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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2018

Alison M. Konrad

The purpose of this paper is to document the racist undertones of Donald Trump’s Presidential campaign rhetoric and draw implications regarding its impact on equality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the racist undertones of Donald Trump’s Presidential campaign rhetoric and draw implications regarding its impact on equality, diversity, and inclusion. Most contemporary individuals reject explicitly racist beliefs and strive to present themselves as having egalitarian attitudes toward other races and ethnicities. However, commonly held implicit biases toward historically marginalized racioethnic groups drive negative effect that is often unconscious and unacknowledged. Inconsistency between the conscious and unconscious aspects of contemporary racism generates a population of individuals who are uncomfortable with their attitudes, creating an opening for politicians willing to leverage racist rhetoric and gain support by resolving this inconsistency.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies social psychological theory and research to address the questions of what attracts otherwise non-racist individuals to racist-tinged rhetoric. The paper also provides theory-based interventions for reducing the attractiveness and impact of racist political campaigns.

Findings

Supporters of racist politicians resolve the conflict between their negative feelings toward racioethnic minorities and their espoused anti-racist views by distancing themselves from racist rhetorical content in three ways: by denying that racist statements or actions occurred, denying that the statements or actions are racist, and/or by denying responsibility for racism and its effects. These techniques provide supporters with validation from an authority that they can express their negative affect toward out-groups and still consider themselves to be good people and not racists.

Practical implications

Distancing from racism has allowed contemporary American extremists to reframe themselves as victims of closed-minded progressives seeking to elevate undeserving and/or dangerous out-groups at the in-group’s expense. Effective anti-racism techniques are needed to counter implicit biases in order to limit the attractiveness of extremist views. Implicit biases can be effectively reduced through training in counter-stereotypic imaging, stereotype replacement, and structured inter-group interaction. Effectively countering denial of the facts involves affirming the audience’s belief system while building skepticism toward the sources of misinformation.

Social implications

While countering racist politicians requires commitment, these efforts are essential for protecting the identity of the USA as a society striving toward equality, diversity, and inclusion.

Originality/value

By articulating the social psychological principles underpinning racist-tinged populist rhetoric, this paper explains the attractiveness of racist statements by politicians, which tends to be under-estimated.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Samshul-Amry Abdul-Latif and Asmat-Nizam Abdul-Talib

Consumer racism describes the act of purchase discrimination based on ethnic and/or cultural differences. As the original consumer racism scale was developed based on a…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer racism describes the act of purchase discrimination based on ethnic and/or cultural differences. As the original consumer racism scale was developed based on a western context and environment, most of its items may be unsuitable for use in certain non-western countries. The purpose of this paper is to modify the existing consumer racism scale to include the elements of inter-ethnic relationships, historical occurrences and political situations, which are crucial in shaping and influencing racism in a multi-religion and multi-racial context.

Design/methodology/approach

After generating new items and retaining or removing others for a modified consumer racism scale, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is performed based on 145 respondents followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on 176 respondents. The modified scale, including two other related constructs (consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity), is then tested through structural equation modeling (SEM) using WarpPLS 5.0 and data from 495 respondents.

Findings

EFA and CFA results suggest that the modified eight-item consumer racism scale is applicable in a multi-ethnic scenario. However, SEM findings contradict previous studies; thus, discussion of the possible effects of consumer racism is based on two different approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could be expanded into other ethnic groups and countries, and/or to different products, categories and brands.

Originality/value

The main contributions of this study are the validation of the modified measurement scale and demonstration of its applicability in a multi-ethnic scenario. The study is based on data from a multi-ethnic, multi-religion and multi-cultural country: Malaysia.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Lilcelia A. Williams

Intersectionality theory is a social justice theory customarily employed to address inequities which arise in the academic or legal arenas as it relates to race and…

Abstract

Purpose

Intersectionality theory is a social justice theory customarily employed to address inequities which arise in the academic or legal arenas as it relates to race and gender. The application of intersectionality theory extends beyond the convergence of multiple social identities. It provides an invaluable framework to examine the convergence of social identities, the social determinants of health and a global pandemic in communities of historically marginalized and underrepresented persons. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated the disparities experienced by African American and Latinx persons using the principles of intersectionality theory as the schema.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was performed on the scholarly articles examining the disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of African Americans and Latinx persons in America.

Findings

The current literature confirms that the disparities which existed prior to the onset of the coronavirus pandemic have been magnified by systemic oppression and racism of historically marginalized and underrepresented persons in America. The coronavirus pandemic has spotlighted the disparities in sustainable employment and access to health care for African American and Latinx persons.

Originality/value

Employing a social justice theoretical framework of intersectionality provides an opportunity to examine the lived experiences of African American and Latinx persons without race/ethnicity being the primary focal point. Future research will illustrate the urgent need for public health policy reform to eradicate the disparities experienced by African American and Latinx populations.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Adam Murphree and Deirdre A. Royster

This chapter uses critical race theories to interpret Obama-related content and changing discourse patterns on discussion boards maintained by a pro-gun, overwhelmingly…

Abstract

This chapter uses critical race theories to interpret Obama-related content and changing discourse patterns on discussion boards maintained by a pro-gun, overwhelmingly white, male, and conservative virtual community. Beginning during the 2008 presidential primary season and continuing through Barack Obama's election as president, our analysis focused on the proliferation of negative “nicknames” (“Obamathets”) that were posted in race-oriented discussion threads over 16 months. We identified three types of frequently voiced Obamathets: those indicating general dislike, political disdain, or racial derision, and we analyzed usage patterns – which types of Obamathets appeared and at which times. Our results revealed a changing state of mind – annoyance to extreme anger – among posters whose sense of racial threat seemed increasingly palpable as Obama approached, and eventually won, the presidency. Over time, posts increasingly included racially derisive terms whose incidence intensified after the election and remained high; racially derisive terms overtook terms of general dislike (that had been more popular) as well as terms of political disdain several months into our analysis. Because posters tended to be more openly libertarian in orientation, we doubt our findings would generalize to the majority of conservative whites; however, our findings probably shed considerable light on activist elements among conservatives, including the “Tea Party” movement. Moreover, capturing sentiments expressed in a semiprivate venue – virtual community discussion boards – probably allowed us to uncover less censored racial sentiment (or racetalk) than is typical when social scientists solicit racial opinions from whites in face-to-face interviews, when many may omit racially hostile thoughts to appear more racially sensitive to researchers.

Details

Race in the Age of Obama
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-167-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Johnny Kwok Wai Wong and Autumn H.Q. Lin

The construction industry has been criticized for cultural intolerance and its poor industrial image. The ethnically diverse construction workplace in Hong Kong (HK) is…

Abstract

Purpose

The construction industry has been criticized for cultural intolerance and its poor industrial image. The ethnically diverse construction workplace in Hong Kong (HK) is frequently noted as a place in which racial harassment and discrimination occurs. The purpose of this paper is to explore the discriminatory experiences and working conditions experienced by ethnic minority (EM) construction operatives in HK.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method approach was adopted, including a questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. The survey identified the thoughts of EM construction workers about racial discrimination and harassment in the workplace. The focus group discussions were aimed at further exploring the discriminatory practices on HK construction sites and possible discrimination-coping strategies.

Findings

Questionnaire data from 100 EM site operatives and labourers mainly from Nepal and Pakistan, but some few from other Asian countries as well as, plus two focus group discussions suggested that indirect and subtle forms of racial harassment do exist on HK construction sites. The operatives sampled reported the existence of inequality of treatment in their working life. Communication difficulties caused by language barriers affect work relationships between different cultural groups on construction sites. EM site operatives tend to interact with workers of similar cultural and ethnic groups. On the corporate/company level, language support and translations of safety procedures notices and policies, should be established to bring staff together and promote a more inclusive and harmonious workplace.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into the racial discrimination problems in the construction sector in an Asian context, which has been less explored. It aims to provide insight into the EM construction worker's situation in HK as well as the need for developing workplace-specific policies that protect against discrimination and protect the rights of EM workers.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with…

Abstract

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with individualist cultures (Westerners) leads to interpersonal prejudices, whereas the intergroup perspective associated with collectivist cultures (Easterners) leads to intergroup prejudices. These prejudices, in turn, are argued to impact on the outcomes of individuals working in intercultural teams. An organisational diversity climate of openness fostered by diversity oriented HRM and the combined use of individualist and collectivist HRM policies and practices is proposed to minimize the negative effects of such prejudices can be minimized.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2002

John W. Murphy and Luigi Esposito

In this article, we develop an understanding of racism based on a style of social control that recent writers have referred to as “symbolic violence”. Symbolic violence is…

Abstract

In this article, we develop an understanding of racism based on a style of social control that recent writers have referred to as “symbolic violence”. Symbolic violence is novel in that agents are oppressed through their own complicity as they accept and reproduce a “reality” that is made to appear unavoidable and even beneficial. Although many sociological discussions of racism have contributed to the sort of reification that leads to symbolic violence by understanding racial identities as essential, cultural ideals as ahistorical, and market dynamics as autonomous, we make the point that symbolic violence survives even as oppressed members are understood as active agents. We discuss how symbolic violence differs from other variants of racism and address the sort of theoretical maneuver that needs to be made if a more equitable order is to be fostered. Specifically, only by restoring the praxiology of language can race cease from being an immutable social fact that normalizes racial inequalities.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-851-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Sally Rao Hill and Katherine Paphitis

Consumer racism (CR) is a highly relevant issue to societies such as Australia and one which has, up until now, been somewhat neglected by marketers. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer racism (CR) is a highly relevant issue to societies such as Australia and one which has, up until now, been somewhat neglected by marketers. This paper aims to investigate this relatively “new” construct and its impact on product evaluation and subsequent willingness to buy cross‐ethnic products amongst Australian consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a quasi‐experiment method. Data were collected from an intercept sample of 212 Australian consumers via personal interviews. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, and hypotheses were tested using regression analysis and two‐way between groups ANOVA.

Findings

The results provide evidence that higher levels of CR translate into more negative evaluations of product quality which, in turn, decrease willingness to buy products perceived as originating from the ethnic minority. Further, regardless of the importance of product outcome, CR has a consistent negative effect on product evaluation and willingness to buy amongst Australian consumers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could be expanded into other ethnic groups and other countries, and could include other moderators such as level of interaction. CR construct can also be examined in service contexts.

Originality/value

The major contributions of the study are the validation of the CR construct and the findings about the impact of it on consumers' willingness to buy cross‐ethnic products via product evaluations in the Australian context.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Alison Baker

Racialised misrepresentation circulated en masse can be understood as a form of symbolic and cultural violence. Such misrepresentations create a dominant cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

Racialised misrepresentation circulated en masse can be understood as a form of symbolic and cultural violence. Such misrepresentations create a dominant cultural narrative that positions people of African background as violent and troubled and therefore incompatible with Australian society. Young people from various groups have been using arts-for-social-change to challenge and dismantle these imposed misrepresentation and reconstruct narratives that reflect their lived experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore sound portraits, both the process and product, by tracing the journey of New Change, arts collective comprised of young women of African heritage, who have been pushing for social change.

Design/methodology/approach

This collaborative research mobilises arts methodologies, bringing together sound arts, audio documentary and narrative research methods. Data gathering included arts artefacts and interviews with the young women and sound recordings from news media to craft a sound portrait entitled “Battle for truth”.

Findings

Battle for Truth is a sound portrait that serve as the findings for this paper. Sound portraits privilege participants’ voices and convey the complexity of their stories through the layering of voices and other soundscapes. This sound portrait also includes a media montage of racialised misrepresentation.

Social implications

Through their restorying, sound portraits are a way to counter passive and active forgetting and wilful mishearing, creating a space in the public memory for polyphonic voices and stories that have been shutout. Sound portraits necessitate reflexivity and dialogue through deep listening, becoming important sites for reimagining possibilities for social change and developing new activist avenues.

Originality/value

This paper brings together sonic methods, liberation arts and social justice perspectives to attend to power, race, gender and voice.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2011

Angelique M. Davis and Rose Ernst

Direct democracy by citizen initiatives is often heralded as the avenue for the true will of the people to be heard. While scholars have debated whether this leads to a…

Abstract

Direct democracy by citizen initiatives is often heralded as the avenue for the true will of the people to be heard. While scholars have debated whether this leads to a form of Madison's “tyranny of the majority,” the debate over the concrete impact of such initiatives on racially marginalized groups remains unsettled. We examine a different question about racially marginalized groups' interests in this process: the symbolic assertion of white supremacy expressed through this mechanism of majority will. We develop the concept of “racial spectacles” to describe the narrative vehicles that serve to symbolically reassert and reinforce real existing racial hierarchies and inequalities. We explore the creation of these spectacles through the initiative process because it is a state-sanctioned vehicle that enables white dominance. Paradoxically, these campaigns that purport to be colorblind depend on the enactment of these racial spectacles. Through an analysis of five statewide anti-affirmative action initiative campaigns from 1996 to 2008, we explore both macro and micro political dynamics: public displays of these campaigns as well as individual, private agency expressed in the public and private act of voting; court decisions in initiative litigation as well as individual and interest group participation in these cases. Ultimately, we argue that this form of racial spectacle further inculcates the public in the postracial ideology of colorblindness.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-080-3

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