Originality/value

The empirical study provides preliminary evidence of the mediating role of team proactivity in the negative relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity. The moderated mediation model also extends the existing finding by showing that LMX quality can moderate the indirect impact of TMX differentiation on team creativity (via team proactivity).

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Mingjian Zhou and Shuisheng Shi

The purpose of this paper is to extend our understanding of the role of leaders in team relationship conflict. Leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend our understanding of the role of leaders in team relationship conflict. Leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation was hypothesized to be positively related to team relationship conflict. Additionally, ethical leadership was hypothesized to moderate relations between LMX differentiation and team relationship conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were examined in a sample of 79 working teams. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing measures of LMX, team relationship conflict and ethical leadership.

Findings

Hypotheses were supported by the data. LMX differentiation was positively related to team relationship conflict, and ethical leadership weakened the relationship between LMX differentiation and team relationship conflict.

Originality/value

This is the first theoretical analysis and empirical study of relationships between LMX differentiation and team relationship conflict. Theoretically, by using LMX theory to account for team-level outcomes, this study extended power of LMX theory. Practically, these results suggest that leaders may be responsible for team relationship conflict.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article

Gregory A. Aarons, Kate L. Conover, Mark G. Ehrhart, Elisa M. Torres and Kendal Reeder

Clinician turnover in mental health settings impacts service quality, including availability and delivery of evidence-based practices. Leadership is associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

Clinician turnover in mental health settings impacts service quality, including availability and delivery of evidence-based practices. Leadership is associated with organizational climate, team functioning and clinician turnover intentions (TI). This study examines leader–member exchange (LMX), reflecting the relationship between a supervisor and each supervisee, using mean team LMX, dispersion of individual clinician ratings compared to team members (i.e. relative LMX) and team level variability (i.e. LMX differentiation), in relation to organizational climate and clinician TI.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 363 clinicians, nested in children's mental health agency workgroups, providing county-contracted outpatient services to youth and families. A moderated mediation path analysis examined cross-level associations of leader–member exchange with organizational climate and turnover intentions.

Findings

Lower relative LMX and greater LMX differentiation were associated with higher clinician TI. Higher team-level demoralizing climate also predicted higher TI. These findings indicate that poorer LMX and more variability in LMX at the team level are related to clinician TI.

Originality/value

This study describes both team- and clinician-level factors on clinician TI. Few studies have examined LMX in mental health, and fewer still have examined relative LMX and LMX differentiation associations with organizational climate and TI. These findings highlight the importance of leader–follower relationships and organizational climate and their associations with clinician TIs. Mental health service systems and organizations can address these issues through fostering more positive supervisor–supervisee relationships.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article

Hoirul Hafiidz Bin Maksom and Richard Winter

The purpose of this paper is to identify demographic variables that may impact the quality of leader‐member exchange (LMX) relationships within a military platoon.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify demographic variables that may impact the quality of leader‐member exchange (LMX) relationships within a military platoon.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 109 non‐commissioned officers (NCOs) and 421 recruits from 27 platoons in the Singapore Armed Forces independently assessed the quality of their relationship with their platoon commander using the LMX7 survey instrument.

Findings

Bivariate analyses indicated rank and type of service differentiated the quality of LMX between leaders (platoon commanders) and followers (NCOs, recruits).

Research limitations/implications

The paper considers LMX only from the perspective of followers and does not take into account the broader context of the military platoon.

Practical implications

The performance of the entire platoon may be more effective when platoon commanders operate at a distance, respect rank and formal authority relationships, and build closer personal relationships with NCOs than with recruits.

Originality/value

There have been no studies examining the demographic basis for LMX differentiation in an Asian military organization. This paper fills the gap.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

1 – 10 of 337