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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2020

Qian Chen, Rong Huang, Ka Ying Pak and Bing Hou

Little empirical research has examined the role of culture on the internal marketing-employee satisfaction (ES) relationship, and even fewer studies focus on this subject in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Little empirical research has examined the role of culture on the internal marketing-employee satisfaction (ES) relationship, and even fewer studies focus on this subject in the airline sector. This paper aims to assess whether culture moderates the contribution of internal marketing to the satisfaction of employees from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) airlines.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation is conducted via a structured questionnaire with 310 cabin crew members who work at three GCC airlines. Multi-group analysis was used within SmartPLS 3.0 to measure whether the impact of internal marketing on ES is moderated by cultural congruence.

Findings

The results reveal the practice of internal marketing contributes to ES in GCC airlines, while cultural congruence moderates the direct relationship between internal marketing and the satisfaction of airlines’ employees. The results indicate that airlines need to satisfy the cultural needs of employees to increase their satisfaction for successful internal marketing practice.

Originality/value

This study contributes towards assessing the moderation effects of cultural congruence on internal marketing practice in the airline sector. It contributes to the current literature on aviation research, as well as specific managerial implications for the airlines and managers to achieve higher competitiveness.

研究目的

文化一致性是否会影响企业内部营销活动与员工满意度二者之间的关系?目前在这方面的研究还很稀缺, 而聚焦于航空领域的这一主题的研究更是少之又少。本研究以海湾合作委员会的航空公司为例, 旨在分析文化一致性因素能否调节企业内部营销活动对员工满意度的影响力。

研究方法

本研究对三家海湾合作委员会的航空公司共计310名的空服人员展开了问卷调查。通过运用SmartPLS 3.0 软件的多群组分析方法来具体评估航空公司的内部营销活动对其员工满意度的影响是否会被文化一致性因素所调节。

研究结论

研究结果显示, 在海湾合作委员会航空公司中, 内部营销活动的实施有助于员工满意度的提升;同时文化一致性因素可以调节航空公司的内部营销活动对其员工满意度的影响。该结果表明, 为了获得成功的内部营销实践, 航空公司需要满足员工的不同文化需求, 以期提高员工的满意度.

研究价值

本研究聚焦于分析文化一致性对航空公司内部营销实践的调节效应。其不仅是对当前航空研究领域文献的补充, 同时也能够为航空公司及其管理者提供具体的管理方法, 从而获得更多的竞争优势。

Propósito

el papel de la cultura en la relación de satisfacción de los empleados y el marketing interno ha sido examinada en pocas investigaciones empíricas, e incluso menos estudios se centran en este tema en el sector de las aerolíneas. Este documento tiene como objetivo evaluar si la cultura modera la contribución del marketing interno a la satisfacción de los empleados de las aerolíneas del Consejo de Cooperación del Golfo (CCG).

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

la investigación se real a través de un cuestionario estructurado con 310 miembros de la tripulación de cabina que trabajan en tres aerolíneas del CCG. El análisis de grupo múltiple se realizó con SmartPLS 3.0 para medir si el impacto del marketing interno en la satisfacción de los empleados es moderado por la congruencia cultural.

Resultados

los resultados revelan que la práctica del marketing interno contribuye a la satisfacción de los empleados en las aerolíneas del CCG, mientras que la congruencia cultural modera la relación directa entre el marketing interno y la satisfacción de los empleados de las aerolíneas. Los resultados indican que las aerolíneas necesitan satisfacer las necesidades culturales de los empleados para aumentar su satisfacción por los logros del marketing interno.

Originalidad/valor

este estudio contribuye a evaluar los efectos de moderación de la congruencia cultural en la práctica del marketing interno en el sector de las aerolíneas. Contribuye a la literatura actual sobre investigación de aviación, así como indicadores de las consecuencias específicas de gestión de personal para que las aerolíneas y los directivos logren una mayor competitividad.

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Qian Chen and Rong Huang

The subject of food has been well researched by academics, and is often employed by tourism destination practitioners. However, a review of relevant literature indicates that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The subject of food has been well researched by academics, and is often employed by tourism destination practitioners. However, a review of relevant literature indicates that there is a lack of research reported and written in English on the importance of food in Chinese local regional development. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential of local food to act as a destination attraction, and contribute to the development of local regions in China, by examining the food-related motivation, involvement, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions of Chinese domestic tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using interviewer-completed questionnaire from a sample of 1,353 domestic tourists at eight destinations geographically spread or in one region in China.

Findings

The results reveal three types of food-related behaviour (which are described and evaluated below). While gender is seen to be significant, other demographical factors, such as ages and educational levels, do not appear to influence the level of interests and involvement in local food for Chinese domestic tourists.

Originality/value

This study is a contribution towards assessing the potential for using local food as a tool to develop local regions in China, and to obtain a better understanding of the market segmentation of Chinese local food tourists. It assists in identifying potential food tourists towards whom marketing should be addressed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Rong Huang and Tao Xu

As the Chinese outbound travel market has become a paramount target for world tourism with significant growth potential, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact that…

Abstract

Purpose

As the Chinese outbound travel market has become a paramount target for world tourism with significant growth potential, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact that the Chinese outbound travel market has on the European tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews both academic and trade literature to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges that the China outbound travel market might bring to the European tourism industry.

Findings

The paper presents the major topics relating to China outbound tourism research and the current research gaps. Chinese outbound tourists are not a homogenous group of tourists. The paper addresses opportunities and challenges from two key segments of China outbound travel (Chinese international students and Chinese senior tourists).

Practical implications

The paper calls for alternative and innovative research methods and research behaviour in tracking the impact of Chinese outbound tourists. Closer collaboration between academics and industry practitioners might provide a better understanding of this market.

Originality/value

The paper offers recent insights on the Chinese outbound tourism market based on an analysis of relevant literature by both academics and industry practitioners. This allows the relevant stakeholders to adopt proactive strategies to minimise potential negative impacts and maximise opportunities.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2024

Xunzhuo Xi, Can Chen, Rong Huang and Feng Tang

This study aims to examine whether Chinese firms increase their concerns about analysts’ earnings forecasts following the split-share structure reform (SSR) in 2005, which removed…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether Chinese firms increase their concerns about analysts’ earnings forecasts following the split-share structure reform (SSR) in 2005, which removed trading restrictions on approximately 70% of the shares of listed firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 2002 to 2019, the authors empirically test the association between meeting or beating analysts’ earnings expectations and the implementation of SSR.

Findings

The authors find that firms are more inclined to meet analysts’ earnings expectations after the introduction of SSR. Further analysis shows that firms guide analysts to walk their forecasts down by manipulating third-quarter earnings, suggesting enhanced value relevance between analysts’ forecasts and third-quarter earnings management in the postreform period.

Practical implications

The findings reveal an undesirable side effect of SSR and suggest that policymakers and regulators should consider and carefully manage the complex relationships between firms and analysts.

Originality/value

In contrast to prior studies that predominantly focus on the positive effects of the reform, this study reveals the side effects of SSR and provides new evidence on the mechanisms of meeting or beating analysts’ earnings expectations.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Xiaoye Chen, Rong Huang, Zhiyong Yang and Laurette Dube

This paper aims to investigate the impact of different types of corporate social responsibility (CSR; i.e. value-creating CSR, promotional CSR and philanthropic CSR) on consumer…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of different types of corporate social responsibility (CSR; i.e. value-creating CSR, promotional CSR and philanthropic CSR) on consumer responses and the moderating role of corporate competence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the hypotheses by using two empirical studies – a survey and an experimental study. The evidence is generated based on generalized linear model repeated-measures ANOVAs for the survey study and two-way factorial ANOVAs for the experimental study.

Findings

The findings show that in general, consumers respond to value-creating CSR more favorably than to philanthropic CSR or promotional CSR. In addition, corporate competence moderates consumers’ responses to different types of CSR in such a way that promotional CSR is more likely to have the desired effects when carried out by low-competency rather than by high-competency firms, whereas value-creating CSR is more effective for high-competency firms than for low-competency ones. Philanthropic CSR works equally in both types of firms.

Research limitations/implications

This research answers a long-term call to study the differential consumer effects of various CSR types. It also identifies perceived corporate competence, an important consumer-based corporate factor, as a potential moderator of consumers’ response to CSR types.

Practical implications

Armed with the findings, companies can choose CSR practices that fit with their company characteristics. This research offers important and specific managerial implications to firms with different company profiles on their CSR choices.

Originality/value

Given that today’s managers are faced with the challenge of selecting desirable CSR activities from a group of options, the authors answered the call by studying the differential effects of a wide array of CSR choices and provide important practical guidance to managers. For the first time in the literature, the study also investigates the potential interactive effects between specific CSR types and corporate competence on consumer reactions. This inquiry bears significant relevance to the ongoing discussions concerning whether and how company characteristics generate influences on the outcomes of CSR strategies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Nan Hu, Rong Huang, Xu Li and Ling Liu

Existing literature in experimental accounting research suggests that accounting professionals and people with accounting backgrounds tend to have a lower level of moral reasoning…

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Abstract

Purpose

Existing literature in experimental accounting research suggests that accounting professionals and people with accounting backgrounds tend to have a lower level of moral reasoning and ethical development. Motivated by these findings, this paper aims to examine whether chief executive officers (CEOs) with accounting backgrounds have an impact on firms’ earnings management behavior and the level of accounting conservatism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors classify CEOs into those with and without accounting backgrounds using BoardEx data. Using discretionary accruals from several different models, they do not find that CEOs with accounting backgrounds are more likely to engage in income-increasing accruals. However, the authors find that CEOs with accounting backgrounds exhibit lower levels of conservatism, proxied by C-scores and T-scores (Basu, 1997). This finding suggests that CEOs with accounting backgrounds recognize bad news more quickly than good news, consistent with the accounting principle of “anticipating all losses but anticipating no gains”.

Findings

The authors show that firms whose CEOs have accounting backgrounds exhibit lower levels of accounting conservatism. However, these firms do not exhibit higher levels of income-increasing discretionary accruals. This study documents the impact of CEOs’ educational backgrounds on firms’ accounting choices and confirms prior findings in experimental accounting research using large sample archival data.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study that investigates the impact of CEOs’ accounting backgrounds on firms’ financial reporting policy. The findings may have some policy implications. If accounting backgrounds of CEOs can make a significant difference on firms’ behavior, it is reasonable to make CEOs accountable for the quality of financial reporting. This paper is one of the first to empirically test inferences drawn by experimental accounting research. There has been a gap between archival and experimental accounting studies. The authors propose that interesting research questions can be addressed by filling in such a gap.

Details

Journal of Centrum Cathedra, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1851-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Liang Chen, Leitao Cui, Rong Huang and Zhengyun Ren

This paper aims to present a bio-inspired neural network for improvement of information processing capability of the existing artificial neural networks.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a bio-inspired neural network for improvement of information processing capability of the existing artificial neural networks.

Design/methodology/approach

In the network, the authors introduce a property often found in biological neural system – hysteresis – as the neuron activation function and a bionic algorithm – extreme learning machine (ELM) – as the learning scheme. The authors give the gradient descent procedure to optimize parameters of the hysteretic function and develop an algorithm to online select ELM parameters, including number of the hidden-layer nodes and hidden-layer parameters. The algorithm combines the idea of the cross validation and random assignment in original ELM. Finally, the authors demonstrate the advantages of the hysteretic ELM neural network by applying it to automatic license plate recognition.

Findings

Experiments on automatic license plate recognition show that the bio-inspired learning system has better classification accuracy and generalization capability with consideration to efficiency.

Originality/value

Comparing with the conventional sigmoid function, hysteresis as the activation function enables has two advantages: the neuron’s output not only depends on its input but also on derivative information, which provides the neuron with memory; the hysteretic function can switch between the two segments, thus avoiding the neuron falling into local minima and having a quicker learning rate. The improved ELM algorithm in some extent makes up for declining performance because of original ELM’s complete randomness with the cost of a litter slower than before.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2023

Rong Huang, Guang Yang, Xiaoye Chen and Yuxin Chen

This study aims to investigate the influence of CEO’s only-child status on corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. It seeks to extend the understanding of upper echelon…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of CEO’s only-child status on corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. It seeks to extend the understanding of upper echelon theory by examining unexplored CEO characteristics and their impact on CSR decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses manually collected CEO family information and Chinese Stock and Market Accounting Research data as a basis to examine the influence of CEOs’ early-life experiences on their engagement in CSR activities. The study applies attachment security theory from developmental psychology and uses upper echelon theory, particularly focusing on CEOs’ only-child status. A comparative analysis of philanthropic donations between CEOs who are only children and those who have siblings is conducted. The study also examines the moderating effects of corporate slack resources and CEO shareholdings.

Findings

Preliminary findings suggest that CEOs who are only children are more likely to engage in CSR compared to their counterparts with siblings. However, the difference in donation amounts between the two groups tends to attenuate with decreased slack resources and increased CEO shareholdings.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research represents the first attempt to investigate being the only child in one’s family and the CSR-related decision of CEOs, which extends the upper echelon theory by introducing the family science theory into the management domain.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Zhiyong Yang, Fernando Jaramillo, Yonghong Liu, Weiling Ye and Rong Huang

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine a customer orientation mechanism through which abusive supervision influences retail salespeople’s job performance; and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine a customer orientation mechanism through which abusive supervision influences retail salespeople’s job performance; and second, to investigate how abusive supervision’s effects may be moderated by the same leader’s use of contingent punishment and contingent reward.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies provide consistent findings. Study 1 used the field survey data from 129 salespeople in 42 retail stores. The proposed moderated mediation model was estimated using the random coefficient modeling technique. Findings were replicated in Study 2, in which data were collected from a sample of 679 US retail salespeople recruited through M-Turk.

Findings

Results from both studies show that abusive supervision reduces salespeople’s job performance through lowering their customer orientation. Furthermore, the use of contingent punishment from the same supervisor buffers abusive supervision’s detrimental effect, whereas the use of contingent reward augments it.

Research limitations/implications

The issues the authors address in this research have significant implications for the literature of abusive supervision and retail selling. First, the authors contribute to the abusive supervision literature by pointing it out that the negative effect of abusive supervision can spill over to organizations’ external stakeholders, namely, customers. Previous research on abusive supervision has mainly focused on how abused subordinates exhibit hostile acts directed against the supervisor, coworkers and the organization (Tepper et al., 2017), with little attention paid to abusive supervision’s impact on organizations’ external stakeholders such as customers. This research fills the void by placing impaired customer-orientation as a critical consequence of abusive supervision. Second, this research tests a contingent self-regulation impairment model of abusive supervision and advances our understanding about how the same supervisor’s functional leadership behaviors (contingent reward/punishment) may set contingencies for the effect of abusive supervision on employee outcomes. This investigation clears the doubts about whether the use of functional leadership behaviors along with abusive supervision buffers or aggravates the detrimental effect of the latter. Finally, this study’s findings shed new insights to marketing practitioners, especially in understanding how salespeople may vent their stress on the customers when being abused by their supervisors. Without this in mind, supervisors may not be aware of the consequences of their abusive behavior and may even develop an illusion that such a practice worked. This research shows that abusive supervision can lower employees’ customer orientation, which will hurt the company in the long run.

Practical implications

The findings intend to provide important guidelines for companies to develop effective workshops and training programs to combat the detrimental effects of abusive supervision in the retailing industry. For example, the findings shed new insights in understanding how employees may vent their stress on the customers when being abused by their supervisors. Without this in mind, supervisors may not be aware of the consequences of their abusive behavior and may even develop an illusion that such a practice worked. Another important managerial implication of this research is that the use of contingent reward after mistreating subordinates can backfire. Supervisor abuses, followed by a contingent reward, send an inconsistent signal to the employee that creates confusion and strain. Inconsistent actions from the supervisor also produce ethical tensions that reduce customer-oriented behaviors and a company’s ability to serve the customer (Friend et al., 2020). These training programs are important methods to combat the detrimental effects of abusive supervision in the workforce.

Originality/value

This research draws on the contingent self-regulation impairment model as an overarching framework to unpack the relationship between abusive supervision and salespeople’s job performance. Integrating three research streams (i.e. abusive supervision, leadership reinforcement and retail selling), this study proposes customer orientation as a novel mechanism and sheds light on how abusive supervision interplays with contingent punishment/reward to impact salespeople’s outcomes.

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Xiaoye Chen and Rong Huang

This paper aims to investigate whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts that are oriented toward shared value creation generate any perceptual advantages in terms of…

1903

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts that are oriented toward shared value creation generate any perceptual advantages in terms of consumer product attributes evaluations compared with other types of CSR. The study also uncovers consumers’ pathways that channel the impacts of corporate associations on corporate and product evaluations and purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a between-subjects experimental design. In all, 274 undergraduate students from a North American university participated in the 2 (low versus high corporate ability levels) × 4 (CSR types) study. The data were analyzed using the methodologies of path analysis and multiple group analysis in the context of structural equation modeling procedure.

Findings

The findings show that in the context of shared-value CSR, CSR image (i.e. consumer judgments on the moral aspect of the company) can spill over to product attributes evaluations, including perceptions of “product innovativeness” and “product social responsibility,” which, in turn, translate to purchase willingness. Meanwhile, perceived corporate trustworthiness mediates the effects of CSR image and corporate ability (CA) image on the overall corporate evaluation, which subsequently influences consumer product evaluation and purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

The research provides direct evidence showing that companies have the potential to improve their corporate brand and, in turn, their product evaluations by putting a stronger emphasis on the social responsibility components of their image and placing this at the core of their strategic agenda. Importantly, a contribution to the literature by identifying differential effects of CA image versus CSR image on consumer perception of product innovativeness within different CSR categories is made. The limitations of the research are discussed, which include the usage of a fictitious company and brand and a convenience sample.

Practical implications

The study offers guidance to managers in regard to their choice of different CSR practices to fulfill their company’s product-related strategic goals.

Originality/value

The present study takes a critical stance to show that previous experimental work investigating the impact of CSR image on product evaluations relied predominantly on bipolar manipulations of CSR practices (bad versus good) rather than bringing many shades of CSR into consideration. By incorporating a wide array of CSR formats, especially value-creating CSR, current research generates potential implications based on differential effects of various CSR focuses, which have not been captured by previous studies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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