Search results

1 – 10 of over 12000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Andra D. Rivers Johnson

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American…

Abstract

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American community. Access to mental health and quality care remains elusive as members of this social group lack access to mental health screening, diagnosis, and attention due to institutional and cultural barriers. Supporting the position that implicit and explicit provider bias exists in the mental health profession, this chapter will explore how implicit provider bias is an intractable institutional barrier that prevents Black/African Americans from accessing mental health and quality care. A review of the implications related to mental health outcomes with Black/African American clients will also be explored.

A brief overview of the Black/African American cultural responses to implicit provider bias will be discussed later in this chapter. There will be an exploration of the ways to help identify, address, and eliminate implicit provider bias using evidence-based personal and community engagement strategies that promote mental health wellness within the Black/African American community. Implications for best practices in Black/African American mental health will also be addressed to eradicate the risk of unethical or medical malpractice with Black/African American clients, reduce the mental health disparity experienced by Blacks/African Americans, and create mental health equity for this population.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Kim Stephens and Richard L. Baskerville

Physical social cues can influence the buyer and seller in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. The current behavioural model does not account for the role of implicit

Abstract

Purpose

Physical social cues can influence the buyer and seller in business-to-business (B2B) marketing. The current behavioural model does not account for the role of implicit bias. The purpose of this paper is to present that relationship and introduce a process model to weaken implicit bias through training with the employment of transformational conversation.

Design/methodology/approach

With social cues as the predecessor to inferences, there is the potential for implicit bias to derail relationship building in a B2B context. The author’s qualitative field study offers guidance for businesses to make informed decisions about implicit bias training.

Findings

The study findings show that an interactive workshop following a process model with the addition of transformational conversation can weaken implicit bias.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted with a small cohort of information technology professionals. More research should be done specifically with sellers and buyers in various industries over a longer period of time with periodic follow-up on sales performance and relationship building.

Practical implications

Minority groups had a combined buying power of $3.9tn in 2018. For sellers to succeed, they have to be able to modulate the implicit biases that interfere with good sales relationships.

Originality/value

This paper introduces implicit bias as a moderator into the conceptual framework of the behavioural response to social cues in the B2B context and offers a model of implicit bias training using a process model with transformational conversation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 April 2021

Donna Mignardi and Jennifer Sturge

Knowing your why is a powerful thing. As school librarians, an integral part of our mission is to ensure that students leave their K-12 education as information and media…

Abstract

Knowing your why is a powerful thing. As school librarians, an integral part of our mission is to ensure that students leave their K-12 education as information and media literate members of our society. In order for that to happen, students must also exit their K-12 years understanding how implicit and confirmation bias play a role in the way they view the world. That’s part of the basis of our why: (i) School librarians are critical, necessary, and integral to ensuring we graduate students who are not only college and career ready but also have a deep understanding of how bias affects perception when it comes to being information and media literate; and (ii) School libraries are the epicenter of information and media literacy instruction. Because school librarians have the expertise and the background, they are a first line of defense in the broadening landscape of misinformation and a key player in combating fake news. Additionally, school librarians are uniquely poised to assist students in understanding bias – in particular confirmation and implicit biases that may affect the student’s search for information. This chapter will address the power of the school librarian in an ever-evolving information landscape.

Details

Hope and a Future: Perspectives on the Impact that Librarians and Libraries Have on Our World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-642-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Yonca Toker-Gültaş, Afife Başak Ok and Savaş Ceylan

Organizations are investing their resources to identify effective leaders; however, the most commonly utilized assessments of leadership potential do not cover the social…

Abstract

Organizations are investing their resources to identify effective leaders; however, the most commonly utilized assessments of leadership potential do not cover the social cognitions of individuals. Trait assessments, which are explicit in nature, also have other problems, including faking and socially desirable responding. In this chapter, we highlight the importance of leaders' implicit reasoning processes, with a particular focus on cognitive biases, in an attempt to understand how destructive leaders frame the world, situations and people and how they justify their choice of behaviours and decisions. Empirical evidence in the literature supports the valid use of implicit reasoning measurements in organizational contexts. Thus, we first summarize and list the cognitive biases of destructive leaders as identified in the literature. We then turn our focus on Machiavellian leaders as they have been associated with destructive leadership. We present the most common six cognitive biases and justification mechanisms of Machiavellian leaders based on our qualitative analysis of interview responses from 72 employees. We aim to encourage researchers and practitioners to make use of the literature on implicit reasoning and to further contribute to developing measures assessing such implicit reasoning processes.

Details

Destructive Leadership and Management Hypocrisy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-180-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Bahar Ashnai, Sudha Mani, Prabakar Kothandaraman and Saeed Shekari

In response to calls to reduce the gender gap in the salesforce, this study aims to examine the effect of candidate gender, manager gender and industry to explain gender…

Abstract

Purpose

In response to calls to reduce the gender gap in the salesforce, this study aims to examine the effect of candidate gender, manager gender and industry to explain gender bias in salesperson recruitment during screening and skill assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tested the hypotheses using observational data from a national sales competition in the USA, where managers evaluated student candidates for entry-level sales positions.

Findings

This research finds gender bias during screening using the dyadic perspective. Specifically, female managers evaluate male candidates more favorably than male managers do during screening. Further, managers of service companies evaluate female candidates more favorably than managers of goods companies during screening. However, this paper finds no such effects during candidates’ skill assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate the importance of using dyadic research techniques to assess gender bias.

Practical implications

Managers should not use short interactions to screen candidates.

Social implications

Implicit bias exists when candidates and managers interact during screening. To reduce gender bias in recruitment the candidates and managers should interact for a longer duration.

Originality/value

This study draws upon a unique setting, where the candidates interact with the managers for screening and skill assessment. Implicit bias exists when candidates and managers interact for screening under time pressure. This paper finds no evidence of gender bias in skill assessment. This study finds that female managers are more prone to bias when evaluating male candidates than male managers. Prior work has not examined industry-based bias; this paper provides evidence of such bias in candidate screening.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Ting-Hsiang Tseng, George Balabanis and Matthew Tingchi Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the inconsistency of explicit and implicit domestic country bias (DCB) across different types of products and in the context of two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the inconsistency of explicit and implicit domestic country bias (DCB) across different types of products and in the context of two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies in two countries are conducted to examine the inconsistencies in implicit and explicit DCB. The first study collected data through mall intercept survey method in Taiwan and identified 189 valid respondents. The second study applied a mixed (within and between subjects) factorial experiment in China using 200 subjects.

Findings

Results show that explicit and implicit attitudes are moderately related to each other. The results also confirm that ethnic product typicality can explain inconsistencies in both explicit and implicit DCB. For ethnically typical products, DCB is more pronounced in consumers’ explicit attitudes than in consumers’ implicit attitudes. On the contrary, for ethnically atypical goods, DCB makes itself present in both explicit and implicit attitudes.

Originality/value

The results shed new light on DCB and confirm that the bias could divaricate between explicit and implicit attitudes in the case of ethnically typical products.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Nicol Turner Lee

The online economy has not resolved the issue of racial bias in its applications. While algorithms are procedures that facilitate automated decision-making, or a sequence…

Abstract

Purpose

The online economy has not resolved the issue of racial bias in its applications. While algorithms are procedures that facilitate automated decision-making, or a sequence of unambiguous instructions, bias is a byproduct of these computations, bringing harm to historically disadvantaged populations. This paper argues that algorithmic biases explicitly and implicitly harm racial groups and lead to forms of discrimination. Relying upon sociological and technical research, the paper offers commentary on the need for more workplace diversity within high-tech industries and public policies that can detect or reduce the likelihood of racial bias in algorithmic design and execution.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shares examples in the US where algorithmic biases have been reported and the strategies for explaining and addressing them.

Findings

The findings of the paper suggest that explicit racial bias in algorithms can be mitigated by existing laws, including those governing housing, employment, and the extension of credit. Implicit, or unconscious, biases are harder to redress without more diverse workplaces and public policies that have an approach to bias detection and mitigation.

Research limitations/implications

The major implication of this research is that further research needs to be done. Increasing the scholarly research in this area will be a major contribution in understanding how emerging technologies are creating disparate and unfair treatment for certain populations.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the work point to areas within industries and the government that can tackle the question of algorithmic bias, fairness and accountability, especially African-Americans.

Social implications

The social implications are that emerging technologies are not devoid of societal influences that constantly define positions of power, values, and norms.

Originality/value

The paper joins a scarcity of existing research, especially in the area that intersects race and algorithmic development.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2014

Eve Fine, Jennifer Sheridan, Molly Carnes, Jo Handelsman, Christine Pribbenow, Julia Savoy and Amy Wendt

We discuss the implementation of workshops for faculty search committees at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A central focus of the workshops is to introduce faculty…

Abstract

Purpose

We discuss the implementation of workshops for faculty search committees at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A central focus of the workshops is to introduce faculty to research on the influence of unconscious bias on the evaluation of job candidates and to recommend evidence-based strategies for minimizing this bias. The workshops aim to help universities achieve their goals of recruiting excellent and diverse faculty.

Methodology

With basic descriptive statistics and a simple logistic regression analysis, we utilize several datasets to examine participants’ responses to the workshop and assess changes in the percentage of women who receive offers and accept positions.

Findings

Faculty members are becoming aware of the role bias can play in evaluating faculty applicants and are learning strategies for minimizing bias. In departments where women are underrepresented, workshop participation is associated with a significant increase in the odds of making a job offer to a woman candidate, and with a non-significant increase in the odds of hiring a woman.

Limitations

This study is limited by our inability to assess the diversity of the applicant pools our faculty search committees recruit and by lack of control over the myriad other factors that influence hiring. Data are from a single institution and therefore these results may not generalize to other universities.

Originality/value

Educating faculty search committees about the role of unconscious bias and presenting them with evidence-based strategies for minimizing its influence promotes changes that contribute to increasing representation of women faculty.

Details

Gender Transformation in the Academy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-070-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Meraiah Foley and Sue Williamson

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers…

Abstract

Purpose

Anonymous recruitment seeks to limit managers’ reliance on stereotypes in employment decisions, thereby reducing discrimination. This paper aims to explore how managers interpret the information embedded in anonymised job applications and how they interpret the organisational priorities driving the adoption of anonymous recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews with 30 managers in two Australian public sector organisations were analysed.

Findings

The results showed that managers used implicit signals and cues to infer the gender identities of applicants in anonymised applications, reintroducing the possibility of bias. Managers perceived that anonymous recruitment sent positive external signals to prospective employees but were sceptical about its effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The results showed that removing applicants’ names and identifying information from applications may not be sufficient to reduce bias. In organisations where managers are sympathetic to equity and diversity issues, use of anonymous recruitment may provoke resentment if managers perceive organisational distrust or inconsistent objectives. Limitations regarding the size and nature of the sample are acknowledged.

Practical implications

Organisations seeking to reduce gender discrimination in recruitment may consider adopting standardised application procedures or training managers to understand how stereotypes affect evaluations. Organisations should also assess managerial support for, and understanding of, anonymous recruitment prior to implementation.

Originality/value

The findings add to existing knowledge regarding the effects of implicit gender signals in managers’ assessments and the effectiveness of anonymous recruitment in reducing gender bias. It also contributes to signalling theory by examining how managers interpret the signals conveyed in organisational policies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Jens Agerström and Dan‐Olof Rooth

The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold negative attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to substantial labor market discrimination in Sweden and, more specifically, associate members of this minority group with lower work productivity, as compared with native Swedes.

Design/methodology/approach

Adapted versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998) designed to measure implicit attitudes and productivity stereotypes toward Arab‐Muslims were used. Corresponding explicit measures were administered.

Findings

The results clearly show that employers have stronger negative implicit attitudes toward Arab‐Muslims relative to native Swedes as well as implicitly perceiving Arab‐Muslims to be less productive than native Swedes. Notably, the explicit measures reveal much weaker negative associations.

Practical implications

Since Arab‐Muslims are automatically perceived as being less productive, the present findings suggest that negative implicit productivity stereotypes could have significant effects on labor market outcomes, such as when employers make hiring decisions. Given that many hiring decisions are presumably based on “gut‐feelings”, implicit attitudes and stereotypes, more so than their explicit counterparts, may exert a substantial impact on how employers contemplate and make decisions regarding human resources.

Originality/value

Whereas traditional research has focused on self‐conscious, explicit work‐related attitudes toward various ethnic minority groups, the study offers a novel approach to understanding work‐related prejudice.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 30 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 12000