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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Pasquale Foresti and Oreste Napolitano

Risk-sharing is a crucial issue in order to evaluate the performance of a monetary union. By implementing conventional econometric techniques, this paper intends to…

Abstract

Risk-sharing is a crucial issue in order to evaluate the performance of a monetary union. By implementing conventional econometric techniques, this paper intends to estimate the degree of risk-sharing through the cross-ownership of assets within 11 European countries in the period 1971–2014. We show that risk-sharing has been increasing after the launch of the euro due to increased cross-ownership of assets. Nevertheless, we also show that despite the extreme needs for adjustment mechanisms as a reaction to asymmetric shocks in the EMU during the crises, the estimated market risk-sharing mechanism seems to have remained marginal in this period. We also show that the degree of asymmetry (potential benefits from risk-sharing) has declined with the start of the EMU, but it has sharply increased during the crises period. This implies that EMU countries have needed good functioning risk-sharing mechanisms during the crisis, while in this period their estimated performance does not seem to have improved. We interpret these results as the evidence of a missing element of the EMU that forced governments to intervene by means of fiscal policy to tackle the imbalances deriving from the financial crisis. Therefore, we conclude that the weakness in the risk-sharing has been one of the channels that allowed the global financial crisis to mutate in a sovereign debt crisis in the EMU.

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Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Arun K. Mukhopadhyay

This article examines alternatives to a standard wage. It goes on to analyse the advantages and risks inherent in profit‐sharing.

Abstract

This article examines alternatives to a standard wage. It goes on to analyse the advantages and risks inherent in profit‐sharing.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Yunlong Duan, Yan Liu, Yilin Chen, Weiqi Guo and Lisheng Yang

This study aims to focus on the impact of multi-level knowledge sharing between and within organizations on the risk control of rural inclusive finance. The paper presents…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the impact of multi-level knowledge sharing between and within organizations on the risk control of rural inclusive finance. The paper presents a synergistic risk control system integrating external and internal factors for rural inclusive finance by constructing different knowledge-sharing platforms in an environment, which is full of many uncertainties.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on survey methods. To achieve the research objectives, the authors adopt a single case study approach. For data collection, the authors apply a wide variety of methods such as semi-structured interviews, field visits, second-hand databases and official websites.

Findings

The results emphasize that using multi-level knowledge sharing such as the inter- and intra-organizational level, can facilitate the risk control of rural inclusive finance during the post-COVID-19 era. Furthermore, it is also noted that achieving knowledge sharing at different levels by building diverse knowledge-sharing platforms can promote the risk control of rural inclusive finance from the individual-organization level to the chain level of multi-organization collaboration, which contributes to the formation of symbiotic risk control ecology.

Research limitations/implications

The authors have formed the “Chinese wisdom” to deal with inclusive financial risks and to promote in-depth development in relation to the “last mile” practice of inclusive finance, which means the final and the most important phase of a project. The conclusions contribute to enriching the outcomes regarding the risk control of rural inclusive finance, provide experiences to its sustainable development and offer a reference to other countries with their risk control of rural inclusive finance.

Originality/value

Drawing on the knowledge-sharing approach, this study creatively resolves the persistent problems in the risk control of rural inclusive finance, which forms a powerful supplement to the extant literature. Meanwhile, the paper combines the two contextual factors of the post-COVID-19 era and emerging economies, which can be deemed as a novel attempt.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Simon Hazée, Yves Van Vaerenbergh, Cécile Delcourt and Sertan Kabadayi

Organizations increasingly develop and offer sharing services enabled by means of product-service systems (PSS). However, organizations offering sharing-based PSS face a…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations increasingly develop and offer sharing services enabled by means of product-service systems (PSS). However, organizations offering sharing-based PSS face a unique set of design challenges and operational risks. The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and practitioners with customer-based insights into service delivery system design and risk management for sharing-based PSS operational success.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study combines in-depth interviews with supplementary, multidisciplinary literature and secondary firm data. In total, the authors conducted 56 semi-structured interviews with diverse customers across different business-to-customer (B2C) PSS settings.

Findings

First, the authors develop an integrative conceptual framework that reveals what structural and infrastructural design choices customer expect organizations to make for mitigating risks and enhancing customer-perceived value in the sharing economy. These design choices may influence customers' trust and control perceptions in all actors involved in the service delivery system. Second, the results suggest that sharing value proposition, customer-perceived level of consequentiality and level of customer-supplied resources are contingency factors that need to be considered when making design decisions for risk management in the sharing economy.

Originality/value

This study extends Sampson's Unified Service Theory by proposing that, with sharing-based PSS, production flows from customers to customers. This situation creates unique challenges for operations management. This paper extends current understanding of the role, characteristics and contingencies of service delivery system design for risk management in the sharing economy. In doing so, authors challenge common wisdom and suggest understanding both the organizational and customers' individual contexts is critical for (contingency) theory and practice.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

John Bosco Nnyanzi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the welfare gains from risk sharing among African countries and regional groupings in Africa that are planning to establish…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the welfare gains from risk sharing among African countries and regional groupings in Africa that are planning to establish monetary unions either in the short or longrun.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper empirically tested two hypothesis; potential welfare gains and unexploited welfare gains. It uses a utility-based measure to quantify the gains that would accrue from joining a risk sharing arrangement such as a monetary union. The regional groupings considered include the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS), the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the East African Community (EAC).

Findings

The results provide support for both hypotheses. Overall, the average potential welfare for AU, EAC, ECOWAS and SADC groups under full risk sharing are found to be 1.9, 2, 3.4 and 1.6 percent, respectively, each higher than the 1 percent estimated for the OECD countries and 0.6 percent for the 14-EU countries. The average unexploited gains are, however, even bigger for AU at 3.5 percent, ECOWAS at 8.6 percent and for SADC at 2.6 percent.

Practical implications

The finding of enormous potential welfare gains could partly reinforce the desire of the African countries to establish monetary unions. On the other hand, the paper provides insights to policy makers in designing policies to promote risk sharing given the finding that the unexploited welfare gains are on average still too low – implying that many African countries or groups still have very low risk sharing.

Originality/value

Previous studies on welfare gains and risk sharing have basically left out the African regional groupings and never related the issue of gains to the monetary union projects. Besides, previous studies focus on unexploited welfare gains at the expense of total potential welfare gains. Considering the two types, however, presents a more complete picture of total gains from joining any risk sharing arrangement such as a monetary union.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Ying Kei Tse, Minhao Zhang and Fu Jia

Firms face critical challenges in managing product quality in a global supply chain. In many cases, these challenges could be regarded as an agency problem which is a…

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Abstract

Purpose

Firms face critical challenges in managing product quality in a global supply chain. In many cases, these challenges could be regarded as an agency problem which is a result of the goal conflict between the supply chain members. To address such agency problem, the purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explain how risk and reward sharing practices contribute to firms’ quality performance in the supply chain; and second, to identify the drivers of applying risk and reward sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypothesised model, based on agency theory, is empirically verified by original survey data of 200 Chinese manufacturing companies using the structural equations modelling approach in a context of product recall.

Findings

Supplier involvement and task programmability are two significant antecedents of risk and reward sharing. Further, the paper shows that risk and reward sharing have a positive effect on quality performance, however, in terms of contribution to quality performance, risk sharing and reward sharing may be substitution practices.

Practical implications

This research explains how managers could embrace better preparedness for risk and reward sharing in their supply chains. It is also suggested that although risk and reward sharing are seen as efficient means to improve quality performance, such practices should not be treated as a bundle.

Originality/value

Building on supply partnership literature, this paper contributes to agency theory by providing a solution to the agency problem, i.e., risk and reward sharing and adding to the limited understanding of the antecedents of risk and reward sharing and examining the effects of risk and reward sharing on quality performance.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 38 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Fei Ye, Gang Hou, Yina Li and Shaoling Fu

The purpose of this paper is to propose a risk-sharing model to coordinate the decision-making behavior of players in a cassava-based bioethanol supply chain under random…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a risk-sharing model to coordinate the decision-making behavior of players in a cassava-based bioethanol supply chain under random yield and demand environment, so as to mitigate the yield and demand uncertainty risk and improve the bioethanol supply chain resiliency and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The decision-making behavior under three models, namely, centralized model, decentralized model and risk-sharing model, are analyzed. An empirical test of the advantages and feasibility of the proposed risk-sharing model, as well as the test of yield uncertainty risk, risk-sharing coefficients and randomly fluctuating cassava market price on the decision-making behavior and performances are provided.

Findings

Though the proposed risk-sharing model cannot achieve the supply chain performance in the centralized model, it does help to encourage the farmers and the company to increase the supply of cassava and achieve the Pareto improvement of both players compared to the decentralized model. In particular, these improvements will be enlarged as the yield uncertainty risk is higher.

Practical implications

The findings will help decision makers in the bioethanol supply chain to understand how to mitigate the yield uncertainty risk and improve the supply chain resiliency under yield and demand uncertainty environment. It will also be conducive to ensure the supply of feedstock and the development of the bioethanol industry.

Originality/value

The proposed risk-sharing model incorporates the yield uncertainty risk, the random market demand and the hierarchical decision-making behavior structure of the bioethanol supply chain in the model.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 118 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2018

Claudia Colicchia, Alessandro Creazza, Carlo Noè and Fernanda Strozzi

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the most important research areas on information sharing in supply chains and related risks, taking into account their…

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2450

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the most important research areas on information sharing in supply chains and related risks, taking into account their evolution over time. This paper sheds light on what is happening today and what the trajectories for the future are, with particular respect to the implications for supply chain management.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic literature review method called Systematic Literature Network Analysis (SLNA) was adopted. It combines the Systematic Literature Review approach and bibliographic network analyses, and it relies on objective measures and algorithms to perform quantitative literature-based detection of emerging topics.

Findings

The focus of the literature seems to be on threats that are internal to the extended supply chain rather than on external attacks, such as viruses, traditionally related to information technology (IT). The main arising risk appears to be the intentional or non-intentional leakage of information. Also, papers analyze the implications for information sharing coming from “soft” factors such as trust and collaboration among supply chain partners. Opportunities are also highlighted and include how information sharing can be leveraged to confront disruptions and increase resilience.

Research limitations/implications

The adopted methodology allows for providing an original perspective on the investigated topic, that is, how information sharing in supply chains and related risks are evolving over time because of the turbulent advances in technology.

Practical implications

Emergent and highly critical risks related to information sharing are highlighted to support the design of supply chain risks strategies. Also, critical areas to the development of “beyond-the-dyad” initiatives to manage information sharing risks emerge. Opportunities coming from information sharing that are less known and exploited by companies are provided.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the supply chain perspective rather than the traditional IT-based view of information sharing. According to this perspective, this paper provides a dynamic representation of the literature on the investigated topic. This is an important contribution to the topic of information sharing in supply chains is continuously evolving and shaping new supply chain models.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Arun K. Mukhopadhyay

The predominant method by which workers in a business organization get compensated for their labour is that they earn a wage which has been guaranteed to them through an…

Abstract

The predominant method by which workers in a business organization get compensated for their labour is that they earn a wage which has been guaranteed to them through an employment contract. By contrast, the earnings of the company (the firm, the owner) remains risky, since they earn the residual after making all the contractual payments to the different factors of production. The residual is a random variable because of production and market uncertainty, and the firm absorbs this risk while insuring the income risk of the workers. A modification of this payment scheme occurs when the earnings of the workers are made contingent upon either their productivity, or the profit of the company. A prominent example is the piece‐rate payment system in which the earnings of a labourer are directly related to the amount of output he or she produces. Profit sharing is another example of variable wage; in this system the workers are paid a share of the firm's profit.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Katsuya Hihara and Naoki Makimoto

The relationship between airline and airport is complex, fascinating, and wide open for new research endeavors. In Volume 6 of the series, we conducted the analyses of risk

Abstract

The relationship between airline and airport is complex, fascinating, and wide open for new research endeavors. In Volume 6 of the series, we conducted the analyses of risk-sharing contract between airline and airport from numerical risk balance assessment and incomplete contract theory perspectives based on an interesting real example of risk-sharing contracts, the Noto Airport Load Factor Guarantee Mechanism (LFGM) contract in Japan.

In this chapter, we further advance the analyses of risk-sharing contracts, based on the real example of Noto LFGM contract, from the perspectives of game theory and principal-agent theory. The risk-sharing arrangements, such as LFGM contract, are relevant to the rapidly changing business environment in Asia’s aviation industries.

We conduct a two-stage game analysis. The first phase is the contract negotiation phase and the second phase is the effort-making phase after signing the contract. We show that the two parties can attain a Pareto optimal utility level by bargaining a simple linear risk-sharing contract in the contract negotiation phase based on the equilibrium effort levels in the effort-making phase.

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