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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Željka Mesić and Josip Juračak

Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in interest about fraud in food supply chain. Victims of food fraud and counterfeiting can be different actors…

Abstract

Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in interest about fraud in food supply chain. Victims of food fraud and counterfeiting can be different actors in the supply chain: distributors, retailers and, most importantly, customers. Victims of food fraud face not only economic losses, but also health and safety risks when handling or consuming fraudulent products. The aim of this paper is to present the situation regarding counterfeiting and fraud in the food supply chain from a theoretical and practical point of view. The attitudes and opinions of consumers, experts in the field and retailers on the occurrence of food fraud and counterfeiting were explored. The results of an online survey of 326 consumers in Croatia showed that their awareness of food fraud is low. Most of them are only partially familiar with food fraud or do not know anything about this issue. The respondents are most familiar with mislabelling of organic products, meat packaging date fraud, and misuse of geographical indications (PDO/PGI). Consumers have low trust in all organisations that should protect them from food fraud (e.g. Croatian national institutions and authorities). A survey with eight food experts (olive oil, wine, milk and dairy products, honey, strong alcoholic beverages) found that they very rarely encounter food fraud in their work, usually two or more times a year. Retailers are aware of the existence of food fraud, but still do not take measures beyond the usual level in their quality assurance systems. To raise awareness of food fraud, education of all stakeholders by relevant institutions is needed.

Details

Counterfeiting and Fraud in Supply Chains
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-574-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Aleksandra Nikolić, Alen Mujčinović and Dušanka Bošković

Food fraud as intentional deception for economic gain relies on a low-tech food value chain, that applies a ‘paper-and-pencil approach’, unable to provide reliable and…

Abstract

Food fraud as intentional deception for economic gain relies on a low-tech food value chain, that applies a ‘paper-and-pencil approach’, unable to provide reliable and trusted data about food products, accompanied processes/activities and actors involved. Such approach has created the information asymmetry that leads to erosion of stakeholders and consumers trust, which in turn discourages cooperation within the food chain by damaging its ability to decrease uncertainty and capability to provide authentic, nutritional, accessible and affordable food for all. Lack of holistic approach, focus on stand-alone measures, lack of proactive measures and undermined role of customers have been major factors behind weaknesses of current anti-fraud measures system. Thus, the process of strong and fast digitalisation enabled by the new emerging technology called Industry 4.0 is a way to provide a shift from food fraud detection to efficient prevention. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to shed light on current challenges and opportunities associated with Industry 4.0 technology enablers' guardian role in food fraud prevention with the hope to inform future researchers, experts and decision-makers about opportunities opened up by transforming to new cyber-physical-social ecosystem, or better to say ‘self-thinking’ food value chain whose foundations are already under development. The systematic literature network analysis is applied to fulfil the stated objective. Digitalisation and Industry 4.0 can be used to develop a system that is cost effective and ensures data integrity and prevents tampering and single point failure through offering fault tolerance, immutability, trust, transparency and full traceability of the stored transaction records to all agri-food value chain partners. In addition, such approach lays a foundation for adopting new business models, strengthening food chain resilience, sustainability and innovation capacity.

Details

Counterfeiting and Fraud in Supply Chains
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-574-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Goran Petković, Dubravka Užar and Aleksa Dokić

Food fraud has vexed the food industry throughout history. Today, it is still a present and multidimensional problem affecting all parts of the food industry. Food fraud

Abstract

Food fraud has vexed the food industry throughout history. Today, it is still a present and multidimensional problem affecting all parts of the food industry. Food fraud encompasses adulteration, counterfeit, diversion of products outside of intended markets, over-run, simulation, tampering, theft, misrepresentation or mislabelling, malicious poisoning, bioterrorism or sabotage. It is difficult to detect and trace the source of unintentional contamination and related food safety concerns and even more difficult to detect instances of product fraud. The most common product categories that are associated with food fraud are olive oil, milk and milk-based products, fish and seafood, wine, tea, honey and organic foods. On the other hand, knowledge on what influences the occurrence of fraud in food supply chain is limited. The main research aim in this chapter is to determine key factors which influence the occurrence of food fraud within the organic supply chain, and how these factors differ between various organic marketing channel members. We focus on the application of qualitative methods for detecting key food fraud aspects including broad practical areas, such as opportunities and motivations to commit fraud, as well as the presence or lack of suitable food fraud control measures. These three key aspects are assessed to identify the perceived fraud vulnerability of the organic supply chain. The research is conducted with special attention to the context of the transition economies, since these markets require a new, comprehensive strategic approach to preventing and detecting food fraud and adulteration. The entire analysis is conducted on the Serbian market.

Details

Counterfeiting and Fraud in Supply Chains
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-574-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 December 2021

Faeze Rezazade, Jane Summers and Derek Ong Lai Teik

Global food fraud incidents are regularly reported and are on the rise due to the ineffectiveness of traditional food safety intervention strategies. The increase in food

Abstract

Purpose

Global food fraud incidents are regularly reported and are on the rise due to the ineffectiveness of traditional food safety intervention strategies. The increase in food fraud opportunity is prevalent in the state of the COVID-19 pandemic as well. Food fraud vulnerability assessment (FFVA) is acknowledged as a critical requirement by the Global Food Safety Initiatives (GFSIs) and the World Health Organisation for an effective food fraud mitigation plan. However, there is no clear direction or ways to identify and analyse food fraud vulnerability factors based on real-data.

Design/methodology/approach

Combining the barrier analysis technique and the routine activity theory to review the 580 cases of food fraud recorded in the Decernis database, this paper identified new food fraud vulnerability dimensions and insights pinpointed to three categories of opportunity, motivation and countermeasures.

Findings

New dimensions of food fraud vulnerability factors are identified in this paper over the period 2000–2018. Where possible, new insights related to each food fraud vulnerability factor and dimension were identified, and literature evidence was used to confirm their contribution.

Originality/value

There is a gap observed in the first step of FFVA in the literature. This paper is the first study to undertake a FFVA based on evidence recorded in a global food fraud database. This paper offers critical insights into global food fraud regulations by exploring the new emerging root causes of food fraud and analysing them, supporting developing effective food fraud prevention plans (FFPPs).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Robert Smith and Gerard McElwee

Food supply chain theory and practice generally assumes that the business practices and processes involved are ethical, legal and value-adding when this is not always so…

Abstract

Purpose

Food supply chain theory and practice generally assumes that the business practices and processes involved are ethical, legal and value-adding when this is not always so, as demonstrated by the ongoing 2013 horse-meat scandal. Although it is ostensibly a UK-based affair, it encompasses the meat processing industry across Europe. This study, thus, aims to examine supply chain criminality and to highlight “scandal scripts” which amplify underlying issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of extant literature on the scandal adds to that body of work, updating the existing narrative to include a detailed analysis of convicted “industry insiders”, highlighting supply chain issues involved in the frauds. Micro-stories of businessmen involved are presented to enable an empirical exploration of their illegal involvement in the meat trade. Using storied data from accounts of the scandal as contemporary examples, emerging themes and issues are outlined through a mixed methods qualitative approach consisting of ethical covert research, using documentary research strategy underpinned by narrative inquiry.

Findings

Media coverage perpetuated various myths notably that the fraud was carried out by “shadowy”, Eastern European “mafia figures” exploiting the extended food supply chains. The analysis is aided by the use of media hypothesis. Far from being a mafia-inspired fraud, the criminal activity was organised in nature and committed by insider businessmen. The findings demonstrate that supply chains are complex and require an understanding of storied business practices, including the ethical and illegal.

Research limitations/implications

From an academic perspective, there are implications such as the dearth of academic research and policy-related studies into food fraud possibly because of the difficulty in obtaining data because of access to such enterprises and entrepreneurs necessitating reliance upon documentary sources and investigative journalism.

Practical implications

There are distinct policy implications, particularly the need to legislate against international criminal conspiracies and everyday ordinary organised food frauds perpetuated. Lax penalties do little to prevent such crimes which need to be taken more seriously by the authorities, and treated as major crime. In formulating food laws, rules and regulations, greater cognisance should be taken to consider how supply chains in the food industry could be better protected from predatory criminal actions.

Originality/value

This novel qualitative study will enable academics and practitioners to better understand illegal enterprise, food fraud and risk management from both operational and supply chain perspectives and will be useful to investigators by furthering our understanding of entrepreneurial practice and morality in the food industry.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Rachita Gupta and Ravi Shankar

The aim of this paper is to develop a model for the prioritization of collusive behaviours within Indian food grain supply chain (FGSC) to enable government authorities…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to develop a model for the prioritization of collusive behaviours within Indian food grain supply chain (FGSC) to enable government authorities, entrusted with the task of public distribution, to address those frauds based on their priority for making an existing supply chain more sustainable.

Design/methodology/approach

An interval 2-tuple linguistic Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (ITL-TOPSIS) method has been used to deal with the problem of prioritization of frauds under incomplete and uncertain information. Unlike traditional methods, this methodology offers an ability to make informed decisions, without loss of information, while factoring in various ambiguities.

Findings

The outcome indicates that the most severe fraud is adulteration, which adversely impacts the health of a person. Bogus Ration Card comes next, as it results into the distribution of grains to non-poor, ineligible population rather than the deserving beneficiaries. Next is diversion, where diverted food grains end up being sold at much higher rates than specified subsidized rates. Theft is least severe, as this would not affect FGSC much until done on large scale.

Research limitations/implications

More decision-makers can be consulted to entertain more uncertainty and ambiguity. Also, a comparative study can be performed using different methodologies.

Practical Implications

The proposed modelling could empower various governmental and non-governmental regulatory bodies in formulation of food policies to effectively tackle the problem of inappropriate delivery of food to the unintended population and to take necessary informed decisions for ensuring food security and safety to the society at large.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of studies related to the prioritization of frauds within FGSC. This research bridges the gap in literature by providing a decision-making framework for prioritizing collusive behaviour under ambiguous and uncertain information.

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Jade Lindley

Economically motivated food crimes are widespread, and it appears countries and consumers across the globe are affected. Foods targeted and ways of dealing with food

Abstract

Purpose

Economically motivated food crimes are widespread, and it appears countries and consumers across the globe are affected. Foods targeted and ways of dealing with food crimes vary according to several factors, including the source and destination of the food; demand; availability (e.g. short growing season); price; environmental impacts, such as sustainability (e.g. seafood); likely consumers (e.g. babies); and regulatory controls. Internationally, several foods are well known to be commonly targeted by unscrupulous criminal groups, ultimately leaving unsuspecting consumers exposed economically and physiologically. The purpose of this paper is to understand the nature of food fraud and the criminals committing it.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on a systematic search of international scholarly literature from a wide cross-section of disciplines, parliamentary documents and media articles relating to food crime, this paper cautions the vulnerabilities to food crimes in Australia from a criminological perspective. It draws on crime opportunity theory to explain the modus operandi of criminals engaging in food fraud.

Findings

Inadequate testing regimes, unclear definitions and inadequate laws expose consumers and vulnerable industries to food crimes. With reference to uniquely Australian examples, this paper highlights exposure opportunities and concludes with lessons drawn internationally. Further research is underway to explore how these vulnerabilities can be resolved through closing regulatory gaps and the introduction of innovative technology.

Originality/value

This paper usefully draws on trends in the literature and applies crime opportunity theory to understand how food fraud may present in Australia for everyday foods, as well as emerging and highly prized markets.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Inna Levy and Pamela Kerschke-Risch

The current research focused on attitudes toward food fraud (AFF) and examined the impact of types of food fraud, gender differences, and country of residence.

Abstract

Purpose

The current research focused on attitudes toward food fraud (AFF) and examined the impact of types of food fraud, gender differences, and country of residence.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of German (n = 151) and Israeli (n = 496) participants was recruited through an online survey. They filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire and AFF scale, which includes three subscales: organic fraud, kosher fraud, and spraying fraud.

Findings

The results indicate that there is a significant effect of type of fraud, country of residence, and gender. German participants expressed more negative attitudes toward organic food fraud and less negative attitudes toward kosher fraud than Israeli participants. Women expressed more negative attitudes toward organic and kosher food frauds than men.

Originality/value

This study offers insight into cross-cultural and gender differences in attitudes toward food fraud. The findings suggest that public attitudes toward food fraud represent not just severity of possible consequences, but also environmental and religious aspects of consumption, norms and culture.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2022

Veronica Marozzo, Marta Meleddu and Tindara Abbate

The study jointly investigates sustainability and authenticity concepts in the food context during the COVID-19 outbreak with a fourfold objective: (1) understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The study jointly investigates sustainability and authenticity concepts in the food context during the COVID-19 outbreak with a fourfold objective: (1) understanding whether sustainability and authenticity are equivalent concepts in consumers' perceptions; (2) advancing knowledge on the role played by them about food frauds' perception; (3) investigating whether these concepts are considered as “risk relievers” by consumers, (4) comparing the concepts to understand which one has a greater weight on the consumer's perception.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a Combination of a Uniform and a shifted Binomial distribution (CUB models) on data gathered in Spain between June and August 2020 through an online questionnaire.

Findings

The findings reveal that: (1) consumers perceive sustainability and authenticity as different concepts in the food context and (2) as two important indicators of fraud protection of a product for consumers; (3) besides, authenticity is seen as a “risk reliever” in buying a food product, as well as sustainability, (4) although results underline high uncertainty in the latter case.

Originality/value

By considering that the COVID-19 outbreak seriously threatens food safety, security and nutrition, this research elucidates the relevant role of food sustainability and authenticity concepts as “risk relievers” in terms of food frauds and negative issues related to COVID-19.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Jana Koubová, Eva Samková and Lucie Hasonová

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate food fraud detection in the Czech food retail market based on the findings of the Czech Agricultural and Food Inspection Authority (CAFIA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate food fraud detection in the Czech food retail market based on the findings of the Czech Agricultural and Food Inspection Authority (CAFIA).

Design/methodology/approach

The outcomes of administrative proceedings from 2009 and 2013 were used. Data were collected from e-databases of the CAFIA and sorted by the current valid qualification for food fraud following Article 16, Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

Findings

Food fraud was detected, almost to the same extent, in both selected years by laboratory testing as well as on the basis of “on the spot” controls in retail establishments. The meat products were a food group with the most fraudulent tendency in both selected years.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the overview of food fraud and could help to detect ways of food deception for the competent authorities and consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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