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Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Dean Karalekas

The China threat is the first and most obvious answer when it comes to the question of threat perception in Taiwan, but the issue encompasses much more. The ruling elite…

Abstract

The China threat is the first and most obvious answer when it comes to the question of threat perception in Taiwan, but the issue encompasses much more. The ruling elite for years considered the subject population a threat, for example, and even the nature and severity of the China threat varies greatly depending on an individual’s identification. How do those who identify as Taiwanese see the consequences of an attack from China? There is a very different threat perception among the Taiwanese population, who view annexation by China in much the same way as their Mainlander counterparts would see annexation by Japan, for example. Persons self-identifying as Taiwanese do not view themselves as being culturally the same as the people across the Taiwan Strait, having grown apart from them (in a cultural sense) over the past 120 years that they have been separated. Moreover, after Taiwan’s long history of being colonized by one alien power after another – from the Dutch and Spanish, to Koxinga, and then the Manchu dynasty; by the Japanese; and finally by the KMT (for being colonized is how many Taiwanese perceive the ROC period) – finally the inhabitants of the island have the opportunity to chart their own future, and enjoy a newfound sovereignty and identity separate from that of any colonizing power: thus the prospect of being colonized by China is anathema, and therefore a much greater existential threat for them than for Mainlanders.

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Civil-Military Relations in Taiwan
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-482-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Regina Kim, Jimena Y. Ramirez-Marin and Kevin Tasa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of nonnative speakers in conflictual situations with native speakers in the workplace. In three studies, the authors examine whether nonnative speakers experience stereotype threat in workplace conflict situations with native speakers, whether stereotype threat is associated with certain conflict managing behaviors (e.g. yielding and avoiding) and the relationship between stereotype threat, satisfaction with conflict outcomes and processes, and objective conflict outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies 1 and 2 use critical incident recall methodology to examine nonnative speakers’ conflict behaviors and satisfaction with conflict outcomes. In Study 3, data were collected from a face-to-face simulation with a random-assignment design.

Findings

Findings suggest that nonnative speakers indeed experience heightened stereotype threat when interacting with native speakers in conflict situations and the experience of stereotype threat leads to less satisfaction with conflict outcomes, perceptions of goal attainment, as well as worse objective conflict outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the first studies to document the effects of accent stereotype threat on conflict behaviors and outcomes. More broadly, it contributes to the conflict studies literature by offering new insight into the effects and implications of stereotype threat on workplace conflict behaviors and outcomes.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Oleksandr D. Dovhan, Oleksandr M. Yurchenko, Juliana O. Naidon, Oleg S. Peliukh, Nataliia I. Tkachuk and Kamal Gulati

The purpose of this study is to develop the Counterintelligence Strategy as a conceptual document in the field of state security of Ukraine, identifying current security…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop the Counterintelligence Strategy as a conceptual document in the field of state security of Ukraine, identifying current security threats to Ukraine, which global landscape has been significantly transformed since the adoption of the Law of Ukraine “On Counterintelligence”, is substantiated. It is proved that the provisions of such Strategy should determine the current and projected counterintelligence environment via a set of the following elements. The nature of real and potential threats in the process of implementing state foreign and domestic policy course determined by Ukraine. Sources of such threats (individual states and their intelligence agencies, terrorist organizations, transnational organized crime, etc.). Features of the identified encroachment objects of foreign intelligence agencies, terrorist and other criminal organizations, including transnational ones. Long time strategy treats like COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

During the past decades of the XXI century, intelligence has become a crucial tool in the system of determining and implementing the foreign policy in international relations. Modern realities confirm that this political and legal phenomenon directly affects the formation of the foreign policy course of any state, the development of its geopolitical strategy and defense doctrine. Possessing a powerful apparatus for obtaining primary information, fulfillment of government orders for monitoring, evaluation, analysis, forecasting and modeling of possible scenarios of global- or regional-scale events and processes, special services take an active part in perspective and current foreign and domestic policy implementation.

Findings

Thus, based on the state security paradigm, which cannot be defined in the absence of threats and ensured by their complete elimination, since negative factors for state security objects will always exist, the ensuring of its development requires first of all creation of the conditions under which threats will not be able to limit its development. That is why it is necessary not only to minimize the impact of such factors on vulnerable objects, but also to create a certain “immunity” to their impact, i.e. the ability of the state security system to function effectively in spite of the negative impact. Thus, maintaining the ability to function in terms of the existing threats is the most important area of practical activity for the state security protection, as well as ensuring the legitimate interests of the state.

Originality/value

During the paper decades of the XXI century, intelligence has become a crucial tool in the system of determining and implementing the foreign policy in international relations. Modern realities confirm that this political and legal phenomenon directly affects the formation of the foreign policy course of any state, the development of its geopolitical strategy and defense doctrine. Possessing a powerful apparatus for obtaining primary information, fulfillment of government orders for monitoring, evaluation, analysis, forecasting and modeling of possible scenarios of global- or regional-scale events and processes, special services take an active part in perspective and current foreign and domestic policy implementation.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Piers Bayl-Smith, Ronnie Taib, Kun Yu and Mark Wiggins

This study aims to examine the effect of cybersecurity threat and efficacy upon click-through, response to a phishing attack: persuasion and protection motivation in an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of cybersecurity threat and efficacy upon click-through, response to a phishing attack: persuasion and protection motivation in an organizational context.

Design/methodology/approach

In a simulated field trial conducted in a financial institute, via PhishMe, employees were randomly sent one of five possible emails using a set persuasion strategy. Participants were then invited to complete an online survey to identify possible protective factors associated with clicking and reporting behavior (N = 2,918). The items of interest included perceived threat severity, threat susceptibility, response efficacy and personal efficacy.

Findings

The results indicate that response behaviors vary significantly across different persuasion strategies. Perceptions of threat susceptibility increased the likelihood of reporting behavior beyond clicking behavior. Threat susceptibility and organizational response efficacy were also associated with increased odds of not responding to the simulated phishing email attack.

Practical implications

This study again highlights human susceptibility to phishing attacks in the presence of social engineering strategies. The results suggest heightened awareness of phishing threats and responsibility to personal cybersecurity are key to ensuring secure business environments.

Originality/value

The authors extend existing phishing literature by investigating not only click-through behavior, but also no-response and reporting behaviors. Furthermore, the authors observed the relative effectiveness of persuasion strategies used in phishing emails as they compete to manipulate unsafe email behavior.

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Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Mazen El-Masri and Eiman Mutwali Abdelmageed Hussain

Blockchain is evolving to become a platform for securing Internet of things (IoT) ecosystems. Still, challenges remain. The purpose of this literature review is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Blockchain is evolving to become a platform for securing Internet of things (IoT) ecosystems. Still, challenges remain. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight the applicability of blockchain as a medium to secure IoT ecosystems. A two-dimensional framework anchored on (1) IoT layers and (2) security goals is used to organize the existent IoT security threats and their corresponding countermeasures identified in the reviewed literature. The framework helped in mapping the IoT security threats with the inherent features of blockchain and accentuate their prominence to IoT security.

Design/methodology/approach

An approach integrating computerized natural language processing (NLP) with a systematic literature review methodology was adopted. A large corpus of 2,303 titles and abstracts of blockchain articles was programmatically analyzed in order to identify the relevant literature. The identified literature was subjected to a systematic review guided by a well-established method in IS research.

Findings

The literature evidently highlights the prominence of blockchain as a mean to IoT security due to the distinctive features it encompasses. The authors’ investigation revealed that numerous existent threats are better addressed with blockchain than conventional mechanisms. Nevertheless, blockchain consumes resources such as electricity, time, bandwidth and disk space at a rate that is not yet easily accessible to common IoT ecosystems.

Research limitations/implications

Results suggest that a configurational approach that aligns IoT security requirements with the resource requirements of different blockchain features is necessary in order to realize the proper balance between security, efficiency and feasibility.

Practical implications

Practitioners can make use of the classified lists of convention security mechanisms and the IoT threats they address. The framework can help underline the countermeasures that best achieve their security goals. Practitioners can also use the framework to identify the most important features to seek for in a blockchain technology that can help them achieve their security goals.

Originality/value

This study proposes a novel framework that can help classify IoT threats based on the IoT layer impacted and the security goal at risk. Moreover, it applies a combined man-machine approach to systematically analyze the literature.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Cong Liu, Xiaoqian Gao, Zhihua Liu and Jiahui Gao

This study aims to examine whether consumers’ lay theories of emotion play a moderating role between self-threat and their choice of threat-coping strategies (direct…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether consumers’ lay theories of emotion play a moderating role between self-threat and their choice of threat-coping strategies (direct resolution and escapism) and product preference.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research uses the methods of experimental design and surveys to collect data and verify the hypotheses we assumed.

Findings

Study 1 indicates that in self-threatening situations, people who perceive emotions as fleeting (lasting) are more likely to use a threat-coping strategy of direct resolution (escapism). Study 2 demonstrates that people who believe emotions are fleeting are more likely to choose problem-solving products; people who believe emotions are lasting are more likely to choose emotion-enhancing products. Study 3 further demonstrates that the direct resolution (escapism) strategy plays a mediating role between the interaction effect and consumer preference for problem-solving products (emotion-enhancing products). Study 4 replicates the results of Study 2 by incorporating the manipulation of lay theories of emotion transience in a product evaluation context.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the present research is that this paper puts focus on exploring the effects of self-view threat (e.g. intelligence and competence) on consumer product preferences. Another issue for future research is the extent to which emotion-transience theories hold for specific emotions. Given that distinct emotions of the same valence differ in their antecedent appraisals and that specific emotion could lead to different subsequent behaviors (Lerner and Keltner, 2000), future research may need to explore the roles of specific negative emotions triggered by self-threat in consumers’ product choosing behaviors. One potential direction for future research is to examine whether the perceived locus of control affects consumers’ choice of threat-coping strategies and product preferences.

Practical implications

Marketers could use product tactics for motivating consumers to restore their self-perceptions on the threatened attributes and address the self-threat, such as product attributes, advertising copy or promotional appeals that insert people who are more motivated to directly resolve the threat. Marketers can nudge consumers toward a direct resolution strategy by posting prompts such as, “I can do it!” For example, the slogan of Nike – “Just do it” and the 2012 award-winning campaign by Nike Spain have told consumers: “If something is burning you up, burn it up by running” (Allard and White, 2015), which suggests that consumers experiencing self-threat may resolve the negative self-discrepancy through the acquisition of the products in the advertisement. Another important implication suggested by the findings is that product consumption can be a way of helping consumers escape from self-threats. For example, the slogan of Coca-Cola – “Taste the feeling” resonates with consumers and stimulates their basic hedonic needs.

Originality/value

First, this research extends previous research by demonstrating that lay theories of emotion serve as a motivator of the selection of threat-coping strategies. Second, this research is conducive for literature to examine how differences in lay theories of emotion affect consumers’ product-choosing behaviors to cope with self-discrepancies. Third, the present research extends the broad marketing literature by differentiating problem-solving products from emotion-enhancing products.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Rita Dalton and Helen Eracleous

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. It is in two…

Abstract

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. It is in two parts. The first part considers the definitions and classification of threats, the prevalence of threat‐making and suggestions for assessment and management. The second part concerns the characteristics of those who threaten and the impact of the threats on the victims, and considers threats as predictors of, and part of, the escalating process which leads to further violence.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Rita Dalton and Helen Eracleous

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. This is the second…

Abstract

This article considers the literature on threats made by individuals, with particular reference to threats made by patients against health care workers. This is the second of two parts, and concerns the characteristics of those who threaten and the impact of the threats on the victims. It considers threats as predictors of, and part of, the escalating process which leads to further violence.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Dongjae (Jay) Lim, Jhih-Syuan Lin, Un Chae Chung and Youngjee Ko

This paper aims to investigate the effect of matching social distance and the concrete/abstract visual presentation of the threats of distracted driving in campaign design.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of matching social distance and the concrete/abstract visual presentation of the threats of distracted driving in campaign design.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducts a series of 2 (social distance frame: close vs distant) × 2 (visual rhetoric style: literal vs metaphorical) online experiments on the perspective of the construal level theory.

Findings

This study identified that a fit between social distance and visual rhetoric style of the threat enhances the effect of a social marketing campaign targeting young adults. A message framed in terms of socially proximal entities shows a favorable impact on young drivers’ threat perception and behavioral intention when the visual rhetoric depicts the threats of texting while driving more concrete. On the other hand, more distant social entities in the message show a better impact when the threats are visualized in metaphor.

Originality/value

This paper enhances the understanding of a threat appeal message design by adding empirical evidence of matching visual rhetoric style and social distance. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications for social marketing campaigns, regarding the strategic tailoring of messages, particularly in public service announcements that discourage texting while driving on young adults.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Kawther Methlouthi and Ayoub Nefzi

This paper aims to investigate the ability of threatening communication to favorably modify children’s preventive behavior (8–12 years old) in the context of dental…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the ability of threatening communication to favorably modify children’s preventive behavior (8–12 years old) in the context of dental hygiene. It also seeks to identify the type of threat that promotes the most children's persuasion (physical/social threat). Multi-method qualitative study was conducted followed by an experimental study to test the influence of threatening communication (social or physical) on children's emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, multi-method qualitative study was used to explore the experience of children's exposure to threatening dental hygiene communications (focus groups, projective technique, individual interviews with dentists, etc.). Then, an experimental study based on a survey data collection to 1496 schoolchildren was conducted to test the influence of threatening communications (social or physical) on children's emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses. Indeed, different experimental situations were created by varying at each time the type of ads to which children were exposed.

Findings

Results indicate that using threat communications can be a powerful way to convince children to adopt healthy dental hygiene behaviour, and that physical threats are more effective than social threats.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is to focus on children’s’ affective and cognitive reactions to threatening dental health communication. This by emphasizing the nature of the threat used in communication (physical or social threat).

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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