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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Yong Wang

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the processes of (de)industrialization and rural income distribution interact with each other and their implications for economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the processes of (de)industrialization and rural income distribution interact with each other and their implications for economic growth and welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes a dynamic general-equilibrium and theoretical approach.

Findings

The author develops a dynamic general-equilibrium model to analytically characterize how (de) industrialization interacts with rural income distribution, and also explores the implications for aggregate GDP growth, the evolution of rural income distribution as well as welfare. Redistributive policies are shown to sometimes enhance GDP and welfare by boosting the production of the goods with high desirability (or productivity) but constrained by depressed demand due to income inequality, and internalizing the dynamic impact of private production and consumption decisions on future public productivities.

Practical implications

The research suggests that rural income distribution and (de)industrialization are intrinsically related, so policies or institutional distortions on one process would, in general, affect the other. Redistributive policies are shown to sometimes enhance GDP and welfare by enhancing industrialization.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature of industrialization and structural change at large in several aspects. First, a key novel feature of our model is that the Engle’s law is captured by a quasi-linear utility function, which differs from the standard non-homothetic functions in this literature. Second, our paper contributes to the literature of structural change by showing how (de)industrialization works when sectorial productivity changes are endogenous. The paper also sheds light on the determination of rural income distribution and its evolution in the process of structural change and rural-urban migration.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1934

During the year the appointments of 32 Public Analysts were approved. The number of samples of food analysed by Public Analysts during the year 1933 was 138, 171, a slight…

Abstract

During the year the appointments of 32 Public Analysts were approved. The number of samples of food analysed by Public Analysts during the year 1933 was 138, 171, a slight increase over the number reported in the previous year. 7,601 samples were reported as adulterated or not up to standard. The percentage adulterated or below standard was 5·5. In the two previous years the percentages were 5·1 and 4·6 respectively, the latter being the lowest recorded. There were 380 infringements of the Public Health (Preservatives, &c., in Food) Regulations, a considerable reduction as compared with the number reported in any previous year. In 138 instances the food contained preservatives prohibited by the regulations, e.g., boron preservative in cream, sausages, meat pies, rennet and other articles; sulphur dioxide in sweets, minced, potted and other meat, desiccated soup, pepper, vinegar and table jelly; formaldehyde in milk; salicylic acid in lime juice and non‐alcoholic wine; and benzoic acid in caviare. Preservative in excess of the permissible amount was reported in 81 instances, including samples of sausages, jam, dried fruit, orange and lemon squashes, lemon juice, and non‐alcoholic wine and beer, while a preservative powder labelled as containing 12 per cent. of sulphur dioxide contained more than that amount. In 160 samples the preservative would have been permissible if its presence had been declared on the label. The number of samples of milk analysed was 74,545, of which 5,760 (or 7·7 per cent.) were reported to be adulterated or not up to standard. Soma local authorities also arrange for the informal testing of samples by their officers, but particulars of these are not available. 1,068 “appeal to cow” samples, i.e., samples taken at the time of milking, were analysed and 380, or 35·6 per cent., were reported to be below the presumptive standard of the Sale of Milk Regulations, 1901. Excluding “appeal to cow” samples, the number analysed and the percentage adulterated or below standard were, respectively, 73,477 and 7·3. The vendor of a sample which was reported to be 23 per cent. deficient in milk fat and to be coloured with annatto was prosecuted and fined 3 guineas and 1 guinea costs. There were 8 other cases in which added colouring matter was reported, and in several instances the vendors were convicted and fined. The presence of visible dirt was reported in 8 samples and of formaldehyde in 6 samples. Another sample was found to contain 1·79 grains per gallon of sulphur dioxide. 24 samples of graded milk were stated to be deficient in milk fat, the amount of the deficiency in one case being as much as 48 per cent., and 20 samples of skimmed milk were reported as deficient in non‐fatty solids, one being stated to contain 79 per cent. of added water. 1,171 samples of condensed milk were analysed, of which 24 were reported against. 16 contained the equivalent of less milk than indicated on the label, 5 were deficient in milk solids, 2 were unsound and unfit for consumption, and 1 contained 125 parts per million of tin. The number of samples of dried milk analysed was 207, and 8 were reported against. Two were deficient in milk fat, 3 which were sold as full cream milk should have been sold as skimmed milk, 1 was unlabelled, 1 contained the equivalent of less milk than indicated on the label and the remaining sample was not dried milk within the meaning of the Public Health (Dried Milk) Regulations. The number of samples of cream reported upon was 2,171, and in 59 cases adverse reports were given. Eighteen contained boron preservative, 11 sold as cream were reconstituted or artificial cream, 9 were deficient in milk solids, and 3 were reported against because of the presence of fat not derived from milk. Fifteen samples, some of tinned cream, were deficient in milk fat. One sample of tinned cream labelled as “a highly concentrated and rich cream” contained only 24 per cent. of fat, and 2 samples of tinned sterilised cream labelled “Pure Rich English Clotted Cream” contained only 25 per cent. of fat. The Analyst stated that a “cream containing only this amount of fat can hardly be described as ‘rich,’ since ordinary fresh cream contains on an average about 50 per cent. of fat. Clotted cream is manufactured by a special process and usually contains about 60 per cent. of fat.” Out of 8,903 samples of butter reported upon, 83 were stated to be adulterated or below standard. 67 contained water in excess of the legal maximum of 16 per cent., the vendor of a sample containing 36·5 per cent. of water being prosecuted and fined £2. Three samples contained excess free fatty acid, 12 consisted wholly or partly of margarine, and the remaining sample contained boron preservative. 3,180 samples of margarine were analysed, and the number reported against was 16; 2 contained milk fat in excess of the legal maximum of 10 per cent., 1 sold in error consisted wholly of butter, 10 were found to contain water in excess of the legal maximum of 16 per cent., and 3 were unsatisfactory both on the latter ground and because of not being properly labelled. The number of samples of lard reported upon was 2,688, only 3 adversely. Two consisted wholly of substitute fat and the third contained cotton seed oil. 414 samples of suet were analysed; 38 samples, of which 33 were “shredded” suet, contained an excess of rice flour or other starch. Out of 578 samples of dripping, 7 were reported upon adversely, 2 as consisting entirely of hog fat, 4 as containing excess water or excess free fatty acid, and one as being rancid and unfit for human consumption. The number of samples examined was 1,392, 5 sold as “Cheshire Cheese” were deficient in fat, the deficiency in one case being 53 per cent., 6 samples wrapped in tinfoil contained excess tin amounting in one case to 7·2 grains per lb., and 3 sold as cream cheese were made from whole or separated milk. 273 samples of bread were analysed; 4 were affected with “ropiness,” and one sample, submitted for analysis by a private purchaser, was reported to contain powdered glass. Investigation failed, however, to discover the source of the adulterant. The number of samples of flour analysed was 1,370, of which only 2 were reported against. One contained about 2 per cent. of soap flakes, presumably due to accident, and one sample of self‐raising flour contained an excess of bicarbonate of soda. 1,773 samples were analysed and 124 or 7 per cent. were found to be adulterated or below standard, a considerable increase on the proportion reported against in any previous year. The majority of these were deficient in the fruit specified on the label or contained other fruit, 25 contained preservative in excess of the amount permitted, while 5 were deficient in fruit and also contained more than the permitted amount of preservative. One sample contained a considerable amount of fungus. Proceedings were successfully taken in several cases and penalties were imposed. The samples reported upon numbered 1,746, of which 135 were stated to be adulterated or below standard. 9S were deficient in acetic acid, and 34, described as malt or table vinegar, consisted wholly or partly of artificial vinegar. Three samples contained prohibited preservative. In a number of cases proceedings were successfully taken and penalties imposed. The vendor of a sample sold as malt vinegar, which was wholly artificial vinegar, was fined three guineas and one guinea costs, and a similar penalty was imposed on a vendor of artificial vinegar found to be 72 per cent. deficient in acetic acid. The number of samples of spirits analysed was 1,947, of which 132 were reported against because the spirit had been reduced more than 35 degrees under proof. Of the samples reported against 85 were whisky, 26 rum, 14 gin and 7 brandy. Out of 420 samples of beer, 3 were adversely reported upon, one as containing phenolic disinfectant, one as being a non‐alcoholic imitation, and the third as containing more than the permitted amount of preservative.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1926

A joint Committee consisting of six members of the Royal Sanitary Institute and five members of the Society of Medical Officers of Health, Dr. Charles Porter presiding, was…

Abstract

A joint Committee consisting of six members of the Royal Sanitary Institute and five members of the Society of Medical Officers of Health, Dr. Charles Porter presiding, was appointed in October, 1924, to consider the methods adopted in this country in regard to the handling of food. The report of the Committee, which has just been issued, affords interesting reading. In order to obtain information with regard to methods adopted in relation to particular foods, each member of the Committee undertook to make investigations and to prepare a monograph on some special aspect of the problem. The subjects investigated and the members taking responsibility tor the preparation of the monographs were:—Meat and Meat products— J. R. Hayhurst, M.R.C.V.S. Fish—Professor H. R. Kenwood, C.M.G., M.B. Fruit and Vegetables—J. Fenton, M.D. Bread and Confectionery—Joseph Cates, M.D. Milk, Ice Cream, &c.—Thomas Orr, M.D., D.Sc. Groceries—Sir William Beveridge, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O. Restaurants and Cafés‐Francis J. Allan, M.D. Premises where Prepared Food is made—T. W. Naylor Barlow, O.B.E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Imported Foods—W. M. Willoughby, M.D. Food Regulations, Licensing and Registration of Premises—Francis J. Allan, M.D.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2016

Susan E. Bell

The purpose of this paper is to review the legacy of sociologist Irving Kenneth Zola in bringing the body into social science research and making visible and dismantling social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the legacy of sociologist Irving Kenneth Zola in bringing the body into social science research and making visible and dismantling social structured barriers to hearing and speaking and living as fully human.

Methodology/approach

It begins with an examination of Zola’s experience of “being sexy” in his book, Missing Pieces (1982). It considers what a visual sociological focus on “being sexy” can contribute to understanding structured barriers to living as fully human after the emergence of this field in the 1990s and 2000s.

Research implications

It provides two examples of the use of video cameras in understanding the daily experiences of adults using wheelchairs and children with asthma that continue the embodied work begun by Zola.

Social implications

Embodied sociological research can be a strategy for social and political change.

Details

Sociology Looking at Disability: What Did We Know and When Did We Know it
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-478-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

R. Michelle Rich, Jane Ogden and Linda Morison

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact on stress and work-related outcomes of an app-delivered mindfulness-based program (MBP; Headspace®) offered to employees in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact on stress and work-related outcomes of an app-delivered mindfulness-based program (MBP; Headspace®) offered to employees in a UK higher education (HE) institution.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a randomized waitlist control trial design, participants were randomly allocated to be offered a mindfulness-based program (MBP) immediately for 2 months or after a waiting list period of 2 months (WLC). Data were analyzed using Intention to Treat (ITT; MBP n = 62; WLC n = 63); with supplementary analysis restricting to those who completed all measures; (MBP n = 45; WLC n = 56) and then further restricting the MBP group to those who completed at least foundation level 1 of the app; (MBP n = 31; WLC n = 56).

Findings

The ITT analysis showed significant increases in several aspects of mindfulness and a significant reduction in perceived stress but no significant effects for work-related outcomes. Analysis restricted to MBP participants who completed the app foundation course showed a similar pattern but in addition showed significant increases in work-life balance and the emotional aspect of job engagement.

Practical implications

The offer of the Headspace® app in the HE sector may result in reduced perceived stress. If improvements in work-related outcomes are also to be seen, then users need to be encouraged to complete a minimum level of practice.

Originality/value

Effect size estimates for stress and work-related outcomes of an app-delivered MBP contribute to the evolving picture of MBPs in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2023

Wei Du, Samad M.E. Sepasgozar, Ayaz Khan, Sara Shirowzhan and Juan Garzon Romero

This study aims to develop a novel theoretical model for predicting the users’ intention to use virtual tools designed for construction risk evaluation. Risk evaluation is a vital…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a novel theoretical model for predicting the users’ intention to use virtual tools designed for construction risk evaluation. Risk evaluation is a vital objective for construction managers. This paper intends to examine critical factors such as potential benefits, motivation, performance expectancy and rich sources of information that may affect users’ intention to use virtual technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A pile training module (PTM) was developed in a virtual environment to analyze the proposed virtual reality-technology acceptance model (VR-TAM) factors. Further, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the participation of 102 construction professionals in China to validate the proposed VR-TAM model and PTM tool. The retrieved data was computed to test the proposed model by using partial least squares structural equation modeling and the significance of the PTM tool in a virtual environment.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that high-significance paths represent five relationships between crucial factors affecting users’ intention to use a selected virtual reality (VR) module. Five of seven hypothesis paths were significant with acceptable t-values. By quantitative measurement of high-significance paths, this research has found that each factor under VR-TAM has received significant loadings, with many above the 0.7 threshold mark and others around 0.6. The top factors include “motivation” and “benefits” and have multiplier effects on “intention to use” as the source factors.

Practical implications

The finding of this study presents crucial factors for VR adoption, and the proposed VR-TAM model contributes to the body of knowledge toward managing construction risk using pre-optimization and understanding in a virtual environment. This study supports Chinese construction company managers in effectively using VR technology in their construction projects for risk assessment and management.

Originality/value

This study offered the development of a novel VR-TAM integrated with risk assessment techniques for piling processes. Further, the developed model was analyzed by using a survey of Chinese construction professionals to collect perceptions about the modified theoretical model of VR-TAM.

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2022

W. Chad Carlos and Shon R. Hiatt

This paper examines how cultural holes that exist at the intersection of institutional fields influence the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Through an exploration

Abstract

This paper examines how cultural holes that exist at the intersection of institutional fields influence the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Through an exploration of physician-founded ambulatory surgery centers in the United States, we examine how the presence of cultural holes presented doctors with alternative beliefs, values, and practices to overcome the cultural constraints around entrepreneurship within the medical profession. In doing so, this study extends cultural entrepreneurship research by bringing cultural holes to the forefront, empirically showing how they facilitate entrepreneurial action and proposing other contexts where cultural holes may affect entrepreneurial actions and outcomes.

Details

Advances in Cultural Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-207-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2015

Yang Hu and Jennifer Tuten

This chapter describes a cyclical mentoring model that is designed to scaffold the use of video in a graduate literacy practicum for in-service teachers.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter describes a cyclical mentoring model that is designed to scaffold the use of video in a graduate literacy practicum for in-service teachers.

Methodology/approach

This chapter is organized by (1) an overview of the Literacy Practicum course and the three learning phases and activities within each phase; (2) a description of the mentoring process/procedures during each of the phases, and examples of their impact on teachers’ learning and practice; and (3) a discussion of implications for practice.

Findings

Drawing upon recent work in teacher inquiry and reflection, this model provides opportunities for teachers to take increasing ownership of their own professional growth.

Research limitations/implications

The examples in this chapter are anecdotal. But they help to illustrate the processes and procedures in this model, which is described with great detail in order to be useful for pre- and in-service teachers, as well as school-based professional development programs.

Practical implications

The model can be effectively incorporated into both pre-service clinical settings as well as professional development with in-service teachers.

Originality/value

As a potential high impact tool, video analysis of teaching must not be viewed as an incidental approach; rather it must be an integral part of a learning cycle which is committed to student ownership and voice, social engagement, critical inquiry, reflection and integrative learning.

Details

Video Reflection in Literacy Teacher Education and Development: Lessons from Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-676-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2016

Olufemi Adeniyi Fawole and Oluwakemi Ogunbowale

Family and work life have always been interdependent, because the increased employment of mothers, rising family hours of work, today’s service-intensive globalizing economy, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Family and work life have always been interdependent, because the increased employment of mothers, rising family hours of work, today’s service-intensive globalizing economy, and the trend toward work long hours for some and inadequate family income for the others have rendered this interdependence both more visible and more problematic. The extent to which an individual carries out their duties and responsibilities at work and home varies from one person to the other and how they balance up their roles and duties can be determined by a number of factors which include job-related factors, family-related factors, and individual factors.

Methodology/approach

A total of 255 married participants were randomly selected from the private sector, which includes banks, insurance companies, and telecommunication firms, in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was elicited through the use of questionnaires as well as interview.

Findings

Findings from the chi-squared analysis used for this study showed that there is a significant relationship between work obligation and family commitment among couples in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Originality/value

One limitation of this study was that it was concentrated only on workers in the private sector. It was also limited by the methods of carrying out the research. The study emphasizes proper planning and time management, effective work schedule as well as an analysis of factors affecting work performance particularly, family duties, and how these affect the level of performance of individuals in their respective places of work.

Details

Divorce, Separation, and Remarriage: The Transformation of Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-229-3

Keywords

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