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1 – 10 of over 3000
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

J.H. Lau, S.J. Erasmus and D.W. Rice

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is…

217

Abstract

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is presented. Emphasis is placed on a new understanding of the key elements (for example, tapes, bumps, inner lead bonding, testing and burn‐in on tape‐with‐chip, encapsulation, outer lead bonding, thermal management, reliability and rework) of this rapidly moving technology.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

J. Lau, R. Govila, C. Larner, Y.‐H. Pao, S. Erasmus, S. Dolot, M. Jalilian and M. Lancaster

Solvent‐clean and no‐clean mass reflow processes of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin fine pitch quad flat packs (QFPs) are presented. Emphasis is placed on fine pitch…

Abstract

Solvent‐clean and no‐clean mass reflow processes of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin fine pitch quad flat packs (QFPs) are presented. Emphasis is placed on fine pitch parameters such as printed circuit board (PCB) design, solder paste selection, stencil design, printing technology, component placement, mass reflow, cleaning and inspection. Furthermore, cross‐sections of component/PCB assemblies from both processes have been thoroughly studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

J. Lau, T. Krulevitch, W. Schar, M. Heydinger, S. Erasmus and J. Gleason

The mechanical and thermal responses of encapsulated flip chip solder bumps on a surface laminar circuit (SLC) board have been determined in this study. The mechanical responses…

Abstract

The mechanical and thermal responses of encapsulated flip chip solder bumps on a surface laminar circuit (SLC) board have been determined in this study. The mechanical responses of the solder bumps and encapsulant have been obtained by shear, tension and torsion tests. The thermal stress and strain in the solder bumps and encapsulant have been determined by a non‐linear finite element method and the thermal fatigue life of the corner solder bump is then estimated based on the calculated plastic strains, Coffin‐Manson law and isothermal fatigue data of solders. Also, an assembly process of the test boards is presented.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Goran Petković, Dubravka Užar and Aleksa Dokić

Food fraud has vexed the food industry throughout history. Today, it is still a present and multidimensional problem affecting all parts of the food industry. Food fraud…

Abstract

Food fraud has vexed the food industry throughout history. Today, it is still a present and multidimensional problem affecting all parts of the food industry. Food fraud encompasses adulteration, counterfeit, diversion of products outside of intended markets, over-run, simulation, tampering, theft, misrepresentation or mislabelling, malicious poisoning, bioterrorism or sabotage. It is difficult to detect and trace the source of unintentional contamination and related food safety concerns and even more difficult to detect instances of product fraud. The most common product categories that are associated with food fraud are olive oil, milk and milk-based products, fish and seafood, wine, tea, honey and organic foods. On the other hand, knowledge on what influences the occurrence of fraud in food supply chain is limited. The main research aim in this chapter is to determine key factors which influence the occurrence of food fraud within the organic supply chain, and how these factors differ between various organic marketing channel members. We focus on the application of qualitative methods for detecting key food fraud aspects including broad practical areas, such as opportunities and motivations to commit fraud, as well as the presence or lack of suitable food fraud control measures. These three key aspects are assessed to identify the perceived fraud vulnerability of the organic supply chain. The research is conducted with special attention to the context of the transition economies, since these markets require a new, comprehensive strategic approach to preventing and detecting food fraud and adulteration. The entire analysis is conducted on the Serbian market.

Details

Counterfeiting and Fraud in Supply Chains
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-574-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

J.H. Lau

The basic equations (infinitesimal strain‐displacement relations, constitutive equation, conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, rate of change of…

Abstract

The basic equations (infinitesimal strain‐displacement relations, constitutive equation, conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, rate of change of entropy, heat conduction equation, and definition of specific heat) and the governing equations (coupled, coupled‐quasi‐static, uncoupled‐quasi‐static, isotropic‐uncoupled‐quasi‐static and isotropic‐uncoupled‐steady) of thermoelasticity for a linear elastic package are briefly mentioned in the present study. The assumptions and limitations of these equations are also highlighted. Furthermore, two electronic packaging examples with closed form solutions using these equations are provided.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

A. Mödl

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is a powerful technique for connecting fine‐pitch integrated components to the corresponding substrates. This paper describes the specific example of…

Abstract

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is a powerful technique for connecting fine‐pitch integrated components to the corresponding substrates. This paper describes the specific example of hot‐bar soldering TAB components with an outer lead bonding (OLB) pitch of 0.150 mm to FR‐4 printed wiring boards. The prerequisites to be taken into account, the outer lead bonding process parameters, the hot‐bar soldering results and recommendations are presented.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Angela M. Allott

An account of the practical steps involved in building up, maintaining and exploiting a specialized collection of trade literature, standards and specifications, data…

Abstract

An account of the practical steps involved in building up, maintaining and exploiting a specialized collection of trade literature, standards and specifications, data compilations, and related material to produce a user‐orientated service (World Metal Index WMI). The origin and scope of the collection is outlined, together with the basic routines of updating (management responsibility, job allocation, delegation and supervision). The problems involved in co‐ordinating input from manufacturers, government organizations, national standards bodies, material users and commercially published sources in many languages are covered. The organization of files, indexing rules, etc. is described. The ‘spin‐offs’ and by‐products of the WMI are indicated. An attempt is made to answer the questions: Is the collection a successful information tool? Does it benefit the user? Finally, possible future developments are mentioned.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Z.N. Cheng, G.Z. Wang, L. Chen, J. Wilde and K. Becker

A viscoplastic constitutive model, the Anand model, in which plasticity and creep are unified and described by the same set of flow and evolutionary relations, was applied to…

2983

Abstract

A viscoplastic constitutive model, the Anand model, in which plasticity and creep are unified and described by the same set of flow and evolutionary relations, was applied to represent the inelastic deformation behavior for solder alloys. After conducting creep tests and constant strain rate tests, the material parameters for the Anand model of the Pb‐rich content solder 92.5Pb5Sn2.5Ag were determined from the experimental data using a nonlinear fitting method. The material parameters for 60Sn40Pb, 62Sn36Pb2Ag and 96.5Sn3.5Ag solders were fitted from the conventional model in the literature where plasticity and creep are artificially separated. Model simulations and verifications reveal that there is good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data. Some discussion on this unified model is also presented. This viscoplastic constitutive model for solder alloys possesses some advantages over the separated model. The achieved Anand model has been applied in finite element simulation of stress/strain responses in solder joints for chip component, thin quad flat pack and flip‐chip assembly. The simulation results are in good agreement with the results in the literature. It is concluded that the Anand model could be recommended as a useful material model for solder alloys and can be used in the finite element simulation of solder joint reliability in electronic packaging and surface mount technology.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Hester Nienaber and Göran Svensson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the leadership tasks at the different hierarchical levels in the organisation in terms of the teleological approaches to complexity science.

1549

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the leadership tasks at the different hierarchical levels in the organisation in terms of the teleological approaches to complexity science.

Design/methodology/approach

It is based upon a theoretical discussion linked to conceptual and managerial frameworks in conjunction with a conceptual analysis.

Findings

The introduced conceptual and managerial frameworks provide a foundation to the understanding of organisational performance. They also strive to offer a foundation of understanding to management and leadership and how they complement each other.

Research limitations/implications

It is not easy to empirically substantiate complexity in conceptual and managerial frameworks. The authors use teleological approaches of complexity science in an unorthodox way that need validation in a broader context offering opportunities for further research.

Practical implications

We need to think differently about organisational performance and how we present and reflect on information that appears to be “linear” although it is not necessarily the case.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to an alternative assessment organisational performance. It endeavours to reflect on the complexity of organisations and taking into account a pluralistic approach that synthesises a variety of perspectives, including a bottom‐up approach to problem solving.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1913

JOHANN FROBEN, the famous printer of Basle, was born at Hammelburg, in Franconia, about the year 1460. The exact year of his birth is not definitely known, but 1460 is probably…

Abstract

JOHANN FROBEN, the famous printer of Basle, was born at Hammelburg, in Franconia, about the year 1460. The exact year of his birth is not definitely known, but 1460 is probably not far wrong, as we find him established at Basle as a printer in 1491. He was educated at Basle University, where he distinguished himself as a scholar, particularly in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages. After finishing his studies at Basle, he turned his attention to the then new art of printing, and he showed such aptitude that Johann Amerbach, another well‐known printer of Basle, who had set up a press in that city in 1481, induced him to devote his energies to the art, and appointed him to a position in his own printing establishment. Froben thus had the advantage of learning the art of printing under one of the best known printers of the period. In 1491, Froben set up a press of his own in Basle, having become a naturalized citizen of that city the previous year. He had been used in Amerbach's establishment to print with gothic types, and it was, therefore, but natural that his first production should also be printed in that type. This was an octavo Latin Bible, with two columns to a page, printed in a very small gothic type. He afterwards introduced the type invented by Aldus, that known as italic, the first book to be printed with this type being the Adagia of Erasmus, issued in 1513, of which mention is made later. Froben was also instrumental in making the roman type more popular in Germany, as although roman type had been used by German printers for about 20 years, having been introduced by Mentelin at Strassburg, about the year 1470, it was not so much in favour as the gothic type.

Details

New Library World, vol. 15 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

1 – 10 of over 3000