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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Zdeňka Matoušková and Věra Czesaná

The main aim of this paper is to test the ways in which the role of high‐technology services (HTS) in the economy of European Union (EU) member countries changes and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is to test the ways in which the role of high‐technology services (HTS) in the economy of European Union (EU) member countries changes and the extent to which the development of HTS depends on the quality of human resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts comparative and cluster analysis of statistical data published by Eurostat.

Findings

The empirical analysis approved the growing proportion of HTS in both employment and gross value added in the EU as a whole. However, there are great differences among individual member states that can be grouped into four clusters. HTS have a significantly higher proportion of tertiary educated employees, belong to young sectors and show a higher rate of participation in continuing education. HTS development is closely related to information communications technology (ICT) literacy of the population of the country, on the one hand, and on its economic standards, on the other.

Research limitations/implications

The major findings constitute a starting‐point for more thorough national analysis and for setting measures supporting HTS development, especially through the availability of an appropriately educated labour force.

Practical implications

The growing proportion of HTS in the economy is an important feature of knowledge economies; therefore it is necessary for politicians to have information about the development of this sector.

Originality/value

HTS has been little researched in a detailed way to date. This paper tries to indicate all the important features that should be further and more deeply analysed.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Lee Hanson

This article addresses social dimensions and implications of the rise of the information, skill‐intensive economy based on self‐managing teams. The basis of the paper is…

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1607

Abstract

This article addresses social dimensions and implications of the rise of the information, skill‐intensive economy based on self‐managing teams. The basis of the paper is an historical analysis of how “Taylorist” industrialization suppressed the self‐directing, team‐based labour process which had characterized pre‐industrial America, in the process inflicting deep long‐term economic and social costs even as it helped produced unprecedented prosperity. Extrapolating from the historical analysis, in the second section of the paper social trends are discussed which seem likely to emerge in the future with the establishment of an information‐ and skill‐intensive economic organization based on self‐managing teams.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Seamus McGuinness and Konstantinos Pouliakas

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of…

Abstract

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of Cedefop. Further information is available at Cedefop, 2015), a new international dataset on skill mismatch of adult workers in 28 EU countries, to decompose the wage penalty of overeducated workers. The ESJ survey allows for integration of a rich set of variables in the estimation of the effect of overeducation on earnings, such as individuals’ job search motives and the skill needs of their jobs. Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to uncover the extent to which the earnings penalties of overeducated workers can be attributed to either (i) individual human capital attributes, (ii) job characteristics, (iii) information asymmetries, (iv) compensating job attributes, or (iv) assignment to jobs with different skill needs. Differences in human capital and job-skill requirements are important factors in explaining the wage premium. It is found that asymmetry of information accounts for a significant part of the overeducation wage penalty of tertiary education graduates, whereas job characteristics and the low skill content of their jobs can explain most of the wage gap for medium-qualified employees. Little evidence is found in favor of equilibrium theories of compensating wage differentials and career mobility. Accepting that much remains to be learned with regards to the drivers of overeducation, this paper provides evidence in support of the need for customized policy responses to tackle overeducation.

Details

Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

John Sutherland

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of “over‐qualification” (i.e. holding a qualification which is above that required to gain entry to the job being done…

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2387

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of “over‐qualification” (i.e. holding a qualification which is above that required to gain entry to the job being done) and “skills under‐utilisation” (i.e. being in a job which does not make use of the knowledge and skills possessed) in the United Kingdom and to examine whether these conditions are correlated with age.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper makes use of the 2006 Skills Survey. Cross tabulations of both conditions with age are produced and binomial probit estimates of both conditions are reported.

Findings

It is estimated that 38 per cent are over qualified; 15 per cent are in jobs which do not make use of the knowledge and skills they possess; and age is correlated with the probability of being over qualified but not with the condition of under‐utilising the knowledge and skills possessed.

Social implications

Skills policy in the United Kingdom focuses almost exclusively upon increasing the supply of more highly qualified individuals. Given the extent of over‐qualification and skills under‐utilisation demonstrated in the paper, more effort should be made by policy makers to design and implement policies which increase the demand for highly skilled labour.

Originality/value

The paper answers three questions: How prevalent are qualification mismatches? How prevalent are skills mismatches? To what extent are the two conditions of being over‐qualified and being in a job which does not offer scope to make use of the knowledge and skills possessed correlated with age?

Details

Education + Training, vol. 54 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2012

Adam Clemens

Some positions within a firm consistently lead to promotion with a higher probability than other positions at the same hierarchical level. Therefore, serial correlation of…

Abstract

Some positions within a firm consistently lead to promotion with a higher probability than other positions at the same hierarchical level. Therefore, serial correlation of promotion rates is not indicative merely of individuals with high innate ability, but it is also a feature of organizational structure. I describe these positions as “fast jobs” and present a model in which jobholders acquire human capital in these jobs that is more valuable at the next level. Data from a financial services firm confirm that workers in fast jobs are younger than other workers at the same level, and that transfers from fast to slow jobs are common. Thus, the process of grooming workers for advancement is analogous to more aggressive up-or-out systems. This deliberate grooming of some workers for advancement has income inequality implications, as it may reinforce the effect of small biases or small differences in early apparent ability.

Details

Research in Labor Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-358-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Alison Horstmeyer

This paper describes the ways automation and artificial intelligence are shifting the business landscape and how learning professionals can use curiosity to enhance their…

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375

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes the ways automation and artificial intelligence are shifting the business landscape and how learning professionals can use curiosity to enhance their own and their organizations' success.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of theory and research on automation and artificial intelligence, curiosity, and learning and development challenges was conducted.

Findings

Although technological advancements are already transforming the workplace, the optimal benefits of these technologies will be realized only in collaboration with human capital. In particular, as certain manual and technical skills are replaced by automation, the jobs that remain will require more highly developed social and cognitive skills such as creative problem solving, interpersonal skills and empathy, and adaptability and continuous learning.

Practical implications

Learning professionals are encouraged to use strategies that leverage the power of curiosity to cultivate the soft skills critical for success in technologically advanced workplaces.

Originality/value

Technological advancement creates an ever-changing organizational and learning landscape for employees and development professionals. Cost-effective strategies are needed to close the growing skill gaps that result. Curiosity is a helpful tool for growing needed competencies.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2016

Christine Riordan and Paul Osterman

This paper explores organizational restructuring in corporate law firms. We review recent changes in law firms’ business models and structures, specifically as they relate…

Abstract

This paper explores organizational restructuring in corporate law firms. We review recent changes in law firms’ business models and structures, specifically as they relate to the externalization of work – or the unbundling of work and its placement with outside entities, which redefines the division of labor and the nature of the employment relationship. We draw from the extensive scholarship on the legal profession to raise empirical and theoretical implications of market-driven change to the careers of lawyers as well as the shifting patterns of stratification within corporate firms and the profession at large.

Details

The Structuring of Work in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-436-5

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

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174

Abstract

Details

Education + Training, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Lee Hanson

Empowering the American economy requires creating a world‐classK‐12 (primary and secondary) education system, because K‐12 is whereyouth learn the skills essential to…

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455

Abstract

Empowering the American economy requires creating a world‐class K‐12 (primary and secondary) education system, because K‐12 is where youth learn the skills essential to empowered work. However, the USA must not just equal the K‐12 standards set by Germany and Japan. Because 70 percent of future jobs will not require a four‐year college degree, the USA must remake its economic‐occupational structure to create a “technician class” offering high‐skill, high‐wage, socially esteemed jobs that operate in close conjunction with college‐educated professional‐managerial workers. A technician class will provide a focus for K‐12 reform that does not presently exist in the USA.

Details

Empowerment in Organizations, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4891

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Rui-Hsin Kao

Improving employees’ change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is important because of the work content and service nature of the National Immigration…

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1187

Abstract

Purpose

Improving employees’ change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is important because of the work content and service nature of the National Immigration Agency (NIA). The purpose of this paper, which targeted immigration workers using the work design model (knowledge oriented), leadership types and organizational climate as perspectives, is to study immigration workers’ change-oriented OCB. Inspecting the knowledge-oriented work characteristics (KOWCs) of the NIA of Taiwan to find ways of stimulating change-oriented OCB through employees’ high self-efficacy is also critical. The investigators also explored how transformational leadership and organizational climate directly affect employees’ change-oriented OCB in a cross-level organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The subject of this research is the frontline immigration workers of Taiwan’s NIA, with its entire staff on duty at the country’s airports and ports as targets of the research. This study used a total of 312 questionnaires.

Findings

At the group level, transformational leadership shows significant positive influence on organizational climate. KOWCs can positively influence self-efficacy and affect change-oriented OCB on an individual basis; similarly, self-efficacy can also positively impact the individual’s change-oriented OCB. In addition, transformational leadership and organizational climate have a contextual effect on the outcome variable on an individual basis.

Originality/value

This finding is helpful for researching and practicing implications of HRM, such as in further understanding how the motivation from work characteristics, organization’s environment and interpersonal networks can increase employees’ change-oriented OCB.

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