A viscoplastic constitutive model, the Anand model, in which plasticity and creep are unified and described by the same set of flow and evolutionary relations, was applied to represent the inelastic deformation behavior for solder alloys. After conducting creep tests and constant strain rate tests, the material parameters for the Anand model of the Pb‐rich content solder 92.5Pb5Sn2.5Ag were determined from the experimental data using a nonlinear fitting method. The material parameters for 60Sn40Pb, 62Sn36Pb2Ag and 96.5Sn3.5Ag solders were fitted from the conventional model in the literature where plasticity and creep are artificially separated. Model simulations and verifications reveal that there is good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data. Some discussion on this unified model is also presented. This viscoplastic constitutive model for solder alloys possesses some advantages over the separated model. The achieved Anand model has been applied in finite element simulation of stress/strain responses in solder joints for chip component, thin quad flat pack and flip‐chip assembly. The simulation results are in good agreement with the results in the literature. It is concluded that the Anand model could be recommended as a useful material model for solder alloys and can be used in the finite element simulation of solder joint reliability in electronic packaging and surface mount technology.
Cheng, Z.N., Wang, G.Z., Chen, L., Wilde, J. and Becker, K. (2000), "Viscoplastic Anand model for solder alloys and its application", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/09540910010331428
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