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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Seamus McGuinness and Konstantinos Pouliakas

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of…

Abstract

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of Cedefop. Further information is available at Cedefop, 2015), a new international dataset on skill mismatch of adult workers in 28 EU countries, to decompose the wage penalty of overeducated workers. The ESJ survey allows for integration of a rich set of variables in the estimation of the effect of overeducation on earnings, such as individuals’ job search motives and the skill needs of their jobs. Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to uncover the extent to which the earnings penalties of overeducated workers can be attributed to either (i) individual human capital attributes, (ii) job characteristics, (iii) information asymmetries, (iv) compensating job attributes, or (iv) assignment to jobs with different skill needs. Differences in human capital and job-skill requirements are important factors in explaining the wage premium. It is found that asymmetry of information accounts for a significant part of the overeducation wage penalty of tertiary education graduates, whereas job characteristics and the low skill content of their jobs can explain most of the wage gap for medium-qualified employees. Little evidence is found in favor of equilibrium theories of compensating wage differentials and career mobility. Accepting that much remains to be learned with regards to the drivers of overeducation, this paper provides evidence in support of the need for customized policy responses to tackle overeducation.

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Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2014

Margaret Wilkie

Kaupapa Māori research brings to the centre and normalises Māori academic success in higher education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Identity as Māori, through Iwi (tribal…

Abstract

Kaupapa Māori research brings to the centre and normalises Māori academic success in higher education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Identity as Māori, through Iwi (tribal) affiliations and as tangata whenua (people of the land), are foundational values from a Māori world view. Strong Māori identity is significantly a consistent element in the stories of Māori academic successes. It is part of the ‘cultural capital’ that tauira Māori (students and graduates) take with them into educational institutions, where little active attention is given to it. At issue on a broader level is the resounding ‘silence of the archives’, the lack of information about Māori succeeding in higher education, particularly from a Māori world view. The dominant discourse in Aotearoa/New Zealand positions us into the ‘other’ and as ‘deficit’. In a reversal of this my doctoral research asked how and why do Māori succeed in higher education. Uniquely Māori elements of whenua (land), whānau (family) and connection with marae (meeting ground and complex) are part of the how and the why of Māori academic achievement. This chapter highlights how some Māori began their journeys that result in academic successes and IT qualifications. Their haphazard access to information about IT implicates the poorly developed pathways of entry into IT studies at that time and may explain some of the low uptake of IT qualifications and IT field employment by Māori and other New Zealanders.

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Māori and Pasifika Higher Education Horizons
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-703-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Justus N. Agumba and Theo C. Haupt

The purpose of this study was to investigate the personnel attributes perception on reliable and valid health and safety (H&S) practices within small- and medium-sized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the personnel attributes perception on reliable and valid health and safety (H&S) practices within small- and medium-sized construction enterprises (SMEs) in South Africa. It explores whether these valid and reliable H&S practices could be implemented based on the demographic attributes, namely, years of experience in the construction industry, number of years working in the current organisation and educational level.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method approach was used to conduct this research, namely, Delphi and questionnaire survey. A structured questionnaire consisting of 31 H&S practices categorised into five major H&S practices was developed from extensive literature review and the participation of 20 purposive sampled H&S experts. Sixteen H&S experts completed four iterations. A convenient sample of 1,450 SMEs was obtained. In total, 228 questionnaires were returned, of which 216 responses were useable for analysis. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to determine the validity, reliability and acceptability of the H&S practices. Finally, one-way ANOVA and t-test were conducted to determine personnel attributes perception on the implementation of the H&S practices.

Findings

The five major H&S practices (constructs), namely, upper management commitment and involvement in H&S, employee involvement and empowerment in H&S, project supervision, project H&S planning and communication in H&S and H&S resources and training, were retained as reliable and valid practices of H&S within construction SMEs at project level. One-way ANOVA established no statistical significant difference on the respondents’ perception of the H&S practices. However, t-test revealed statistically significant difference on the respondents’ perception on, upper management commitment and involvement in H&S and H&S resources and training. The respondents with post-matric qualification strongly agreed that upper management are committed and involved in H&S.

Originality/value

The findings may help construction SMEs to use these H&S practices to manage H&S in their projects. The SMEs may also consider the level of education of their personnel when implementing H&S practices of upper management and H&S resources and training.

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Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Russell D. Lansbury and Annabelle Quince

Various aspects of managerial and professional employees in Australia are examined in an attempt to establish if the Australian experience is similar to that reported in…

Abstract

Various aspects of managerial and professional employees in Australia are examined in an attempt to establish if the Australian experience is similar to that reported in other countries where “management” appears to have emerged as a third force between the employers and organised labour. It is argued that the new style manager is a younger, more highly educated “professional” but that the managerial function is also changing. A survey, conducted in Australia during 1985 of senior executives and 14 large scale organisations from both the public and private sector, provides the basis for this report of the changing characteristics of managerial and professional employees in Australia. Areas explored include the proportion of managers and professionals as a percentage of the labour force; particular characteristics which are emerging; education levels and qualifications; the process governing the movement of managers within the labour market; the effect of recent legislation on remuneration systems; and the degree of union membership among managers.

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Employee Relations, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Richmond Juvenile Ehwi, Lewis Abedi Asante and Emmanuel Kofi Gavu

In Ghana, the practice of landlords demanding that renters pay rent advance (RA) of between six months and five years is well noted. Surprisingly, renters appear divided…

Abstract

Purpose

In Ghana, the practice of landlords demanding that renters pay rent advance (RA) of between six months and five years is well noted. Surprisingly, renters appear divided into the benefits and drawbacks of the rent advance payment. Ahead of the 2020 general elections, the two leading political parties in Ghana promised to establish a rent assistance scheme to help renters working in the formal and informal sectors and earning regular incomes to pay their RA. This paper aims to scrutinize the differences in the demographic, employment and housing characteristics between the critics and non-critics of the RA payment in Ghana and the factors that predict the likelihood of being a critic of the RA system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is exploratory and draws empirical data from surveys administered to 327 graduate renters from 13 regions in Ghana. It uses non-parametric and parametric tests, namely, Chi-square goodness-of-fit and T-test to explore these differences between both critics and non-critics of the RA.

Findings

There are statistically significant differences between critics and non-critics in terms of the association between their educational attainment on the one hand and their marital status, employment status and employment sector on the other hand. The research also reveals that monthly expenditures, number of bedrooms and RA period significantly predict the likelihood of being a critic of the RA payment or otherwise.

Practical implications

The study provides evidence which policymakers can draw upon to inform housing policy.

Originality/value

The study is the first to study the housing characteristics of graduate renters and to quantitatively distinguish between critics and non-critics of RA payment in Ghana.

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International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Biagia De Devitiis and Ornella Wanda Maietta

This chapter highlights some features of the current structure of Italian agriculture by focusing on the regional patterns of agrarian change. These patterns are followed…

Abstract

This chapter highlights some features of the current structure of Italian agriculture by focusing on the regional patterns of agrarian change. These patterns are followed mainly by comparing the data of the 5th and 6th Census of Agriculture and the data of holdings registered to the Chambers of Commerce. The analysis confirms the Northern-Southern dichotomy of Italian agriculture as the physical and economic dimensions of Northern regions’ holdings are appreciably higher than those in the South. Other traits of farms, not usually included in most traditional analyses, help explain that Northern-Southern dichotomy: the farmers’ educational level and the ICT availability on farms. The agriculture of Southern regions has been affected less by the structural adjustment and has maintained some traits of more ‘traditional’ farming. However, important innovations, such as organic farming and direct selling to ‘consumers in house’, have been adopted more readily by Southern farms. The marked regional duality of Italian agriculture corresponds to the several ways in which farmers and their activities interconnect with territorial development models that have shown a deep regional differentiation.

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Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-597-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Joanne Scully

In recent years, concern about the negative environmental effects of technologies, and in particular the use of genetic engineering in food production, has become a major…

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Abstract

In recent years, concern about the negative environmental effects of technologies, and in particular the use of genetic engineering in food production, has become a major topic in public debate. Public acceptance of genetic engineering is vital to development of this technology. This study, carried out in Christchurch, New Zealand, explores the role of consumers opinions, attitudes and behaviours toward genetic engineering. It focuses on the relative perceived risk associated with consuming genetically engineering food and the role of food labelling in reducing this risk. The study found that most consumers are uninformed about genetic engineering and the potential benefits it holds. The level of accurate knowledge held by the consumer was found to be an important determinant in the perceived level of risk and willingness to accept genetic engineering. Notable relationships were also found between demographic variables, attitudes and behaviours towards genetically engineered produce.

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British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Naomi Birdthistle

The purpose of this paper is to examine the training and learning strategies adopted by family businesses in Ireland.

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2355

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the training and learning strategies adopted by family businesses in Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to implement the study a database of family businesses was compiled. A number of sources were used to compile the database. Primary data from a stratified random sample of independent unquoted businesses were collected. Data were collected from 121 family businesses using a postal questionnaire.

Findings

The key findings of this study are that family SMEs appear to prefer an informal learning strategy than a formal strategy and family SMEs are hindered by the lack of financial resources so as to enable learning and training to occur within the business.

Research limitations/implications

This study used a single‐respondent, self‐administered questionnaire. Future research should incorporate analysing other members of the family business – family and non‐family members – so as to get a “wider” understanding of learning and training in family businesses in Ireland.

Originality/value

This paper presents original findings in a highly relevant, but under‐researched field – family businesses in Ireland, the issue of learning and training of family businesses.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Marian Miller, Douglas Paton and David Johnston

This paper explores some psychological aspects of community vulnerability following the 1995 and 1996 eruptions at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. A model comprising three…

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Abstract

This paper explores some psychological aspects of community vulnerability following the 1995 and 1996 eruptions at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. A model comprising three psychological factors (sense of community, coping style and self‐efficacy) is used to investigate this issue. The results suggest that self‐efficacy and problem‐focused coping reduce vulnerability and that this model has a role to play in identifying vulnerable communities. The differential implications of physical and economic hazard consequences for community vulnerability were also examined. Data is presented that reinforces the view that the salience of volcanic hazard consequences is a result of their implications for community functions and resources. The implications for mitigation, threat communication and the development of resilient communities are discussed.

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Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Barry J. Bannister

As the role of the public sector manager adapts to the demands ofincreased organisational responsiveness and accountability, there is aneed for appropriate development…

Abstract

As the role of the public sector manager adapts to the demands of increased organisational responsiveness and accountability, there is a need for appropriate development programmes. The preliminary phase of a research project is reviewed which focuses on the developmental needs of a particular group of managers – namely, auditors and management analysts – whose responsibilities are likely to impinge increasingly upon the area of programme and organisational evaluation.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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1 – 10 of over 3000