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Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Takashi Matsuki, Kimiko Sugimoto and Yushi Yoshida

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic…

Abstract

We examine how the degree of regional financial integration in African stock markets has evolved over the last eleven years. Despite increasing regional economic cooperation, the process of stock market integration has been slow. To facilitate growth via developed financial markets but keep financial stability risk at a minimum, further regional integration should be promoted, and mild capital controls on non-African investors may be necessary. A Diebold-Yilmaz spillover analysis is applied to ten African stock markets for the period between August 2004 and January 2015. We examine spillovers among four regions and among individual countries. Regional integration, as measured by total spillovers in Africa, is increasing but remains very low. These spillovers were temporarily heightened during the global financial crisis. Cross-regional spillovers are high between Northern and Southern Africa. Asymmetric capital controls on African and non-African investors must be considered to foster further regional integration and to mitigate financial stability risk. This is one of the few studies to address the construction of the future architecture of regionally integrated stock markets in emerging countries.

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Richardson Kojo Edeme, Nelson C. Nkalu, Ebikabowei Biedomo Aduku and Azu Benedict

This study is motivated by the fact that even though many African countries have witnessed rapid growth, they have also experienced high volatility in the form of severe…

Abstract

This study is motivated by the fact that even though many African countries have witnessed rapid growth, they have also experienced high volatility in the form of severe financial crises, especially in the last two decades. These developments naturally lead to the issue of whether, in a more integrated global economy, the relationship between growth and output volatility has changed. The phenomena have also raised questions on whether the growth–output volatility relationship can be linked to the growing pains seemingly associated with rising trade and financial integration. This chapter attempts to provide answer to these questions by providing insights on how trade and financial integration affect the relationship between growth and output volatility using data from selected Africa countries. The study explores in detail the relationship between growth and the volatility of output components (consumption and investment). Our main result is that there is a positive growth and output volatility impact of trade openness and integration with the international financial market. The relationship between growth and financial integration and investment volatility is stronger in the long run than in the short run, while the consumption volatility impact of trade openness is higher in the long run than in the short run, suggesting that countries that are more open to trade appear to face less severe trade-off between growth and volatility.

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The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Avisek Sen and Arindam Laha

In the present era, there is visible trend of transition of the economy from the managerial capitalism to finance capitalism, which increases the role of finance in the…

Abstract

In the present era, there is visible trend of transition of the economy from the managerial capitalism to finance capitalism, which increases the role of finance in the economic development of a country. The concept of financial development deals with the access, depth, efficiency, and stability of the financial institution and the market of a country. On the other hand, the financial integration is the degree of the financial openness of a country. There are de facto (gross stock of foreign assets and liabilities as a ratio of GDP, cross border capital flows) and de jure (capital account restrictions) measures of the financial integration. An efficient financial system increases the savings rate, which enhances capital accumulation in the economy. This process will channelize the fund from the household to the financial system. The economic liberalization induces the household to utilize their global market fund and enhance the marginal productivity of the capital. A deeper financial integration is expected to increase the public access in the domestic financial market as well as in the global market. Financial integration has some indirect effect on the economic growth through expansion and development of the financial system. In this context, this study examines the state of financial development and the financial integration across emerging countries in Asia. An attempt also was made to investigate whether the developed financial system promotes the financial integration or the financial integration induces the authority to develop the financial system. This study is based on the selected Asian countries over the period 2001–2016. Empirical evidence also support a significant positive association between the indicators of financial development and financial integration. It also indicates an empirical relationship from the financial development to the financial integration, and vice versa.

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The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Nuruzzaman Arsyad

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to seek to find answers to three questions. First, is there any possibility of long-term cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets? If so, how many cointegrating equations are there? Second, what are the short-term causal relationships between equity markets in East and Southeast Asia? Third, what is the East Asia’s most influential equity market toward their Southeast counterparts, and vice versa?

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Johansen's (1988) cointegration method to test long-run relationships among East and Southeast Asian equity markets. With regards to short-run causal relationships, this study uses Granger-causality test as well as the forecast variance decomposition method.

Findings

Johansen test proves that there is cointegration between East and Southeast Asian equity markets, but the integration process is not complete. Cointegrating vector also provides evidence that member countries of ASEAN+3 respond differently to external shocks. With regards to short-run causal direction, this study finds that Japan Granger-causes all equity markets in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam Granger-cause all equity markets in East Asia. These results imply that Japan is the market with most linkages in Southeast Asia, while Singapore and Vietnam are the markets with most linkages to East Asia. Furthermore, forecast variance decomposition reveals that Japan is the East Asia’s most influential equity markets, while Singapore is the most influential equity market in Southeast Asia. This study suggests that policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to synchronize the capital market standards and regulations as well as to reduce the barriers for capital mobility to spur the regional equity market integration.

Research limitations/implications

Increasing integration of East and Southeast Asian capital markets forces policymakers in ASEAN+3 countries to synchronize monetary policies, as it has been found that regionally integrated capital markets reduce the degree of independent monetary policy (Logue et al., 1976). It is therefore important for policymakers in East and Southeast Asian countries to assess the possibility of stock market integration within this region to anticipate the future risks associated with economic integration as well as to build collective regional institutions (Wang, 2004). Click and Plummer (2005) also argued that integrated stock markets is more efficient than nationally segmented equity markets, and the efficiency of Asian capital markets has been questioned in particular after the 1997 Asian financial crises. Yet, the empirical evidence on the extent of financial integration among ASEAN+3 member countries has been limited and inconclusive. This study is therefore an attempt to investigate the recent development of ASEAN+3 equity markets integration.

Practical implications

This study focuses its attention on the existence and the extent of financial integration in East and Southeast Asia region, and it provides evidence that equity market integration in ASEAN+3 is far from complete, and for that reason, there is a need for policymakers in ASEAN+3 member countries to synchronize their standards and regulations. Furthermore, the policymakers in East and Southeast Asia can gain benefit from this study, as it provides the evidence that ASEAN+3 member countries respond differently to policy shocks, which may hinder the development of regional financial integration as well as the policy effectiveness of region-wide authority in ASEAN+3.

Originality/value

This research is different from previous studies, as it puts the regional financial integration within the context of ASEAN+3 frameworks. Unlike previous research that considers East and Southeast Asian countries as an individual entity, this research considers East and Southeast Asia into two different blocks, following Tourk (2004) who documented that negotiation process for ASEAN+3 financial integration is conducted in sub-regional level (ASEAN vs East Asia), rather than national level (country per country basis). Second, this study covers the period after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. As suggested in Wang (2014), that the degree of stock market integration tends to change around the periods marked by financial crises, the updated study on Asian financial integration in the aftermath of 1997 financial crises is important to document the development of regional financial integration.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Nicholas Addai Boamah

The purpose of this paper is to explore the co-movements among emerging markets. The authors, additionally, investigate the driven force of the within emerging markets…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the co-movements among emerging markets. The authors, additionally, investigate the driven force of the within emerging markets integration. The authors provide evidence of volatility clustering, leverage effect and time-varying integration of emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used dynamic conditional correlation techniques to estimate the time-varying conditional correlations among emerging markets. The cross-sectional and time series variations in the within emerging markets correlations are then described by various market and economic factors.

Findings

The authors show that investment, domestic credit to the private sector and import of financial services have a positive relation within emerging markets co-movements. However, claim on central government, current account balance and financial services exports have a negative relation with the integration among emerging markets. Evidence is also provided that liquidity and market depth explain the correlation between emerging markets.

Originality/value

The findings show that emerging markets ability to convert domestic assets into investments appears to be the single most important factor influencing with in emerging markets integration. The findings indicate that across-emerging markets diversification potential exists.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Jan Babecký, Luboš Komárek and Zlatuše Komárková

The global financial crisis of 2007/2008 interrupted the process of financial integration observed in the European Union since the beginning of the 2000s. This paper…

Abstract

The global financial crisis of 2007/2008 interrupted the process of financial integration observed in the European Union since the beginning of the 2000s. This paper empirically analyzes whether financial integration resumed, focusing on the period 2002–2015 and employing the indicators of the speed and the level of integration. The analysis covers four financial markets (the money, foreign exchange, bond, and equity markets) of the selected inflation-targeting Central European economies (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland), representatives of new euro area countries (Slovenia and Slovakia) and the selected advanced Western European economies (Austria, Germany, Portugal) with the euro area. The results reveal that the global financial crisis caused mainly a temporary price divergence of the financial markets in the analyzed countries vis-à-vis the euro area. By 2015 the situation on the financial markets returned gradually to the pre-crisis degree of integration with the euro area for most of the countries and markets; however, there are signs of fragmentation on the government bond markets.

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Martin Schmidt

This paper analyzes what factors drive a company’s decision to align financial and management accounting policies as a measure of integration of management accounting and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes what factors drive a company’s decision to align financial and management accounting policies as a measure of integration of management accounting and financial accounting at the highest hierarchy levels of a company.

Methodology/approach

Research hypotheses for six different determinants are developed: company size, number of operating segments and subsidiaries, internationality of the business, business strategy, company life cycle stage, and leverage. The hypotheses are tested using International Financial Reporting Standards 8 (IFRS 8) segment report data from a large sample of 175 German publicly listed companies.

Findings

A higher internationality of the business causes companies to choose a lower degree of integration. Companies with a prospector (defender) strategy choose a lower (higher) degree of integration. Companies in later life cycle stages and with higher leverage choose a lower degree of integration as well. Company size does not impact integration.

Practical implications

Companies have to decide whether, and to what extent, to integrate financial and management accounting and align the two sets of accounting policies. German companies have traditionally kept the two sets separate. As the research reported in this paper sheds light on when companies do not consider integration to be beneficial, it is useful for practitioners.

Originality/value

The legal reporting requirements in Germany as well as German accounting traditions make the German setting particularly suited for examining the integration of management accounting and financial accounting. Using the number of adjustments to financial accounting policies made for management accounting purposes is a novel approach, and the number of adjustments is a more fine-grained measure of integration at the highest hierarchy levels of a company than the measures used in prior literature.

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Richard Makoto

Many developing countries are pursuing policies that foster international financial integration after decades of financial repression. Greater access to foreign financial

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Abstract

Purpose

Many developing countries are pursuing policies that foster international financial integration after decades of financial repression. Greater access to foreign financial markets may have both positive and negative impact on the performance of the economy. One of the concerns of international financial integration is macroeconomic volatility which may affect both monetary and real sectors. Zimbabwe has chosen to pursue a financial liberalization strategy in the form of imperfect financial integration following periods of excessive domestic shocks. An upsurge of capital flows since the epic of economic crisis in the 2000s has been observed with varying macroeconomic impacts. This study empirically examines the impact of partial international financial integration on the volatility of macroeconomic variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized an ARDL Model suggested by Pesaran et al., (2003) which is appropriate for short time periods.

Findings

The results show that financial integration has a negative effect on output volatility while insignificant on consumption volatility.

Practical implications

The study recommends that the country should gradually liberalize the capital account and properly sequence financial development reforms in order to minimize losses from global financial integration.

Originality/value

The study used time series for Zimbabwe during a period of external imbalance, repeated economic cycles, sudden stops in capital flows and limited scope of imperfect financial integration. Findings in such an economy will be a referral for policymakers in other economies that would want to pursue international financial integration.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Kannyiri Banyen and Nicholas Biekpe

This paper examines the effect of both de jure and de facto measures of financial integration on bank profitability in five regional economic communities of Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effect of both de jure and de facto measures of financial integration on bank profitability in five regional economic communities of Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data from 405 banks operating in 47 African countries across five regional economic communities over 2007–2014, the study constructs a composite measure of bank profitability. The study then employs the dynamic two-step system GMM estimation technique to test the effect of both de jure and de facto measures of financial integration on bank profitability in Africa and across five sub-regional markets.

Findings

Overall, the results support a positive relationship between financial integration and overall bank profitability in Africa, except for the Arab Maghreb Union and Southern Africa Development Community.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that increased financial integration in Africa directly improves bank’s overall profitability and the variations among the sub-regional markets inform tailored policy initiatives.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study on Africa to employ a composite measure of bank profitability to assess its determinants. It is also the first to include both de facto and de jure financial integration measures in a single study. This is also the first largest comparative study on bank profitability in Africa.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Arun Kumar Misra and Jitendra Mahakud

Financial sector reform measures, which were initiated in 1991, have provided some degree of maturity and integration of different segments of India's financial markets…

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Abstract

Purpose

Financial sector reform measures, which were initiated in 1991, have provided some degree of maturity and integration of different segments of India's financial markets. The purpose of this paper is to articulate the impact of financial sector reform measures on integration of various segments of financial markets in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper surveys various methodologies for measurement of financial integration and uses the recently developed technique of co‐integration in a VAR framework to assess the extent of integration of various segments of India's financial markets.

Findings

The paper concludes that the financial market integration is inconclusive in India. Only a few segments of money market, Gilt market and foreign exchange market are integrated. Interest rate parity does not hold in India's case, which indicates poor evidence in support of international integration of domestic financial markets. Similarly, the analysis of the relationship between domestic saving and domestic investment does not support international integration. The study of co‐integration of Nasdaq and Bombay sensitive index (BSE), also revealed absence of international integration.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to non‐availability of time series data, the paper could not consider the mutual fund market, pension market and various derivatives markets in the overall process of assessment of financial integration. However, the impact on the findings is minimal, as these markets are not so far developed in India.

Practical implications

The findings have significant practical implications particularly in the formulation of policies on management and interventions in the money market, foreign exchange and equity markets and in the overall formulation of monetary policy for the economy.

Originality/value

This paper presents a quite comprehensive research study on financial integration in India and is original, particularly in the area of application of the co‐integration technique for assessment of financial integration.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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