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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Mbaye Fall Diallo and Gérard Cliquet

International retailers operating in different emerging countries should figure out how their store image is perceived across these countries and whether they should adapt…

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1582

Abstract

Purpose

International retailers operating in different emerging countries should figure out how their store image is perceived across these countries and whether they should adapt or standardise the retail offer. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how store image is perceived across different emerging markets and how it relates to customer knowledge cues and personal characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A store-intercept survey undertaken in Brazil and Vietnam generated 505 usable responses from customers of two metropolitan cities (Brasilia and Hanoi), respectively, in Brazil and Vietnam. The questionnaires were collected in Extra (Brazil) and Big C (Vietnam) retail chains belonging both to the same group (Casino, France).

Findings

Overall, this paper reveals that emerging market customers assess positively modern retail stores and are concerned about services, merchandise, and store layout when shopping. More specifically, the results indicate differences and similarities between Brazilian and Vietnamese customers in terms of store image attributes, store image dimensions, and overall store image. Moreover, customer knowledge of retailers affects store image perceptions at different levels in both countries. Also, significant differences arise across age, gender, and education in both countries, but not across household income categories.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were customers of only two emerging markets (Brazil and Vietnam) and shoppers of two retail chains (Extra and Big C). Caution should therefore be exercised when generalising the results to other emerging markets.

Practical implications

The paper shows both differences and similarities in store image perceptions in different emerging countries. Because store layout is more positively rated in Brazil than in Vietnam, retailers should be careful to that attribute. In both countries, to improve assortment perceptions, managers might focus on first price (budget) store brands, which can help diversify the assortment and attract less wealthy customers. The service dimension also demands careful management, but personnel training should mirror the local culture.

Originality/value

This research highlights differences and similarities between Brazilian and Vietnamese customers in terms of store image perceptions. It shows that store image mechanisms are similar in emerging countries as in developed countries. Furthermore, the paper is the first to relate store image perceptions to customer knowledge cues in emerging countries.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Ruoh‐Nan Yan, Jennifer Yurchisin and Kittichai Watchravesringkan

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study aims to understand whether and how sales employee clothing style would influence consumers' perceptions of store

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3869

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study aims to understand whether and how sales employee clothing style would influence consumers' perceptions of store image through their expectations of service quality. Second, this study hopes to uncover how fashion orientation would influence the aforementioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3 (formality of employee clothing: formal vs moderate vs casual) × 2 (level of fashion orientation: low vs high) between‐subject experiment design was conducted. Data were collected from 105 university students in a laboratory setting.

Findings

Results indicated that formality of employee clothing (i.e. formal business, moderate, or casual attire) served as a cue in the retail environment for consumers to make inferences about the service quality expected to be provided by the sales employee. Furthermore, formality of employee clothing both directly and indirectly influenced consumers' perceptions of store image.

Research limitations/implications

This study adds to existing literature by uncovering the moderating role of fashion orientation in consumers' service quality expectations and confirms the function of service quality as an antecedent to store image.

Practical implications

Retailers should pay attention to the design of their salespeople's clothing because different clothing styles draw forth different evaluations from customers about the service quality provided in retail stores.

Originality/value

This study investigates the role of clothing formality in influencing consumers' service quality expectations.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Steve Burt and Jose Carralero‐Encinas

Argues that for many retailers, competitive advantage in the home market has been based upon the development of strong store and corporate images as retailers strive to…

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13543

Abstract

Argues that for many retailers, competitive advantage in the home market has been based upon the development of strong store and corporate images as retailers strive to develop themselves as brands in their own right. The construction of store image, comprising both tangible and intangible dimensions, compounds problems of moving into international markets – as consumers in the host environment are less familiar with the intangible dimensions of image, which have been built up over time with exposure to the retail company. Retail companies therefore need to fully understand the importance of image in competitive positioning and the components of store image before attempting to replicate this image and positioning overseas. Explores these issues with reference to Marks & Spencer and the company’s entry into the Spanish market. A survey of customer perceptions of a range of store image attributes in the UK and Spain, reveals differences and similarities in perceptions, which must be managed if a standardised position is to be sought in the host market.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 17 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

José Luis Ruiz-Real, Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad, Irene Esteban-Millat and Francisco J. Martínez-López

The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumers’ reaction to assortment composition.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumers’ reaction to assortment composition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines several scenarios: private label (PL)-only assortments; mixed assortments (PL and national brands (NBs)), and in the latter case both small and large assortments. Consumers’ reaction is measured through three dependent variables: store image, PL purchase intention and store-switching intentions. The authors ran a structural equation model (SEM) to analyze the influence of different explanatory aspects (product category involvement, attitude toward PL, value consciousness and assortment variety perception) on consumers’ reactions for each scenario. For this research, the authors carried out an online experiment with a sample of 1,400 individuals from a large panel of consumers.

Findings

Consumers react differently to different assortment compositions, giving importance to the differences between the three assortment models analyzed. The results show that the composition of the assortment, either according to its size or its structure, influences consumers’ response in a significant way. The results demonstrate that store image exclusively affects PL purchase intention in PL-only assortments. Only in mixed assortments is there a relationship between the assortment variety perception and store image, product category involvement and PL purchase intention, and both store image and value consciousness are related to store-switching intentions. Store-switching intentions decrease when consumers intend to purchase PL, but strictly in PL-only and large mixed assortments. Finally, value consciousness and variety perception are positively related to PL purchase intentions only in large mixed assortments.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research is that it is restricted to the Spanish context. Second, the methodology is based on an online experiment, with the advantages and disadvantages that this entails. Third, the authors did not differentiate between high- and low-value PL which, if undertaken, could be of interest for observing how brand value affects the management of retail assortments. Finally, the authors did not differentiate regular buyers at these retail chains from those who are not.

Practical implications

The comparison between different assortment compositions helps the authors to draw some very interesting conclusions. The estimation of different consumers’ responses is ideal for providing retailers with recommendations on how to frame their assortment strategies. Thus, the main recommendation of this study for retailers is to look for a “balance” between PL and NBs, i.e., to offer mixed assortments.

Originality/value

Aside from mixed assortments, this study estimates the consequences of assortments that are exclusively PL. The authors proposed and deployed a SEM, so this paper contributes to the retailing field by including multiple dependent variables – store image, PL purchase intention and store-switching intentions. The authors conducted an online experiment containing “real” brands, which is another contribution as it enables consumers’ response to be estimated in a “real” environment.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Alfonso Valdez Cervantes and Ana Franco

Disruptive retailing technologies improve productivity and cost optimization, but there is a lack of academic literature about their effects on shoppers’ perceptions and…

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2021

Abstract

Purpose

Disruptive retailing technologies improve productivity and cost optimization, but there is a lack of academic literature about their effects on shoppers’ perceptions and behaviors. This paper aims to develop and test a conceptual model regarding the effects of retail technology on store image and purchase intentions and to measure how human interaction services (HIS) moderate this relationship. Two relevant retail technologies are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The results of this study indicate that retailing technology has notable influences on consumer perceptions. Thus, shopping technologies improve store image perceptions and increase purchase intention, moderated by HIS.

Research limitations/implications

Future field experiments in actual stores should attempt to corroborate the results of this study and offer greater internal validity.

Practical implications

The results should help reduce retailers’ resistance to technology adoption. In-store technology can help retailers leverage their store image and increase purchase intentions. HIS could offer a bridge between consumers and new technology.

Originality/value

This paper is an original research paper, given that few research papers are experimentally based to measure consumer’s reactions to new technology implementation.

Propósito

Las tecnologías disruptivas de ventas al por menor mejoran la productividad y la optimización de costes, pero hay una falta de literatura académica sobre los efectos de estas tecnologías en las percepciones y actitudes de los compradores. Este artículo desarrolla y prueba un modelo conceptual de los efectos de la tecnología minorista en la imagen de la tienda y las intenciones de compra y mide cómo los servicios de interacción humana moderaron las relaciones. Este artículo explora dos tecnologías comerciales relevantes para investigarlo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Un total de 480 personas participaron en los tres experimentos en un laboratorio y utilizaron las etiquetas electrónicas de estanterías (ESL) y el carro inteligente de la misma manera que podían usarlo en las tiendas.

Hallazgos

Los resultados indican que la tecnología de venta al por menor tiene influencias notables en las percepciones de los consumidores. Por lo tanto, las tecnologías de compra mejoran la percepción de la imagen de la tienda e incrementa la intención de compra moderada por los servicios de interacción humana.

Originalidad/valor

Es una contribución original porque pocos trabajos de investigación se basan en experimentos para medir las reacciones de los consumidores debido a la implementación de la nueva tecnología.

Limitaciones/implicaciones

Los experimentos de campo en tiendas reales deben intentar corroborar estos resultados y ofrecer una mayor validez interna.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados deberían ayudar a reducir la resistencia de los minoristas a su adopción. La tecnología en la tienda puede ayudar a los minoristas a aprovechar su imagen de tienda y aumentar las intenciones de compra. Los servicios de interacción humana podrían ser un puente entre los consumidores y las nuevas tecnologías.

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Mbaye Fall Diallo, Jean‐Louis Chandon, Gérard Cliquet and Jean Philippe

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by…

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7611

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by European mass retailers. However, consumer behaviour toward SBs is not yet clearly understood in all European markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed data collected from 266 respondents and used structural equation modelling to test the main hypotheses. They then carried out ANOVA and MANOVA analyses to test the effect of store familiarity on SB purchase behaviour.

Findings

Results indicate that store image perceptions, SB price‐image, value consciousness, and SB attitude have significant and positive influence on SB purchase behaviour. Store familiarity positively influences SB choice, but not SB purchase intention. None of the socio‐demographic variables (age, gender, household income, and family size) included as control variables have an effect on SB choice.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited because it did not account for the effect of product categories on SB purchase behaviour. Consequently, results cannot be determined for different product categories. It would also be appropriate to measure SB choice in a more concrete way, such as using scanner data.

Practical implications

Findings highlight the importance of value consciousness, store image perceptions, and SB price‐image on SB purchase behaviour. They also show greater popularity of SB products among consumers, including those with high household income.

Originality/value

There is increased value to retailers in studying how consumer and image factors jointly influence SB purchase behaviour, whilst also accounting for store familiarity instead of brand familiarity.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2015

Mbaye Fall Diallo

Although they are increasingly offered by mass retailers in Asia, store brands (SBs) are not well understood in Asian countries. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although they are increasingly offered by mass retailers in Asia, store brands (SBs) are not well understood in Asian countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how store and brand-level factors affect consumer usage of SBs in an Asian emerging country.

Design/methodology/approach

A consumer survey, based on sample of 445 respondents, is undertaken in two competing modern retail chains in Vietnam. Structural equation modelling is used to test the research hypotheses. A latent interaction variable was created to test the moderation of store familiarity.

Findings

Results indicate that SB price image, consumer attitude towards SBs and SB perceived value influence most strongly SB usage in Vietnam, whereas store image perceptions have no direct effect on it. Some investigated relationships differ across store formats. Overall, store familiarity has a weak direct effect on SB usage, but its interaction effects differ depending on store format.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited because it investigated only one Asian country and two retail chains. Besides, it did not account for effect of product categories on SB usage.

Practical implications

Findings indicate that a positive store image is not sufficient to increase consumer usage of SBs in Vietnam. Retailers should be especially careful when designing retail outlets in this market, where consumers seem attached to traditions. Results highlight the importance of taking measures to develop more positive attitudes towards SBs. Also, store familiarity has a weak effect on SB purchase and should therefore be monitored more carefully by retail chains operating in Vietnam.

Originality/value

This research is the first to address Vietnamese consumer usage of SBs. In contrast to their counterparts in other emerging countries, Vietnamese consumers do not strongly rely on store image when purchasing SBs. Their focus is rather on brand perceived value. These results challenge conventional wisdom that attributes a low utilitarian value orientation to Asian consumers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Hooman Estelami and Heather Bergstein

Despite retailers' growing use of lowest‐price refund policies, little is understood about how consumer satisfaction is influenced by them. This paper examines the…

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3359

Abstract

Purpose

Despite retailers' growing use of lowest‐price refund policies, little is understood about how consumer satisfaction is influenced by them. This paper examines the potential role of market price volatility and store image on consumers' satisfaction of stores offering a lowest‐price refund.

Design/methodology/approach

Between‐subject experimental design is used in which subjects are presented with simulated shopping scenarios. In the shopping simulation lowest price refunds are provided to the subjects under different price volatility and store image conditions. Consumer satisfaction is then measured.

Findings

Results indicate that when market price volatility is high consumer satisfaction with lowest‐price refunds tends to be significantly higher for stores with a good image than stores with a poor image. As market price volatility increases, consumer perceptions of value increases for stores with a good image, while it declines for stores with a poor image.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study are limited by the simulated shopping methodology that is used and the absence of field shopping behavior and covariate satisfaction and refund data from retail stores.

Practical implications

Despite receiving the same outcome, different consumers' satisfaction with lowest‐price refunds may be highly influenced by the environment. Generally, both market price volatility and store image influence consumer satisfaction.

Originality/value

By identifying specific market conditions that influence consumer satisfaction with lowest‐price refunds, it may be critical for certain retailers to mobilize their refund programs.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Subhashini Kaul, Arvind Sahay and Abraham Koshy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of “initial” store image in a new store. Existing research affords limited explanation of how shopper trust in store is…

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2311

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of “initial” store image in a new store. Existing research affords limited explanation of how shopper trust in store is formed prior to store visits and regarding the impact of “initial” store image on shopper trust and patronage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, this paper operationalizes “trust‐image” of a new store as an antecedent to shopper trust; uses a multidimensional conceptualization for “trust‐image” which is similar to the existing tripartite view of “trustworthiness”; and examines the effect of store visit on perceived salience of trust‐image. The laboratory experiment has four scenarios that manipulate store image as positive/negative, and store visit by a “close friend” who is the source of trust‐image as none/one.

Findings

This is possibly the first empirical evidence supporting the significance of trust‐image in influencing shopper trust and patronage intentions of a new store. Contrary to existing theory, store “dependability” is not really significant for Indian apparel retail consumers at initial stages of store visits.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to examine which image dimensions contribute to formation of trust‐image across different products, age groups, and gender.

Practical implications

Retailers planning a foray into India need to understand that store “trust‐image” needs significant attention for a new store and also that Indian shoppers evaluate stores differently.

Originality/value

While the association between store image and patronage is well known, there is limited knowledge of trust‐image formation in a new store. This paper explodes the existing belief that store dependability is the first stage evaluation by shoppers bringing to light that Indian shoppers are unique in their experience of trust.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2013

Ram Herstein, Shaked Gilboa and Eyal Gamliel

The present study aims to investigate the role of brand store image in the context of private and national fashion brands. The study examines two issues: do private brand…

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3166

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to investigate the role of brand store image in the context of private and national fashion brands. The study examines two issues: do private brand consumers differ from national brand consumers in their perception of the attributes they value in their store image? And, do fashion consumers in general differ in their perception of the attributes they value in a store image?

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a field survey comprising 395 respondents: 195 private brand consumers and 200 national brand consumers.

Findings

Findings indicate that the two groups of consumers do not differ in their perception of store image. Cluster analysis reveals two groups of consumers: “Brand Store Image Enthusiasts” who are high in their perception of their brand store image attributes, and “Brand Store Image Indifferent” consumers who are low in their perception of their brand store image attributes. The first group was also found to have greater brand loyalty.

Practical implications

Different marketing strategies are offered to each fashion sector. In addition, distributors in the fashion industry should build a strategy for Brand Store Image Enthusiasts who are high in their perception of all three brand store attributes. It is essential to point out the psychological meaning of the brand when appealing them.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the consumer behavior literature by tying the well-established construct of brand store image to the fashion sector in the context of private and national labels.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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