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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Daniel Yu Chuan Liew and Faizah Che Ros

Flood vulnerability is a complex concept involving the interactions between environment, social and economic dimensions. Indicator‐based vulnerability assessment is widely…

Abstract

Flood vulnerability is a complex concept involving the interactions between environment, social and economic dimensions. Indicator‐based vulnerability assessment is widely used in vulnerability studies to summarise complexity and multidimensionality issues to gauge the level of vulnerability. A set of 21 environmental and socio‐economic indicators is used to quantitatively assess the three factors of vulnerability, namely exposure, susceptibility and resilience to flood at the subnational level. The construction of the vulnerability index involved the selection of indicators, their normalisation, weightage and aggregation to a final index. In addition to the Flood Vulnerability Index, three sub‐indices namely Exposure Index, Susceptibility Index and Resilience Index were generated. Based on composite indicator approach, the vulnerability of the states in Malaysia was categorised from very low to very high. The source of vulnerability is due not only to the environmental exposure to flood hazard but also contributed by the internal status of the socio‐economic factors within the vulnerable systems.

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2022

Yukti Sharma and Saravana Jaikumar

Subsistence marketplace can be characterized as a marketplace with widespread cognitive and social vulnerabilities, due to low income and low literacy levels. This may…

Abstract

Purpose

Subsistence marketplace can be characterized as a marketplace with widespread cognitive and social vulnerabilities, due to low income and low literacy levels. This may result in retailers exploiting the consumers. The purpose of this research paper is to develop a holistic learning program to impart marketplace intelligence to overcome these vulnerabilities of subsistence consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using vicious cycle approach, the authors illustrate the self-perpetuating nature of consumer vulnerabilities. The authors argue that retailers behave in an opportunistic manner and exploit the consumers. This further reinforces the vulnerabilities of subsistence consumers resulting in a vicious cycle. The authors draw insights from Sen’s capability approach and propose marketplace intelligence as a potential solution to eradicate consumers’ vulnerabilities. The authors apply Biggs’s 3Ps model to design a learning program to impart two types of marketplace intelligence – marketplace metacognition and marketplace social intelligence.

Findings

Based on a review of literature on subsistence marketplace initiatives, persuasive knowledge management and education research, the authors have devised a holistic learning program comprising an integrated learning environment (presage), problem-based approach (process) and assessment strategies for learning outcomes (product).

Originality/value

This study marks a pioneering effort toward liberating subsistence consumers from the vicious cycle of retailers’ exploitation by empowering them with marketplace intelligence. This study’s novelty lies in conceptualizing consumer vulnerabilities in the subsistence marketplace as a self-perpetuating phenomenon and subsequently designing a holistic learning program to impart intelligence toward alleviating these vulnerabilities.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

Dereje Amene Yimam and Nathalie Holvoet

The purpose of this study is to identify the most vulnerable households and districts in Northwest Ethiopia and help decision-makers in developing and prioritising…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the most vulnerable households and districts in Northwest Ethiopia and help decision-makers in developing and prioritising effective adaptive strategies and actions.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-scale analytical tool and hazard-generic socio-economic indicators were developed to identify and prioritise the most vulnerable households and districts in Northwest Ethiopia. Categorical principal component analysis with 36 indicators was used to develop weights for different indicators and construct a household intrinsic vulnerability index. Data were collected through key information interviews, focus group discussions and a household survey with 1,602 randomly selected households in three districts of Northwest Ethiopia.

Findings

Drawing on intrinsic vulnerability index computation, this study highlights that low levels of education, low access to climate information and credit services, long distance travelled to fetch water and frequent food shortages are the dominant factors contributing to high levels of intrinsic vulnerability at district level, while lack of livelihood support and income diversification are the key drivers of vulnerability at household level. The findings of this study further show that the majority of households (78.01%) falls within the very high to moderately high vulnerable category. Disaggregating the data according to agro-climatic zones highlights that the prevalence of high intrinsic vulnerability is most widespread in the lowland agro-climatic zone (82.64%), followed by the highland (81.97%) and midland zones (69.40%).

Practical implications

From a policy intervention vantage point, addressing the drivers of vulnerability provides a reliable approach to reduce the current vulnerability level and manage potential climate change-induced risks of a system. Specifically, reliable information on inherent vulnerability will assist policymakers in developing policies and prioritising actions aimed at reducing vulnerability and assisting in the rational distribution of resources among households at a local level.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing vulnerability literature by showing how hazard-generic socio-economic indicators in the vulnerability assessment adopted by the IPCC (2014) are important to identify drives of vulnerability which ultimately may feed into a more fundamental treatment of vulnerability.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Roger L. Kemp

The purpose of this paper is to set forth a rigorous methodology for building owners and managers to conduct a vulnerability assessment of their facilities. Such a process…

801

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set forth a rigorous methodology for building owners and managers to conduct a vulnerability assessment of their facilities. Such a process would facilitate the use of remediation measures to limit the loss of life and property during a disaster, whether natural or man‐made.

Design/methodology/approach

The author sets forth nine criteria to conduct a vulnerability assessment, along with a six‐point rating system. The criteria selected are: the level of visibility, the criticality of the site to the jurisdiction in which it is located, the impact of the site outside of the jurisdiction in which it is located, access to the site, size hazards, building height, type of construction, site population capacity, and the potential for collateral mass casualties. This evaluative process leads to five site vulnerability ratings, ranked as follows: negligible, low, medium, high, and critical.

Findings

Property owners and building managers can use this process to assess the vulnerability of their facilities and, based on this process and the resulting vulnerability rating, initiate common‐sense remediation measures to limit the loss of life and property, should a disaster occur.

Research limitations/implications

The field of vulnerability assessment is a new discipline within the evolving subject of homeland security. Other methodologies will be needed in the future to determine the vulnerability of other public and private facilities, such as ports, airports, transportation centers, hospitals, colleges and universities, and other vital public and private facilities.

Practical implications

This research provides a framework for future research on the topic of vulnerability assessments. Refinements and modifications can be made to the proposed methodology (both to the vulnerability assessment criteria and to the vulnerability ratings).

Originality/value

This paper provides original research and sets forth a new methodology for conducting vulnerability assessments of public and private buildings.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Tomas Hellström

To develop a decision model supporting employee involvement in industrial vulnerability reduction.

1883

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a decision model supporting employee involvement in industrial vulnerability reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis review of some of the relevant extant literature on technological/industrial vulnerability, and their application within a normative decision‐making model (i.e. the “Vroom‐Yetton model”).

Findings

The insights on vulnerability drawn from the literature are highly amenable to a systematic decision‐making model for employee involvement. Various aspects of vulnerability, specifically with regard to substantial, social and temporal dimensions may be included in such a model.

Research limitations/implications

New insights about the context‐dependent aspects of vulnerability are offered by considering these within a contingency decision model. This suggests that vulnerability categories are not absolute, but have to be assessed in relation to a specific decision‐making framework.

Practical implications

The developed model provides a way of weighting various dimensions of vulnerability and making more appropriate decisions regarding leadership style in a range of circumstances.

Originality/value

While decision models exist for assessing risk in organizations, no contingency model for employee involvement in vulnerability assessment has been presented to date.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Bardia Naghshineh and Helena Carvalho

This study aims to explore how certain adoption barriers of additive manufacturing (AM) technology may lead to supply chain (SC) vulnerabilities, which in turn would…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how certain adoption barriers of additive manufacturing (AM) technology may lead to supply chain (SC) vulnerabilities, which in turn would deteriorate supply chain resilience (SCR).

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a leading original equipment manufacturer (OEM) that uses AM technology to directly produce end-use metal parts for different industries was performed. Primary data were collected using the in-depth interview method, which was complemented by secondary data from internal and publicly available sources. The findings were compared with the existing literature to triangulate the results.

Findings

The findings indicate that certain AM adoption barriers make the SC vulnerable to reliance on specialty sources, supplier capacity, production capacity, utilization of restricted materials, importance of product purity, raw material availability, unpredictability in customer demand, reliability of equipment, unforeseen technology failures, reliance on information flow, industrial espionage, and utilities availability.

Research limitations/implications

The SCR outcomes of the identified SC vulnerabilities and their interrelated AM adoption barriers are proposed in this study.

Practical implications

Drawing on the case study findings and the existing literature, several practices are put forward in a framework that supply chain management (SCM) may use to mitigate the identified SC vulnerabilities caused by the AM adoption barriers.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically examine and identify the SC vulnerabilities that are caused by the adoption barriers of AM technology.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2022

Shweta Shweta, Dinesh Kumar and Dheeraj Chandra

One of the most important components of healthcare is the timely delivery of pharmaceutical products, such as life-saving medicines. However, disruptions like COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the most important components of healthcare is the timely delivery of pharmaceutical products, such as life-saving medicines. However, disruptions like COVID-19 bring new challenges and risks to the pharmaceutical supply chain (PSC) and healthcare organizations that impact their operational performance. This study focuses on mitigating risks in India's generic medicine supply chain (GMSC) as a result of various disruptions, which can assist policymakers develop appropriate plans and strategies to build resilience in the Jan Aushadhi Scheme (JAS) of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in order to improve their overall performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Risk-causing vulnerabilities and resilience capabilities are identified from the literature review and expert's opinions. Following that, the vulnerabilities are classified into cause-and-effect vulnerabilities, and supply chain resilient capabilities (SCRCs) are measured using a hybrid fuzzy DEMATEL and best worst method (FDEMATEL-BMW) framework.

Findings

The outcome of the study reveals that transportation breakdown, loss of human resources and loss of suppliers are the potential risk-causing vulnerabilities that lead to vulnerabilities like shortages of medicines, loss of in-hand stock qualities and loss of sales/revenue. In addition, the analysis suggests that the sustainability of an organization with maximum weightage is the critical factor for building resilience in GMSC followed by flexibility, agility and visibility.

Practical implications

The integration of resilience into Jan Aushadhi GMSC can help in managing disruptions efficiently and effectively to mitigate risk and optimize MSMEs overall performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work will be the first of its kind to model resilience in GMSC of MSMEs using a hybrid framework.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

Cristino Tiburan, Izuru Saizen and Shintaro Kobayashi

Developing countries such as the Philippines depend greatly on their natural resources and ecosystem services. However, the capacity to sustain these services is currently…

Abstract

Developing countries such as the Philippines depend greatly on their natural resources and ecosystem services. However, the capacity to sustain these services is currently being pressured by various environmental hazards, mainly brought about by climate change. Thus, it is imperative to assess the vulnerability of the environment so that effective ecosystem-based management strategy can be developed to improve the sustainability of these services. This chapter presents a geospatial-based method in assessing the vulnerability of watersheds in the country to various environmental hazards. This model is called the Geospatial-Based Regional Environmental Vulnerability Index for Ecosystems and Watersheds, or, in short, the GeoREVIEW model. GeoREVIEW is composed of 21 indicators and each indicator is evaluated using a scale of 1 to 5. A scale of 1 indicates low vulnerability while a scale of 5 signifies high vulnerability. Finally, to determine the vulnerability level of the area, its overall vulnerability point (OVP) is calculated. This model is utilized to evaluate the vulnerability of two significant ecosystems near Metro Manila – the La Mesa Watershed (LMW) and the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve (MFR). Based on the assessment, it was found that both are already classified as “at risk” levels. However, MFR (OVP=55.24) is found to be less vulnerable than LMW (OVP=62.52). The results from this assessment can be used to improve the management of these areas and can also aid in targeting policy interventions associated with climate change.

Details

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-691-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

G M D'Este and M A P Taylor

The importance of the adverse impacts of network degradation has stimulated substantial international research interest in transport network reliability, that is, the…

Abstract

The importance of the adverse impacts of network degradation has stimulated substantial international research interest in transport network reliability, that is, the ability of degraded transport networks to cope with travel demand. Most of the recent research effort has focused on the reliability of urban passenger transport networks, in terms of the probability that the network will deliver a required standard of performance. This situation is characterised by high levels of congestion, a dense road network, and quantifiable probability of degradation of the network. Outside major urban centres, the situation is very different. The main dominant consideration in transport network infrastructure provision is accessibility - linking urban centres, providing regional coverage, and basic levels of accessibility for the non-urban community and economy. The network is sparse, congestion is not a significant issue, and access to essential community services and to markets is the major driving force underlying network development. In this context, the vulnerability of the network is perhaps more important than ‘reliability’. This paper develops the concept of network vulnerability. It begins by reviewing the current state of research into network reliability, then proposes extensions and adaptations to the reliability concepts that are more appropriate for strategic-level multi-modal transport systems. Several alternative definitions for vulnerability are proposed. The paper also discusses the development of algorithmic and visualisation tools that may be used to identify specific ‘weak spots’ in a network, where failure of some part of the transport infrastructure would have the most serious effects on access to specific locations and on overall system performance. Finally, the paper describes potential applications of network vulnerability concepts, and proposes directions for further research.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political…

Abstract

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political problems. The devastating impact of the 1982 and 1994–1995 Mexican crises, the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian crisis, and the ongoing financial crisis of 2008–2009 suggests that maintaining financial sector stability through reduction in vulnerability is highly crucial. The world is now witnessing an unprecedented systemic financial crisis originated from the USA in September 2008 together with a deep worldwide economic recession, particularly in developed countries of Europe and North America. This calls for devising and using on a regular basis an appropriate and effective monitoring and policy formulation system for detecting and addressing vulnerabilities leading to crisis. This chapter proposes a macroprudential/financial soundness monitoring, analysis, and remedial policy formulation system that can be used by most developing countries with or without crisis experience as well as with limited data. It also discusses a process for identifying and compiling a set of leading macroprudential/financial soundness indicators. An empirical illustration using Philippines data is presented. There is an urgent need for increased coordination, collaboration, and partnership among central banks, banking and financial market supervision agencies, and ministries of finance, economic, and planning for proper macroprudential monitoring. A high-level national financial stability committee under the auspices of the head of the state as well as a ‘‘regional financial stability board’’ needs to be established to complement and support the activities of an “international stability board.”

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