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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Ili‐Salsabila Abd‐Razak and Asmat‐Nizam Abdul‐Talib

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the globality and intentionality aspects of consumer boycotts among the Muslim dominant markets around the world through the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the globality and intentionality aspects of consumer boycotts among the Muslim dominant markets around the world through the consumer animosity perspective, to provide better understanding of the issues. Some applied and potential solutions for marketers and policy makers in dealing with the issues are also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical definition of consumer boycotts through the consumer animosity perspective is proposed and the relevance of the discussion is considered. The relationships between the globality and intentionality attributions with animosity and consumer boycotts are assessed before strategies to deal with the issues are diagnosed. Seminal works of classic and current consumer boycotts and animosity literature are reviewed in developing the conceptual background of the paper. Further conceptual reflections are stated based on the depicted current events in the market around the world.

Findings

The conceptual discussion revealed that consumer boycotts in the Muslim dominant market and animosity are two related issues worthy being explored. The issues are of the global concern and occurred unintentionally, therefore they could stimulate unexpected outcomes for the marketers and policy makers alike. Nonetheless, several strategies in dealing with the issues are found to be effective in preventing the issues from getting worse. However, the strategies would not work for all entities in all situations. Understanding the root of the issues would be the best solution.

Research limitations/implications

The discussion is limited to conceptual background of the aspects discussed. Further empirical studies would enhance the applicability of the discussions presented.

Practical implications

In order to find strategies to deal with consumer boycotts in the Muslim dominant markets, marketers need to understand the real reason for the events to occur and demonstrate sincere understanding towards the issues. By doing so, consumer boycotts would not obstruct the progress and growth of the international business in general. Looking at the issues from the animosity perspective is a prolific attempt to understand the events.

Originality/value

The paper reveals the relationship between consumer boycotts and animosity in the Muslim dominant markets and offers understanding of the specific events occurrence. The discussion is extended to describe the events' globality and intentionality attribution assessment.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Aybegüm Güngördü Belbağ

The current study builds on social identity theory and realistic conflict theory aims to identify the relationships amongst consumers' ethnocentrism, animosity, discomfort…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study builds on social identity theory and realistic conflict theory aims to identify the relationships amongst consumers' ethnocentrism, animosity, discomfort with differences – a factor of universal-diverse orientation (UDO) – and reluctance to purchase German (RELG) and French automobiles (RELF) in the Turkish automobile market which is dominated by foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected via face-to-face surveys from 400 respondents in the emerging market Turkey. Structural equation modelling was employed to examine the direct and indirect effects between the variables.

Findings

The main predictors of the RELG are consumer ethnocentrism, discomfort with differences and economic animosity towards Germany, respectively. Furthermore, RELF in the Turkish market is positively affected by consumer ethnocentrism, war animosity towards France and discomfort with differences, respectively. Discomfort with differences mediates the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and RELG and RELF.

Practical implications

International collaborations with local manufacturers have huge strategic impacts when establishing reliable relationships with Turkish consumers. Foreign companies can initiate socially responsible projects that will relay the message of similarities between cultures to decrease perceived cultural differences. Highlighting the similarities of Turkish consumers with a foreign company in promotional campaigns will be much beneficial.

Originality/value

Despite there are many studies regarding antecedents and consequences of consumer ethnocentrism, extant research overlooks the effect of animosity on this concept. Additionally, studies examining UDO in the marketing literature are scarce. This paper integrates UDO, consumer ethnocentrism, animosity and reluctance to purchase foreign products in one study.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Jeoung Yul Lee, Joong In Kim, Alfredo Jiménez and Alessandro Biraglia

This study examines the impact of situational and stable animosities on quality evaluation and purchase intention while also testing the moderating effects of within- and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of situational and stable animosities on quality evaluation and purchase intention while also testing the moderating effects of within- and cross-country cultural distance. It focuses on the case of the US THAAD missile defense system deployment in South Korea (hereafter, Korea) and investigates how the resulting Chinese consumers' animosity affects their quality evaluation of, and purchase intention toward, Korean cosmetics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes a quantitative approach based on a survey and structural equation modeling. The sample comprises 376 Chinese consumers from 19 Chinese regions.

Findings

The results indicate that both stable and situational animosities are negatively associated with purchase intention toward Korean cosmetics. However, their effects on quality evaluation are different. While stable animosity is negatively related to product quality evaluation, situational animosity has no such negative association. Finally, the cultural distance between Chinese regions and Korea strengthens the negative relationship between stable and situational animosities and purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes by better unraveling the effects of stable and situational animosities on perceived product quality. The empirical context is unique because it allows the authors to investigate the relationship between Chinese antagonism toward the THAAD deployment in Korea and Chinese consumers' stable and situational animosities in terms of their quality evaluation of, and purchase intention toward, imported Korean cosmetics. Hence, this study contributes to the literature on consumer animosity by empirically testing the moderating effect of within- and cross-country cultural distance on the relationship between stable and situational animosities and purchase intention.

Practical implications

The study has relevant practical implications, notably for Korean exporters' marketing management and within- and cross-cultural management. The results suggest that countermeasures are needed because Chinese consumers' stable and situational animosities are negatively related to their purchase intention toward Korean cosmetics. Moreover, the findings provide the insight that when foreign firms export culture-sensitive products to a large, multicultural country, their managers should pay attention to within- and cross-cultural differences simultaneously.

Originality/value

Previous studies have shown that the effects of animosity on product evaluation and purchase intention differ depending on the animosity dimension, product type, country and the situation causing animosity, among others. However, the existing literature on animosity has neglected the reality that within-cultural differences in a single large emerging market are relevant to explaining the concept of animosity and its effect on the purchase intention toward culture-sensitive products. Furthermore, none of the animosity studies have touched on the important moderating role of within- and cross-cultural differences between a large and multicultural importing country and a brand's home country in this manner. Therefore, the study fills this gap by empirically examining whether different moderating effects of stable and situational animosities exist for a specific conflict situation caused by a military issue and investigates the causes of these different effects.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Cher-Min Fong, Hsing-Hua Stella Chang, Pei-Chun Hsieh and Hui-Wen Wang

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing strategies that may mitigate such negative impacts on marketers’ product and/or brand performance, with a special focus on the soft service sector. This paper aims to address the unique characteristics of service internationalization, i.e. cultural embeddedness, hybridized country origins and high consumption visibility, by proposing a social identity signaling model to explain consumer animosity effects in the soft service sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Two surveys (Pretest with 240 participants and Study 1 with 351 participants) and one experiment (Study 2 with 731 participants) were conducted to empirically test our hypotheses in the Japanese-Chinese relationship context.

Findings

The stronger the national/cultural symbolism and social expressiveness, the stronger the consumer avoidance for the service category. Then the consumer culture positioning strategy that can mitigate an offending country’s cultural symbolism can reduce consumer avoidance.

Originality/value

This research introduces two factors that could affect the negative social identity signaling capacity of service categories in the animosity context: the national/cultural symbolism reflecting an offending country and the social expressiveness communicating social identity. In line with the social identity signaling perspective, the present research specifically uses consumer avoidance as the dependent variable to capture the notion that consumers avoid consuming services because they wish to avoid being associated with an offending country that may threaten their in-group social identities.

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Hsiang-Ming Lee, Tsai Chen, Yu-Shan Chen, Wei-Yuan Lo and Ya-Hui Hsu

The purpose of this research is to survey whether consumer ethnocentrism and animosity will affect consumers' perceived betrayal and cause negative word-of-mouth (NWOM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to survey whether consumer ethnocentrism and animosity will affect consumers' perceived betrayal and cause negative word-of-mouth (NWOM).

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a 2 (consumer ethnocentrism) × 3 (consumer animosity) between-subject experiment design to test the hypotheses. Comprised of 380 respondents, this study used ANOVA to examine the data.

Findings

The results showed that if a brand violates the perception of fairness, ethnocentrism and animosity will have a positive effect on perceived betrayal. In addition, low consumer animosity revealed a significant consumer ethnocentrism effect and low ethnocentrism revealed a significant animosity effect, while the relationship between perceived betrayal and word of mouth is negative.

Originality/value

The current research adds to the understanding about how the reaction to a domestic brand's marketing strategies that are viewed as unfair and hurt the domestic consumers' expectations.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Ji Eun Park and Sung-Joon Yoon

The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of the sources of consumer animosity and the moderating role of product involvement on purchase intentions.

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1088

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of the sources of consumer animosity and the moderating role of product involvement on purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Animosity is examined in the context of South Korean consumers’ purchase intentions toward Japanese products. A structural equation model was estimated in Lisrel 8.80 to assess the proposed model.

Findings

The results offer evidence that consumer ethnocentrism and susceptibility to normative influence have a positive relationship with animosity while cosmopolitanism has a negative relationship with animosity. Furthermore, animosity negatively influences intentions to purchase for high-involvement products, but not for low-involvement products.

Practical implications

International marketing managers can better identify the risk that consumer animosity poses to their products and services based on level of product involvement and characteristics of the market segment.

Originality/value

This study offers clarity to the understanding of animosity by examining additional antecedents of animosity that reflect different world views. It also provides an exception to the previous findings that in general animosity has a negative impact on consumers’ willingness to buy products of countries for which consumers have animosity. In other words, the effect of animosity on purchase intention of products from a disliked country depends on the degree of involvement.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Richard Ettenson and Jill Gabrielle Klein

The frequency and sophistication of consumer boycotts continue to increase from already high levels. Surprisingly, only limited research in marketing has investigated this…

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3722

Abstract

Purpose

The frequency and sophistication of consumer boycotts continue to increase from already high levels. Surprisingly, only limited research in marketing has investigated this topic. The purpose of this paper is to provide a strategic analysis of an actual consumer protest with implications for better managerial decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The animosity model of consumer purchase behavior was employed in two longitudinal studies to investigate an ongoing marketplace protest – Australian consumers' boycott of French products. Study 1 was carried out while France was engaged in nuclear testing in the South Pacific. Study 2 was carried out 1 year after the resolution of the conflict.

Findings

Results from Study 1 show that Australian consumers' animosity toward France was negatively related to their willingness to purchase French products. Consistent with a key prediction from the animosity model, this effect was independent of evaluations of French product quality. The findings from Study 2 show that, a year after the cessation of nuclear testing, Australian consumers continue to have strong negative affect toward France, which in turn, had negative marketplace consequences for French products.

Originality/value

While the results from Study 1 show that consumer anger over nuclear testing did not necessarily lead to the denigration of the quality of French goods, the second study indicates that, beyond the duration of the official protest, there may be repercussions for products associated with the offending party. Accordingly, managers should consider implementing communications programs which, over time, effectively reinforce the quality of their products in the minds of protesting consumers.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Pilar Fernández-Ferrín, Belén Bande-Vilela, Jill Gabrielle Klein and M. Luisa del Río-Araújo

Consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity provide marketing management with two useful concepts to understand the reasons behind consumers’ purchase decisions…

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5142

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity provide marketing management with two useful concepts to understand the reasons behind consumers’ purchase decisions concerning domestic vs imported products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents and consequences of animosity and ethnocentrism within a single model, and respondents’ evaluations of a specific product category are solicited.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted within an ideal context for the study of consumer animosity: data were collected in Belgrade shortly after the US-led NATO bombings of 1999. The surveys were carried out in person at the interviewees’ home. The sample was part of a regular omnibus panel composed of 270 adult respondents, of which 92.2 percent agreed to participate.

Findings

The findings indicate that animosity and consumer ethnocentrism are distinct constructs. Also consistent with previous research, results obtained confirm that each construct has unique antecedents and consequences.

Practical implications

Once consumer animosity and ethnocentrism levels have been measured, managers can then make decisions about whether to promote their country of origin or, alternatively, create more powerful local connections for their products. Thus, the consideration of animosity and ethnocentrism can be part of a firm’s international strategies.

Originality/value

Previous studies on consumer animosity have demonstrated through structural equation modeling that the two constructs are distinct and have distinct antecedents, but research has not examined both the antecedents and the consequences of animosity and ethnocentrism in the same study. Thus, this study investigates the antecedents and consequences of animosity and ethnocentrism within a single model.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Richard Lee and Kyung Tae Lee

Consumer animosity is often used to explain consumers' boycott of products from a foreign country in a dispute. However, these studies are mainly cross‐sectional. The…

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1766

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer animosity is often used to explain consumers' boycott of products from a foreign country in a dispute. However, these studies are mainly cross‐sectional. The purpose of this paper is to investigate temporal changes in two distinct consumeranimosity dimensions – i.e. historical and contemporary – and their influences on judgment of and willingness‐to‐buy foreign products.

Design/methodology/approach

Sampling came from a mall‐intercept survey in Japan during the height of a recent Japan‐China dispute (n=139), followed by a similar survey six months later (n=157). Identical questionnaires tapped Japanese consumers' historical animosity (HA), contemporary animosity (CA) and ethnocentrism dispositions, and judgment of and willingness to buy Chinese products. The data were fitted using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results indicate that both CA and HA lowered willingness to buy Chinese products during, but not after, the dispute. CA was consistently stronger than HA in influencing willingness to buy. By contrast, product judgment did not influence willingness to buy during the dispute. That is, animosity dispositions overshadowed objective product evaluation during the dispute. After the dispute, only product judgment directly influenced willingness to buy, and HA indirectly influenced willingness to buy via product judgment. CA weakened after the dispute, but HA remained stable over time. Product judgment was lower during the dispute. Consumer ethnocentrism interacted only with CA during but not after the dispute.

Practical implications

International dispute heightens the salience of present‐day issues such as unemployment rather than of historical conflicts. Although product judgment was affected, the downside to foreign firms is temporary. Domestic firms can only take short‐term advantage, but long‐term edge remains improving product judgment.

Originality/value

Despite extensive research into the influence of consumer animosity on consumer behaviour, surprisingly little research has attempted to investigate the temporal characteristics of the consumer animosity, let alone investigate its distinct dimensions. In this study, the authors attempt to show that unless one considers the potential temporal changes to individual consumeranimosity dimensions, sweeping conclusions from single‐shot studies may yield an incomplete picture and even misguide managerial initiatives.

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Yu‐An Huang, Ian Phau and Chad Lin

This paper aims to examine the concept of “consumer animosity”, model its antecedents, and assess its influence on intention to purchase.

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6732

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the concept of “consumer animosity”, model its antecedents, and assess its influence on intention to purchase.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaires were distributed by a quasi‐random sample of school pupils across Taiwan to an adult member of their household, for completion and return. A return rate of 70 percent yielded 456 usable questionnaires, the data from which were analysed by the LISREL structural equation modelling software.

Findings

The results suggest that perceived personal economic hardship and the normative influence of members of a consumers' reference group have a positive impact on the phenomenon of consumer animosity, which in turn negatively affects the intentions of consumers in Taiwan to purchase products originating in mainland China and Japan. Contradicting previous studies, consumer animosity was found to be dependent on judgments of product quality.

Research limitations/implications

The research model was built from data collected by non‐probability sampling in a single country. There was no evidence of sampling bias, but future studies would benefit from inclusion of more independent variables and a wider geographical scope.

Practical implications

The findings contain many practical lessons for planners of export marketing strategy.

Originality/value

Two existing theories of social behaviour are integrated with the concept of consumer animosity to explain consumption choices in an international context.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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