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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Robert J Mason

The purpose of this paper is to examine developments in Japan with regard to protected-area management. The focus is on ecological protection, citizen engagement, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine developments in Japan with regard to protected-area management. The focus is on ecological protection, citizen engagement, and the traditional users of the Shirakami Sanchi World Heritage Area.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on an extensive review of literature, interviews with key actors, and field observations.

Findings

This study of Shirakami Sanchi World Heritage Area, an area of ancient beech forest in northern Japan whose ecological integrity was threatened by construction of a forest road in the 1980s, points to a successful case of ecological preservation and an expanded governmental commitment to citizen engagement in protected-area planning, accompanied by a marginalization of the small number of remaining traditional users of the forest’s resources.

Research limitations/implications

This study points to the challenges inherent in balancing civic engagement, ecological protection, cultural heritage, and administrative expediency in protected-areas management. The findings are directed toward researchers engaged with issues surrounding management of parks and protected areas.

Practical implications

Park and protected-areas managers can learn from this experience about balancing ecosystem protection, civic engagement, inclusion of traditional users, and administrative optimization in planning and management of protected areas.

Originality/value

The field elements of the study are original contributions. The paper will be of value to scholars and practitioners involved with protected-area management.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Martin Mabunda Baluku, Matagi Leonsio, Edward Bantu and Kathleen Otto

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how autonomy, moderated by employment status, impacts the relationship between entrepreneurial mentoring (EM) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how autonomy, moderated by employment status, impacts the relationship between entrepreneurial mentoring (EM) and entrepreneurial intentions (EI) among three countries (Germany, Kenya, and Uganda); as informed by both theory of planned behavior and self-determination theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenient sample of 1,509 youth from Germany, Kenya, and Uganda consisting of final-year university students, wage-employed, and unemployed was identified and studied. A multi-group analysis was conducted to test for differences in the impact of EM and autonomy on EI.

Findings

The findings indicate that mentoring and autonomy are positively correlated with EI. EM and intentions were lower among German participants than for the East African countries. The moderated moderation results revealed that EM is related to higher EI among students and the unemployed, and when individuals have higher levels of autonomy. Country-level analysis showed the effects of EM and autonomy are highest in Germany and lowest in Uganda.

Practical implications

Mentoring and self-determination play an important role in the development of EI. Entrepreneurship mentors should specifically support their protégées to develop the ability to act autonomously as an important entrepreneurial competence. The results further indicate that effectiveness of EM varies according to employment status and among countries. This is particularly important for targeting and designing of EM interventions. EM resources should be applied to youth with high autonomy, who are in either in insecure wage employment or who have no jobs. Protégés with low levels of autonomy should be supported to appreciate autonomy and develop the ability for autonomous action. Future EI research should also examine the impact of the availability of attractive positions in wage employment; and the effects of the availability of social safety nets on the need for autonomy.

Originality/value

A major challenge in EI research is the predominant focus on student populations. Using a multi-group analysis, the present paper tested for differences in the impact of EM and autonomy on EI. EM and EI were lower in German participants that in Kenyan and Ugandan participants. Whereas EM was generally positively correlated to EI, the moderated results showed that EM is related to higher EI among students and the unemployed, and when participants have higher autonomy. The study implies that EM and EI are highly correlated when participants need to work but have not or cannot find work or whey they do not need salaried employment to survive.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

H.G.A. Hughes

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Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Saber A. El‐Shafai, Fayza A. Nasr, Fatma A. El‐Gohary, N. Peter van der Steen and Huub J. Gijzen

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the bioaccumulation pattern and fate of heavy metals in duckweed‐based wastewater treatment ponds with different depth.

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1129

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the bioaccumulation pattern and fate of heavy metals in duckweed‐based wastewater treatment ponds with different depth.

Design/methodology/approach

Three replicates of four reactors were used in this experiment. The reactors were randomly distributed on the bench and filled with 50 percent diluted sewage for the control reactors whereas diluted sewage mixed with 5 mg Pb/l and 5 mg Zn/l was used for the treatment reactors. The reactors were stocked with Lemna gibba at 1,000 g fresh weight per each square meter. The culture tanks were exposed to temperature range of 21‐25°C and light regime of 16 hours light using halogen lamps and 8 hours dark. The light intensity was maintained around 200 μ E m−2 S−1. The experiment extended for 30 days. Regular monitoring of the growth performance of duckweed was carried out with subsequent analysis of dry matter, heavy metals, phosphorous and nitrogen content. Composite samples from the water phase were subjected to the analysis of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate and sulfate concentration. The analysis of sediment and biofilm were carried out at the end of the experiment. Interpretation of results was carried out using one‐way analysis of variance.

Findings

Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction in the growth rate of duckweed within the first five days exposure time. After five days exposure, the growth rate in the treatments returned to the normal growth till day 15 after which the growth became significantly lower in the small and medium scale ponds. The results revealed that zinc is more bio‐available than lead and both metals are mostly precipitated in the sediment probably as sulfides.

Practical implications

The results help in enhancement of heavy metals removal in a small anaerobic pretreatment unit before entering to the pond system by sulfate addition.

Originality/value

The results of the study confirm the positive effect of pond depth in reducing the heavy metal toxicity to the duckweed‐based wastewater treatment ponds.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

M. Sarper Erdogan, Cavit Yavuz, Cigdem Caglayan, Nilay Etiler and Onur Hamzaoglu

This paper has been produced to enumerate and discuss threats which are caused by industry and may affect health in the province of Kocaeli.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper has been produced to enumerate and discuss threats which are caused by industry and may affect health in the province of Kocaeli.

Design/methodology/approach

Industries in the province, depending on their function, were grouped into sectors. Air, water and solid waste pollutants produced by each sector were assessed for each region of the province.

Findings

Of the 7,400 industries in the province, only 1,198 are registered with the Kocaeli Chamber of Industry and of this number only a minority are subject to controls by the Ministry of the Environment through the Kocaeli Provincial Directorate of the Environment (KPDE). Data on pollutants were obtained from the KPDE. Liquid waste was controlled in 370 firms (5 per cent) of all industries in the province, air quality in 444 (6 per cent) and dangerous waste in 4 (0.06 per cent). A total of 41 firms were designated as having dangerous pollution profiles.

Practical implications

These figures suggest that industrial development in the province of Kocaeli has not been accompanied by adequate environmental protection. Stricter control for present and future industries is urgently required. Attention must also be directed at zoning industrial and residential areas to safeguard human health and the environment.

Originality/value

Provides information on environmental threats caused by industry in Turkey.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2014

Robert J. Mason

Japan’s civic environmentalism combines a tradition of local protest and activism with a national environmental movement that is limited in size and policy influence. A…

Abstract

Japan’s civic environmentalism combines a tradition of local protest and activism with a national environmental movement that is limited in size and policy influence. A strong legislative and administrative response to the country’s severe pollution crisis of the 1960s and 1970s helped tamp down that era’s wave of protests and keep the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in power. While the state has generally supported local organizations engaged in environmental improvement activities, it has erected barriers that limit the scope of non-governmental organization (NGO) activities and inhibit the development of an influential national environmental movement. The 1990s reforms, inspired in part by the citizen response to the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake, made it easier for NGOs to attain legal status and raise funds. Yet Japan’s civic environmentalism – by most measures – still lags well behind that of peer industrialized countries. The 2011 tsunami and nuclear crisis brought another opportunity for major reforms to the nation’s civic environmental culture – but the evidence to date indicates that the much anticipated transformation is turning out to be of a lesser magnitude than many had initially expected.

Details

Occupy the Earth: Global Environmental Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-697-2

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