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1 – 10 of 73
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ganesh Rupchand Gawale and Naga Srinivasulu G.

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions. This paper aims to investigate the influence of ethanol fraction (ethanol plus gasoline) on dual fuel HCCI engine performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the existing CI engine is modified into dual fuel HCCI engine by attaching the carburetor to the inlet manifold for the supply of ethanol blend (E40/E60/E80/E100). The mixture of ethanol blend and the air is ignited by diesel through a fuel injector into the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. The experiments are conducted for high load conditions on the engine i.e. 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW maximum output power for 1,500 constant rpm.

Findings

It is noticed from the experimental results that, with an increase of ethanol in the blends, ignition delay (ID) increases and the start of combustion is retarded. It is noticed that E100 shows the highest ID and low in-cylinder pressure; however, E40 shows the lowest ID compared to higher fractions of ethanol blends. An increase in ethanol proportion reduces NOX and smoke opacity but, HC and CO emissions increase compared to pure diesel mode engine. E100 plus diesel dual-fuel HCCI engine shows the highest brake thermal efficiency compared to remaining ethanol blends and baseline diesel engine.

Originality/value

This experimental study concluded that E100 plus diesel and E80 plus diesel gave optimum dual fuel HCCI engine performance for 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW rated power, respectively.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Winston Chee Chiu Kwok and David Sharp

This study provides significant empirical data and analysis on the international standard‐setting process as conducted by the forerunner of the International Accounting…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study provides significant empirical data and analysis on the international standard‐setting process as conducted by the forerunner of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). It reveals the influences from four key stakeholder groups (users, preparers, accountants, and regulators) in order to ascertain why International Accounting Standards (IAS) turn out the way they do.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews with board representatives and content analysis of documents were used to provide triangulating perspectives. The concept of power from the sociological and political science literature provides the theoretical lens. The standard setting projects on segment reporting and intangible assets were studied in detail.

Findings

The results show that the process can be best characterized as a mixed power system where no party is accorded the absolute power potential to dictate IAS. Nonetheless, while the user group is the target beneficiaries of IAS, the preparer group has significant influence, as inferred from the changes made to the IAS in line with the preparers' preferences.

Research limitations/implications

There is always the possibility of researchers missing out on “secret” exercise of power, given that the focus of this study was on “public” paths of influence. After this study, the IASB's meetings became open to public, providing new opportunities for future research.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to understanding accounting standard setting for international harmonization.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2022

Kofi Kamasa, David Nii Nortey, Frank Boateng and Isaac Bonuedi

This paper assesses the impact of tax reforms on tax revenue mobilisation in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper assesses the impact of tax reforms on tax revenue mobilisation in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The autoregressive distributed lag model together with dynamic ordinary least squares and fully modified least squares techniques were employed on a time-series data spanning from 1980–2018. Exploiting data from IMFs monitoring of fund arrangements database, an index of tax reforms is constructed as a function of the number of successfully implemented tax-related reforms and policy measures per year over the study period.

Findings

Having established the presence of co-integration between tax revenue and its determinants, this paper finds strong evidence that tax-related reforms exert positive and significant impact on tax revenue generation in Ghana. Among other covariates, the results show that the tax base (real GDP), public debt and education (human capital index) significantly boosts tax revenue in the long run.

Originality/value

The success of tax reforms in boosting revenue mobilisation has been examined in light of the buoyancy and elasticity of the tax system in Ghana, albeit with little emphasis on the extent to which tax reforms contribute to tax revenue mobilisation from econometric perspective. This paper fills this gap in the literature by analysing the impact of tax reforms on tax revenue mobilisation in Ghana. As a recommendation, well-designed and implemented tax reforms and policies aimed at increasing the tax base, education and effective utilisation of funds from public debt promise to be instrumental in boosting tax revenue in Ghana.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Nga Thu Trinh, Thanh Pham Thien Nguyen and Son Hong Nghiem

This study aims to investigate a new determinant of corporate cash holdings of Australian energy firms: economic policy uncertainty (EPU). Based on two motives for holding…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate a new determinant of corporate cash holdings of Australian energy firms: economic policy uncertainty (EPU). Based on two motives for holding cash: precautionary and speculative motives, the authors argue that EPU increases financing constraints or induces firms to postpone investment projects, thereby increasing their cash holdings. The authors examine whether the Australian policy-related economic uncertainty affects cash holdings of Australian energy companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a data set of Australian energy firms from 2010 to 2020 and the Australian EPU index, which measures the uncertainty in economic policy, using news coverage of eight major Australian newspapers. To address the potential endogeneity bias and ensure the robustness of the results, three models are used: ordinary least squares, fixed-effects and dynamic generalized method of moments.

Findings

The authors find that the EPU index has a significant and positive effect on cash holdings, after controlling for firm-specific factors. While firm size and dividend payments have mixed and insignificant effects, other determinants are significant, such as growth opportunities, net working capital, cash flow, cash flow risk, leverage and capital expenditure. The authors also find that the positive effect of EPU on cash holdings is not the manifestation of EPU affecting corporate investments but rather explained by financing constraints.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for policymakers and regulators in Australia as the uncertainty of their economic policies plays an important role when Australian energy companies determine their cash holding level to manage liquidity risks.

Originality/value

This study is the first to document EPU index as the new determinant of corporate cash holdings of Australian energy companies. Firms in this sector have a great need of funding and liquidity for their operations and capital-intensive projects. High EPU index induces them to hold more cash to avoid liquidity shocks.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Vladimir Shimov, Aliaksei Bykau and Tatsiana Khvalko

The analysis of the main stages of the Belarusian economy's development from 2000 to 2018 has been carried out, the main factors and limitations of economic growth…

Abstract

The analysis of the main stages of the Belarusian economy's development from 2000 to 2018 has been carried out, the main factors and limitations of economic growth considered. The known models of economic growth applied to the Belarusian economy are shown. It is grounded that the correct use of endogenous growth models based on production functions is hampered by the significant influence of exogenous factors on the Belarusian economy, and it is more preferable to use models based on the balance of payments under these conditions. The methodology for modeling the balanced economic growth based on Input–Output tables' data is proposed, the results of its use are shown. Three scenarios for the growth of the Belarusian economy until 2025 are analyzed: baseline, adverse, and target; the desired structural changes are identified for the implementation of the target scenario.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Belarus
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-695-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Emin Zeytinoğlu

Accountability and financial transparency came to be accepted as the basic principles in obtaining and using public resources in an efficient and productive manner. One of…

Abstract

Accountability and financial transparency came to be accepted as the basic principles in obtaining and using public resources in an efficient and productive manner. One of the most important tools to realize this goal is the annual report, also referred to in Public Financial Management and Control Law. Annual reports are comprehensive reports that also contain the realization outcomes according to the performance indicators that pertain to the activities that these institutions implement according to their strategic plan and performance program. The authors explain the reasons of variations from the plans, and also contain the administrative and financial information on the institution. The contribution of the annual reports, in presenting a transparent and accountable structure by enabling efficiency and productivity in municipalities that use a major part of public resources, is undeniable.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial and performance information within the annual reports issued by the municipalities of Turkey within the scope of accountability and to reveal the present condition from the results of this evaluation. In short, this study investigates to which degree the municipalities enlighten their stakeholders from the aspect of financial information via annual reports. Within the scope of the study, annual reports of metropolitan municipalities for the year 2017 and 2018 were obtained and the presence of several considerations, defined according to the extent of the financial and performance information they provide and their manner of presentation, were checked.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accounting and Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-508-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Begoña Cabeza and Koen Decancq

The authors explore the effect of the recent unemployment shock in Spain on people’s beliefs about the role of effort as a determinant of economic position. They use a…

Abstract

The authors explore the effect of the recent unemployment shock in Spain on people’s beliefs about the role of effort as a determinant of economic position. They use a series of Spanish public opinion surveys between 2010 and 2018, matched with regional-level unemployment data and find that people attribute a larger role to luck in provinces where the unemployment rate increased more during the economic recession. This finding persists after controlling for a series of demographic, socio-economic and ideological individual-level variables. In addition, the authors find that lower educated individuals, and those who position themselves as more left-wing have adjusted their beliefs more, while individuals who identify as conservative have adjusted their beliefs less.

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2021

Istemi Demirag, Thanamas Kungwal and Yassine Bakkar

This paper investigates stakeholders' perspectives of share buybacks in the context of time-horizons of investment decisions and strategy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates stakeholders' perspectives of share buybacks in the context of time-horizons of investment decisions and strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

We use in-depth interviews with stakeholders from eight listed UK firms as well as examine their publicly available data.

Findings

Findings suggest that share buybacks involve a wide range of stakeholders' rational interests and long-term management perspectives as they enable firms to strategise operational plans towards their long-term corporate goals.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on interviews with a small number of share buyback firms and the findings, therefore, may not be generalised to all firms.

Practical implications

The results show that share buybacks may be part of the long-term interests of firms and not necessarily used as part of short-term EPS increases as suggested in the extant literature.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the literature on corporate pay-out policies in the context of short-term financial objectives vs long-term strategic objectives of stakeholders. They show that share buybacks can be an important part of firms' long-term strategic considerations.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Jose Perez-Montiel and Carles Manera

The authors estimate the multiplier effect of government public infrastructure investment in Spain. This paper aims to use annual data of the 17 Spanish autonomous…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors estimate the multiplier effect of government public infrastructure investment in Spain. This paper aims to use annual data of the 17 Spanish autonomous communities for the 1980–2016 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use dynamic acyclic graphs and the heterogeneous panel structural vector autoregressive (P-SVAR) method of Pedroni (2013). This method is robust to cross-sectional heterogeneity and dependence, which are present in the data.

Findings

The findings suggest that an increase in the level of government public infrastructure investment generates a positive and persistent effect on the level of output. Five years after the fiscal expansion, the multiplier effects of government public infrastructure investment reach values above one. This confirms that government public infrastructure investment expansions have Keynesian effects. The authors also find that the multiplier effects differ between autonomous communities with above-average and below-average GDP per capita.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no research uses dynamic acyclic graphs and heterogeneous P-SVAR techniques to estimate fiscal multipliers of government public investment in Spain by using subnational data.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Tolulope Osinubi and Simplice Asongu

This study examines the effect of globalization on female economic participation (FEP) in MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effect of globalization on female economic participation (FEP) in MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries between 2004 and 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

Four measures of globalization are employed and sourced from KOF globalization index, 2018, while the female labour force participation rate is a proxy for FEP. The empirical evidence is based on the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator.

Findings

The findings of the PMG estimator from the Panel ARDL method reveal that political and overall globalization in MINT and BRICS countries have a positive impact on FEP, whereas social globalization exerts a negative impact on FEP in the long-run. It is observed that economic globalization has no long-run effect on FEP. Contrarily, all the measures of globalization reflect no short-run effect on FEP. This supports the argument that globalization has no immediate effect on FEP. Thus, it is recommended that both MINT and BRICS countries should find a way of improving the process of globalization generally to empower women to be involved in economic activities.

Originality/value

This study complements the extant literature by focusing on how globalization dynamics influence FEP in the MINT and BRICS countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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