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Article

R. Ş Topal and A. Öngen

IUCN ‐ The World Conservation Union defines a protected area as an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity…

Abstract

IUCN ‐ The World Conservation Union defines a protected area as an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) describes a protected area as a geographically defined area, which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objective. Protected areas‐national parks, wildlife reserves, wilderness areas, etc. ‐ are the cornerstones of national and international conservation strategies. They act as refuges for species and help maintain critical ecological processes and ecosystem services that intensely managed landscapes and seascapes cannot provide. These places provide space for natural evolution and future ecological restoration. In recent years there has been growing recognition of the benefits that protected areas provide for people: genetic resources for pharmaceuticals and agriculture, traditional medicines; recreational opportunities and ecotourism revenues; sustainable sources of goods such as non‐timber forest products; and refuge for traditional and vulnerable human societies (Dudley et al. 2005). A wide range of management objectives, approaches and types of governance are used within protected areas in different countries. In terms of management objectives, these range from strict protection and exclusion of humans to broad‐scale approaches that include cultural landscapes such as farms and managed forests. IUCN‐The World Conservation Union subdivides protected areas into six categories based on management objectives: Ia: strict nature reserve/wilderness protection area; Ib: wilderness area; II:national park; III:natural monument; IV:habitat/species management area; V:protected landscape/seascape; and VI:managed resource protected area. In terms of governance types, protected areas may be managed directly by a government, co‐managed with other actors such as nongovernmental organizations, or even declared and managed collectively by indigenous peoples and local communities or by the relevant individual or corporate landowner. Today, there are more than 100,000 designated protected areas in the World Database on Protected Areas covering around 11.4 per cent of Earth’s land surface, along with more than 1,300 marine protected areas covering less than 0.5 per cent of the oceans (Dudley et all. 2005).

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article

Violeta Orlović‐Lovren

Global challenges that the world faces today call into question people's understanding of sustainability and the actions to be taken to meet that ideal. The role assigned…

Abstract

Purpose

Global challenges that the world faces today call into question people's understanding of sustainability and the actions to be taken to meet that ideal. The role assigned to education in promoting sustainability by international documents has yet to be applied to national strategies in many countries. This paper aims to promote a strategic approach and to identify techniques for analysis to be used in development of quality education programs, tailored to specific needs in protected areas and to sustainability goals in a particular social context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an adult education approach and social science methodology, a proposal for a research framework is offered, seeking a better understanding of the role of education in improving sustainable protected area governance. Within the framework of sustainable development and lifelong learning concepts, the existing gap in the field is discussed and a brief review of the issues present in Serbia as a country in transition is given.

Practical implications

This approach may be modified to specific contexts and goals, and applied with this purpose to other similar social environments, especially in countries in transition within the region. It may lead to creating more adequate education programs and increased capacities for managing protected areas.

Originality/value

The paper moves away from a project‐driven, ad hoc and rather scholarly to an integral approach to capacities for sustainable protected area governance, including an institutional, organizational and individual level and a lifelong learning perspective. It also promotes a specific, contextual and participatory definition of sustainability, rather than seeking for a universal one.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Michael P. Wells and Uday R. Sharma

Although a very poor country, Nepal has established an extensive protected area system. Many visitors are attracted by some of these parks, helping to make tourism the top…

Abstract

Although a very poor country, Nepal has established an extensive protected area system. Many visitors are attracted by some of these parks, helping to make tourism the top foreign exchange earner. Landmark events for wildlife conservation during recent Nepalese history are identified, especially the 1961‐90 rule of the monarchy and the present decentralized democratic system which succeeded it. Although many problems remain, Nepal has gone further than most countries towards reconciling: the needs and aspirations of local people with protected area management, and the economic opportunities offered by nature tourism with its ecological threats. Innovative projects have emphasized the socio‐economic aspects of conservation and legislation has recently been passed to formalize the status of park buffer zones. The future of Nepal’s protected areas may depend on how effectively these initiatives can be implemented and how effectively their lessons can be applied on a broader front.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Patrick Brandful Cobbinah

Local support is fundamental in natural resources management (NRM). However, recent studies indicate that NRM in protected areas in developing countries is often faced…

Abstract

Purpose

Local support is fundamental in natural resources management (NRM). However, recent studies indicate that NRM in protected areas in developing countries is often faced with local resistance due to its impacts on livelihoods. The purpose of this paper is to examine local attitudes – positive and negative responses – towards NRM in protected areas and implications of NRM benefits on local support for conservation of protected areas.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research method was used for this study. Structured questionnaire survey was administered to 310 respondents across four case study communities – Abrafo, Mesomagor, Adadientem and Nuamakrom – around the Kakum Conservation Area (KCA), Ghana. χ2 test and logistic regression were used to analyse the data with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Findings

Findings showed positive attitudes towards NRM in protected areas (85.9 per cent) and high support for conservation of KCA (86.5 per cent). Respondents recognised the importance of the KCA in managing natural resources especially forest and water resources. Positive attitudes towards conservation of KCA were largely influenced by receipt of socio-economic benefits from the KCA, in terms of employment, income and involvement in KCA management. However, those excluded from socio-economic benefits from the KCA also expressed positive attitudes towards conservation, suggesting that support for NRM transcends socio-economic benefits. On the other hand, local people recognised the challenges associated with NRM in protected areas such as increased farm raids by wildlife, loss of access to timber and non-timber forest products.

Originality/value

This paper has revealed that although socio-economic benefits from NRM in protected areas influence local people’s support for conservation, local knowledge of the environmental benefits is equally important. The depth of local knowledge of NRM in the KCA is dependent on educational status and level of involvement of respondents in the KCA in terms of employment, and the effectiveness of educational campaigns by the park officials. Therefore, in the absence of clear development programmes from government and park officials to educate and involve local people in NRM, it appears the conservation objective upon which NRM in protected areas are designed may not be realised.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Robert J Mason

The purpose of this paper is to examine developments in Japan with regard to protected-area management. The focus is on ecological protection, citizen engagement, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine developments in Japan with regard to protected-area management. The focus is on ecological protection, citizen engagement, and the traditional users of the Shirakami Sanchi World Heritage Area.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on an extensive review of literature, interviews with key actors, and field observations.

Findings

This study of Shirakami Sanchi World Heritage Area, an area of ancient beech forest in northern Japan whose ecological integrity was threatened by construction of a forest road in the 1980s, points to a successful case of ecological preservation and an expanded governmental commitment to citizen engagement in protected-area planning, accompanied by a marginalization of the small number of remaining traditional users of the forest’s resources.

Research limitations/implications

This study points to the challenges inherent in balancing civic engagement, ecological protection, cultural heritage, and administrative expediency in protected-areas management. The findings are directed toward researchers engaged with issues surrounding management of parks and protected areas.

Practical implications

Park and protected-areas managers can learn from this experience about balancing ecosystem protection, civic engagement, inclusion of traditional users, and administrative optimization in planning and management of protected areas.

Originality/value

The field elements of the study are original contributions. The paper will be of value to scholars and practitioners involved with protected-area management.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Bola Olusola Adeleke

The purpose of this paper was to assess the attitude of residents towards ecotourism in KwaZulu-Natal protected areas. It also determined how barriers to ecotourism trips…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to assess the attitude of residents towards ecotourism in KwaZulu-Natal protected areas. It also determined how barriers to ecotourism trips could negatively affect the success of tourism development in protected areas. The new South Africa today has widely and innovatively embraced ecotourism based largely around the protected areas. Residents’ attitude towards tourism is one of the important indicators for sustainable development in protected areas.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 212 copies of structured questionnaires were used to collect information for the study. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the target population of the protected areas while respondents were selected from the communities based on random sampling technique. Mean scores for barriers to ecotourism trips were determined. Descriptive statistics and T-test inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The results agree with the theory of planned behaviour where intentions of residents to participate in ecotourism were directly influenced by barriers such as no time, low income and no transportation. It was also found out that preference for ecotourism trips was significantly influenced by the various barriers to ecotourism activities. High level of unemployment and high level of illiteracy were considered to be responsible for poor attitude in Kwadlangezwa with many (43.4 per cent) unwilling to support ecotourism development projects.

Research limitations/implications

The research implication infers that high level of poverty and illiteracy in communities surrounding protected areas could seriously indicate non-support for development projects.

Practical implications

Ecotourism-related businesses need be developed in destinations to alleviate poverty.

Social implications

The moral of residents need be boosted through workshops and educative seminars.

Originality/value

The study was conducted during the author’s research fellowship with the Department of Recreation and Tourism, University of Zululand, Kwadlangezwa, South Africa.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article

Windekind C. Buteau‐Duitschaever, Bonnie McCutcheon, Paul F.J. Eagles, M.E. Havitz and Troy D. Glover

The purpose of the paper is to compare visitor perspectives of the governance of two of Canada's largest park systems: the parastatal model of Ontario Provincial Parks and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to compare visitor perspectives of the governance of two of Canada's largest park systems: the parastatal model of Ontario Provincial Parks and the public and for‐profit combination model of British Columbia Provincial Parks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed an electronic survey based on the ten UNDP criteria of governance: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, consensus‐orientation, public participation, efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, equity, and rule of law. The survey was administered to park visitors for both park systems in the summer of 2008 and spring of 2009 (British Columbia Provincial Parks n=112, Ontario Provincial Parks n=255).

Findings

Researchers determined that the ten governance sections of the survey actually form 11 governance factors. Data suggested statistically significant differences in regards to the visitors' perceptions between the two park systems. Specifically, visitors to Ontario Parks ranked all 11 criteria of governance higher, closer towards good governance, than did visitors to British Columbia Parks (p<0.001).

Practical implications

These results suggest that the Ontario Parks parastatal model is closer to the ideals of good governance as perceived by the park users, when compared to the British Columbia parks' public and for‐profit combination model. This paper also provides future policy makers with a new understanding of the multiple factors that affect visitors experience and perceptions of protected areas.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to investigate visitors' perceptions of two commonly used protected area management models. These research findings contribute to the debate regarding which protected area management model is superior when compared using the UNDP governance criteria.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article

Veronika Andrea, Stilianos Tampakis, Georgios Tsantopoulos and Evangelos Manolas

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach regarding the management measures for solving environmental problems in protected areas. Two neighboring protected areas

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach regarding the management measures for solving environmental problems in protected areas. Two neighboring protected areas with different features were chosen in order to investigate the similarity of the environmental problems with regard to these two areas and if it is possible for these problems to be solved through a network of protected areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was carried out through the use of a questionnaire which was distributed to the inhabitants and visitors of both areas, as well as through interviews with the representatives of organizations responsible for the management and administration of those areas and representatives of the municipalities and the regional authorities these two national parks belong to. Simple random sampling was applied to the inhabitants and cluster sampling to the visitors.

Findings

The results show that with regard to the visitors the most important problem is illegal hunting while for the inhabitants equally important is the problem of pollution and cleanliness. However, those responsible with the management of the two National Parks think that the greatest threat to the wider area is the problem of floods.

Originality/value

The views of the stakeholders in a given time, provides us with the best possible information for solving the problems faced and can be used as a tool for increasing the effectiveness of the measures which have been taken to deal with the particular problems.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Book part

Heidi E. Kretser, Jodi A. Hilty, Michale J. Glennon, Jeffery F. Burrell, Zoë P. Smith and Barbara A. Knuth

Purpose – The purpose is to show that the influx of new seasonal and year-round residents to the small towns located in and around protected areas has numerous…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose is to show that the influx of new seasonal and year-round residents to the small towns located in and around protected areas has numerous implications for governance associated with land management and regional planning including reconciling the competing values of wilderness (amenity vs. livelihood, motorized vs. non-motorized recreation, active vs. passive land management).

Methodology/approach – We use case studies from the Adirondack Park in Northern New York State and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in the western United States to demonstrate the land management and governance challenges facing local communities in and around internationally renowned, protected areas.

Findings – We highlight how these transforming communities meet diverse needs and competing interests and how partnering with a non-governmental organization benefits local governance issues.

Originality/value of chapter – The paper presents research from the United States, which theoretically and empirically contributes to the scientific discourse on exurbanization, protected areas, and governance.

Details

Beyond the Rural-Urban Divide: Cross-Continental Perspectives on the Differentiated Countryside and its Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-138-1

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